IGNOU MPSE 004 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MPSE 004 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL THOUGHT IN MODERN INDIA Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MPSE 004 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MPSE 004 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

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IGNOU MPSE 004 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field.
IGNOU MPSE 004 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 004 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

Q1. Discuss state and sovereignty in ancientIndia.

The concept of state and sovereignty in ancient India can be traced back to the Vedic period, which began around 1500 BCE. During this time, the society was divided into various tribal communities known as Jana, and the governance was primarily based on the clan system. Later, with the rise of kingdoms and empires, the idea of the state and sovereignty became more prominent.

In ancient India, the concept of the state was closely related to the king and his authority. The king was considered to be the ruler of the territory and the people living within it. He was also responsible for maintaining law and order, protecting the people from external threats, and ensuring the welfare of his subjects. The king was seen as the representative of the divine and was expected to rule justly and with wisdom.

The idea of sovereignty in ancient India was also closely tied to the concept of dharma, or the righteous way of living. The king was expected to uphold dharma and ensure that his subjects also followed it. Sovereignty was seen as the supreme power to rule over a specific territory, and the king was the embodiment of this power.

In ancient India, there were various forms of governance, ranging from small republics to large empires. The Mauryan Empire, which existed from 321 to 185 BCE, is considered one of the earliest examples of a centralized state in ancient India. The Mauryan emperor Ashoka is also known for his policies promoting dharma and non-violence, which had a significant impact on the concept of sovereignty in ancient India.

Overall, the concept of state and sovereignty in ancient India was closely tied to the role of the king and his responsibility to uphold dharma and protect his subjects. The idea of the state evolved over time, with different forms of governance and empires, but the underlying principles remained the same.

Q2. How was the idea of India conceived by the Orientalists and the Nationalists?

The idea of India was conceived differently by Orientalists and Nationalists.

Orientalists were scholars and intellectuals from Europe who studied Indian culture and civilization from a Western perspective. They were primarily interested in studying ancient Indian texts and languages, such as Sanskrit, and sought to understand India’s history, religion, and society. For Orientalists, the idea of India was shaped by their understanding of India’s past, which they viewed through the lens of European cultural and intellectual traditions. They often emphasized India’s exoticism and spiritualism, which they believed set it apart from the modern West.

On the other hand, Nationalists were Indians who sought to shape India’s future as an independent nation. They rejected the Orientalist perspective and sought to create a new, modern identity for India that was rooted in its own cultural and historical traditions. Nationalists emphasized India’s diversity and unity, and sought to unite the country’s disparate communities under a single national identity. They also emphasized India’s struggle for independence from British colonial rule, which became a defining feature of the Indian nationalist movement.

Both Orientalists and Nationalists had a profound impact on shaping the idea of India, with their different perspectives and objectives influencing the way in which India was perceived and understood, both within India and outside.

Q3. Write a note on religio-political ideas of Dayanand Saraswati.

Dayanand Saraswati was a 19th-century Hindu philosopher and social reformer who founded the Arya Samaj. He promoted religious and social reforms and his ideas were aimed at the regeneration of the Hindu society.

In terms of religio-political ideas, Dayanand Saraswati believed in the supremacy of the Vedas, the ancient Hindu scriptures, and sought to purify and revitalize Hinduism. He was against the caste system and believed that all human beings were equal and should be treated with respect. He also believed in the abolition of child marriage, polygamy, and the purdah system.

Dayanand Saraswati’s political ideas were grounded in his belief that India needed to be liberated from British rule. He believed that a strong and unified India could only be achieved through the revitalization of Hinduism, which would unite the Indian people under a common spiritual identity. He advocated for the establishment of a Hindu state, which would be free from foreign influence and would uphold Hindu values and traditions.

Overall, Dayanand Saraswati’s religio-political ideas were aimed at promoting the regeneration of the Hindu society and the establishment of a strong, unified India that would be free from foreign influence. His ideas were influential in shaping the Hindu nationalist movement in India and continue to be debated and discussed in contemporary Indian politics.

Q4. Examine Swami Vivekananda’s views on nationalism.

Swami Vivekananda was a renowned Indian philosopher and spiritual leader who lived from 1863 to 1902. He is known for his contribution to the Indian nationalist movement and his teachings on Vedanta philosophy. Vivekananda had a unique perspective on nationalism, which he believed was rooted in the spiritual and cultural heritage of a people.

Vivekananda believed that nationalism was not simply a matter of political and economic concerns, but it was also a spiritual and cultural phenomenon. He saw that the cultural and spiritual heritage of a people is the foundation of their national identity, and that preserving this heritage was essential for the survival of a nation.

Vivekananda also believed that nationalism should not be based on hatred or animosity towards other nations. Instead, he believed that true nationalism was rooted in the universal principles of love, compassion, and brotherhood. He saw that these principles were not limited to any one nation, but were the foundation of all human civilization.

Vivekananda also emphasized the importance of education in the development of a strong and vibrant nation. He saw that education was the key to unlocking the potential of a people and that it was essential for the development of a nation. He believed that education should be focused on developing the character and values of individuals, rather than just imparting knowledge and skills.

Overall, Swami Vivekananda’s views on nationalism emphasized the importance of spiritual and cultural heritage, universal principles of love and brotherhood, and education as key components of a strong and vibrant nation. His ideas have influenced the Indian nationalist movement and continue to inspire people around the world to this day.

Q5. Elaborate the salient features of V.D. Savarkar’s Hindu nationalism.

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, also known as V.D. Savarkar, was an Indian independence activist, politician, and writer who is often credited with the development of Hindu nationalism. The salient features of his brand of Hindu nationalism include:

  • Hindutva: Savarkar coined the term “Hindutva” to define his ideology of Hindu nationalism. He believed that Hindus, who he saw as a cultural and ethnic group rather than simply a religious one, should be the primary focus of Indian nationalism.
  • One Nation, One Culture: Savarkar believed that India should be a nation with one culture, language, and religion, with Hinduism as its dominant culture. He believed that India’s diversity was a source of strength and should be celebrated but that all Indians should ultimately be united under the banner of Hinduism.
  • Militant Nationalism: Savarkar believed that India needed a militant approach to achieving its national goals. He called for the creation of a strong, unified India that could stand up to colonial powers and other potential enemies.
  • Anti-Muslim Sentiment: Savarkar was fiercely critical of Islam and believed that Muslims were responsible for many of India’s problems. He believed that Muslims should be forced to assimilate into Hindu culture or leave India.
  • Hindu Rashtra: Savarkar envisioned an India ruled by a Hindu government that would ensure the protection of Hindu culture and traditions. He believed that the Hindu majority should have more rights than minorities, including Muslims and Christians.
  • Revisionism of Indian History: Savarkar and his followers believed that Indian history had been distorted by leftist historians and British colonialists. They sought to revise history to emphasize the accomplishments of Hindu civilization and diminish the contributions of other cultures.
  • Cultural Nationalism: Savarkar believed that culture was the most important aspect of nationalism. He called for a revival of Hindu culture and traditions and saw the promotion of Hindu art, literature, and music as crucial to the development of a strong Indian identity.

Overall, Savarkar’s Hindu nationalism was a complex and controversial ideology that sought to promote Hindu culture, traditions, and values above all else. While his ideas have been influential in Indian politics, they have also been criticized for their exclusivity and hostility towards minorities.


6. a) Social ideas of Jyotiba Phule

Jyotiba Phule was a prominent social reformer in 19th century India, known for his pioneering work in the fields of education, women’s rights, and caste reform. Here are some of his key social ideas:

  • Anti-Casteism: Jyotiba Phule was a strong opponent of the caste system and believed in the equality of all human beings. He believed that the caste system was a social evil that perpetuated discrimination and oppression, and he advocated for the rights of the lower castes and untouchables.
  • Women’s Rights: Phule was a firm believer in gender equality and women’s empowerment. He argued that women should have access to education, and he started schools for girls to promote female education. He also advocated for the abolition of child marriage and widow remarriage.
  • Education: Phule believed that education was a powerful tool for social reform and upliftment. He started several schools and colleges for the education of lower caste and women, who were denied access to education during that period.
  • Rationalism: Jyotiba Phule was a rationalist and believed in scientific reasoning and rational thought. He criticized religious dogma and superstition and advocated for a rational, scientific outlook towards life.
  • Humanism: Phule’s social ideas were based on a deep sense of humanism, which emphasized the importance of compassion, empathy, and social justice. He believed that all human beings deserved dignity and respect, regardless of their caste, gender, or social status.

Overall, Jyotiba Phule’s social ideas were rooted in a deep sense of compassion and empathy for the marginalized and oppressed sections of society. His ideas continue to inspire social reform movements in India today.

b) Two nation theory of M.A. Jinnah

The Two Nation Theory was a political ideology developed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan. According to this theory, Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations with different religious beliefs, cultural practices, and histories, and could not live together under a single unified government. Jinnah argued that Muslims in India needed a separate homeland where they could live according to their own beliefs and values.

Jinnah believed that the British colonial government in India was not interested in the political rights and welfare of Muslims and that Hindus dominated the Indian National Congress, the main political party of the Indian independence movement. He argued that Muslims needed their own political representation and that a separate Muslim state was necessary to safeguard their interests.

The Two Nation Theory was the basis for the demand for the creation of Pakistan, which was established in 1947 as a separate country for Muslims in the Indian subcontinent. Jinnah became the first Governor-General of Pakistan and is widely regarded as the founding father of the country.

7. a) E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker and Dravidian Mobilisation

E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker, popularly known as Periyar, was a social reformer and political leader from Tamil Nadu, India, who played a crucial role in the Dravidian movement. The Dravidian movement was a socio-political movement that emerged in Tamil Nadu in the early 20th century, with the aim of promoting the rights and interests of the Dravidian people, who are believed to be the indigenous people of South India.

Periyar was a strong advocate of rationalism, self-respect, and social justice, and he used his speeches and writings to criticize the prevailing social norms and practices that discriminated against the lower castes and women. He also advocated for the creation of a separate Dravidian state, free from the domination of the North Indian culture and language.

Periyar founded the Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) in 1944, which became the leading organization of the Dravidian movement. The DK organized protests, rallies, and other forms of mobilization to promote the Dravidian cause and challenge the dominant Brahminical culture and practices. Periyar also introduced the concept of ‘self-respect marriages’, which allowed couples to marry without the need for a priest or any religious ceremony, and rejected the idea of dowry.

Periyar’s efforts were instrumental in mobilizing the Dravidian people, particularly the lower castes, and creating a strong sense of identity and consciousness among them. His influence extended beyond Tamil Nadu, and he was regarded as a leader and inspiration by other social reformers and political activists across South India.

Today, the Dravidian parties, such as the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), are major political players in Tamil Nadu, and they continue to promote the Dravidian ideology and agenda.

b) Pandita Ramabai on Patriarchy

Pandita Ramabai was a social reformer and feminist who lived in India during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. She was a strong advocate for women’s rights and worked to challenge the patriarchy that dominated Indian society at the time.

Ramabai believed that patriarchy was a deeply entrenched system of oppression that affected every aspect of women’s lives. She saw it as a major obstacle to women’s development and progress, and worked tirelessly to challenge and dismantle it.

One of Ramabai’s main criticisms of patriarchy was its impact on women’s education. She believed that women were denied access to education because it threatened the patriarchal order. By keeping women ignorant and uneducated, patriarchal societies were able to maintain their power and control over women.

Ramabai also spoke out against the practice of child marriage, which she saw as a particularly egregious form of patriarchal oppression. She believed that child marriage robbed girls of their childhoods and forced them into premature adulthood, often leading to a life of servitude and suffering.

Overall, Ramabai’s work focused on empowering women and challenging the patriarchal structures that kept them oppressed. She believed that women had the right to education, self-determination, and a life free from violence and abuse, and she worked tirelessly to make that vision a reality.

8. a) Gandhi’s concept of Sarvodya

Sarvodaya is a term used by Mahatma Gandhi to describe his vision for a society that is just, equitable, and inclusive. The term literally means “the upliftment of all” in Sanskrit.

Gandhi believed that the ultimate goal of human life is to achieve self-realization or moksha, which can be attained by serving others and working towards the betterment of society. He envisioned a society where everyone has access to basic needs such as food, shelter, education, and healthcare. Sarvodaya aims to achieve this by promoting the idea of self-reliance and community-based development.

According to Gandhi, Sarvodaya is based on the principles of non-violence, truth, and love. He believed that a society can only be truly just and equitable if it is based on these principles. He also emphasized the importance of local self-governance and community participation in decision-making processes.

Gandhi saw Sarvodaya as a means of achieving social and economic justice in India, which was then under British colonial rule. He believed that if people were empowered to take control of their own lives and work towards their own upliftment, they would be able to overcome the injustices imposed upon them by the colonial regime.

Today, the concept of Sarvodaya continues to inspire social and economic movements in India and around the world. It has been adopted by various organizations and individuals who are working towards creating a more just and equitable society.

b) Gandhi on Gram Swaraj

Mahatma Gandhi’s concept of “Gram Swaraj” refers to a vision of decentralized, self-sufficient, and self-governing village communities. He believed that true democracy could only exist at the grassroots level, where people could directly participate in decision-making and take ownership of their own development.

Gandhi saw Gram Swaraj as a way to break the cycle of poverty and exploitation that had plagued Indian villages under colonial rule. He believed that by empowering local communities to take charge of their own affairs, they could overcome the dependence on external forces and build a more equitable and sustainable society.

In Gandhi’s words, “Gram Swaraj is that state in which we live in perfect harmony, each with the other and each with his environment… It is the Swaraj of the village, the territorial unit of our political democracy.”

He saw Gram Swaraj as a way to decentralize power and promote local autonomy, with villages managing their own resources and making their own decisions about how to allocate them. Gandhi believed that this would lead to a more equitable distribution of wealth and resources, as well as greater social cohesion and solidarity.

Overall, Gandhi’s vision of Gram Swaraj represents a profound commitment to grassroots democracy and community-led development. He believed that by empowering local communities to take control of their own destinies, India could build a more just and sustainable society for all.

9. a) Jawaharlal Nehru’s ideas on culture

Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, was a great believer in the importance of culture in shaping a nation’s identity and character. Nehru believed that a nation’s culture was its most valuable asset, and that it was essential for a country to preserve and promote its cultural heritage.

Nehru saw culture as a way to unite the diverse peoples of India and create a sense of shared identity and purpose. He believed that culture was not only about art, music, and literature, but also about the way people lived their lives and the values they held.

Nehru’s ideas on culture were closely linked to his vision of a modern, secular, and democratic India. He believed that culture should be accessible to all people, regardless of their social or economic status. He also emphasized the importance of education in promoting cultural awareness and understanding.

Nehru was a strong advocate of the idea of “unity in diversity,” which he saw as a fundamental principle of Indian culture. He believed that India’s rich cultural heritage, with its many different languages, religions, and traditions, was a source of strength and vitality for the nation.

In summary, Nehru’s ideas on culture emphasized the importance of preserving and promoting India’s rich cultural heritage as a means of fostering national unity, promoting education and cultural awareness, and creating a modern, secular, and democratic India.

b) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar on social justice

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was a prominent Indian jurist, economist, social reformer, and political leader who is widely known for his contributions to the Indian independence movement and for his efforts to promote social justice in India.

Dr. Ambedkar believed that social justice was an essential component of a fair and equitable society. He argued that social justice could only be achieved through the eradication of social inequalities, such as caste, gender, and class-based discrimination.

According to Dr. Ambedkar, social justice required the establishment of a society where individuals had equal rights and opportunities, regardless of their caste, creed, gender, or economic status. He believed that social justice could be achieved through education, economic development, and political empowerment of marginalized communities.

Dr. Ambedkar was a firm believer in the power of education to promote social justice. He believed that education could empower individuals to challenge the existing social order and fight for their rights. He also advocated for economic development as a means of promoting social justice, arguing that economic empowerment was necessary to uplift marginalized communities and reduce poverty.

Dr. Ambedkar was also a strong advocate for political empowerment. He believed that political power was necessary to challenge the existing power structures and to promote the interests of marginalized communities. He advocated for the establishment of a democratic system that was inclusive and representative of all sections of society.

In summary, Dr. Ambedkar’s views on social justice emphasized the need for an equitable and inclusive society that promoted the rights and interests of marginalized communities. His ideas continue to inspire social justice movements in India and around the world.

Q10. a) Rabindranath Tagore’s ideas on nationalism

Rabindranath Tagore, the celebrated Indian poet, philosopher, and Nobel laureate, had complex and nuanced ideas on nationalism. He believed in the importance of cultural diversity and the need for a universal humanism that transcended narrow nationalist identities.

Tagore was critical of the excesses of nationalist movements that often led to the suppression of individual freedom, cultural diversity, and international cooperation. He argued that nationalism based on the idea of a single homogenous culture was an artificial construct that ignored the rich cultural heritage and pluralism of India.

In his view, true nationalism was rooted in a deep appreciation and celebration of India’s diverse regional, linguistic, and religious identities. He believed that India’s strength lay in its cultural pluralism and that any attempt to homogenize it would lead to the loss of its unique identity and vitality.

Tagore also emphasized the need for mutual understanding and cooperation between different nations and cultures. He believed that the world was interconnected, and the problems of one nation could not be solved in isolation. He advocated for a universal humanism that transcended narrow nationalist identities and recognized the inherent worth and dignity of all human beings.

Overall, Tagore’s ideas on nationalism were characterized by a deep commitment to cultural pluralism, international cooperation, and universal humanism. His insights continue to be relevant today as we grapple with issues of identity, diversity, and global cooperation.

b) M.N. Roy’s Radical Humanism

M.N. Roy was a prominent Indian philosopher, political theorist, and activist who is widely known for his theory of Radical Humanism. Roy’s philosophy was based on the belief that human beings are the ultimate source of value, and that the pursuit of human welfare and happiness should be the primary goal of society.

According to Roy, Radical Humanism rejects all forms of dogmatism, whether religious, political, or social. Instead, it upholds reason, science, and critical inquiry as the most reliable guides for understanding the world and improving the human condition. It emphasizes the importance of individual freedom, democracy, and social justice, and calls for the establishment of a global community based on these principles.

Roy believed that the primary obstacle to the realization of Radical Humanism was the existence of economic and social inequality. He argued that capitalism, colonialism, and imperialism were the main sources of these inequalities, and that they needed to be abolished in order to create a just and equitable society. He also advocated for the elimination of all forms of discrimination based on race, gender, or religion, and for the establishment of a world government to promote peace and cooperation among nations.

Roy’s Radical Humanism had a significant impact on Indian intellectual and political thought, and continues to inspire social and political movements around the world.

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