IGNOU MPSE 005 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MPSE 005 STATE AND SOCIETY IN AFRICA Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MPSE 005 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MPSE 005 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.
Important Links : Handwritten Hardcopy
IGNOU MPSE 005 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field.
IGNOU MPSE 005 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 1 IGNOU MPSE 005 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 1.1 Q1. In what ways did colonial rule alter the domestic and international economic relations of the African continent?
- 1.2 Q2. Analyze the role of African Union in World Politics.
- 1.3 Q3. Define the challenges of development in African countries.
- 1.4 Q4. Critically examine the forms and causes of violence in Africa.
- 1.5 Q5. Describe the British and French pattern of colonialism in Africa.
IGNOU MPSE 005 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
Q1. In what ways did colonial rule alter the domestic and international economic relations of the African continent?
Colonial rule had a significant impact on the domestic and international economic relations of the African continent. Here are some ways in which colonial rule altered those relations:
- Exploitation of resources: The colonial powers extracted resources such as gold, diamonds, and other valuable minerals from African countries, often using forced labor or other forms of coercion. This exploitation led to the development of extractive economies that were focused on exporting raw materials to Europe, rather than on developing local industries.
- Land ownership: Under colonial rule, much of the land in Africa was taken over by colonial powers or European settlers, and African farmers were often displaced or forced to work on European-owned plantations. This disrupted traditional land-use patterns and created a system of land ownership that favored European interests.
- Infrastructure development: The colonial powers invested in infrastructure development, such as railways, roads, and ports, which facilitated the export of African resources to Europe. However, this infrastructure was often built in a way that ignored local needs and priorities, and was primarily designed to benefit European interests.
- Currency and trade policies: The colonial powers established currency and trade policies that favored their own economies, often at the expense of African countries. For example, colonial currencies were often tied to the value of the British pound or other European currencies, which made it difficult for African countries to control their own monetary policies or develop their own industries.
- International trade: Colonial rule led to the development of a global economic system that favored European powers and marginalized African countries. European countries controlled international trade and established tariffs and other barriers that made it difficult for African countries to compete in the global marketplace.
Overall, colonial rule had a profound impact on the economic relations of the African continent, creating a legacy of economic inequality and underdevelopment that persists to this day.
Q2. Analyze the role of African Union in World Politics.
The African Union (AU) is a continental organization consisting of 55 member states in Africa. The organization was established in 2002 and replaced the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The AU has played a significant role in shaping world politics, particularly in Africa.
One of the primary goals of the AU is to promote peace, security, and stability on the African continent. To achieve this goal, the AU has established several peacekeeping and conflict resolution mechanisms, including the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). APSA provides the AU with a framework for managing conflicts and promoting peace in the region. The AU has also deployed peacekeeping missions in various countries, such as Somalia, Sudan, and the Central African Republic, to maintain peace and security.
The AU also plays a significant role in promoting economic development in Africa. The organization has established several economic and trade agreements among member states, such as the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), which aims to create a single market for goods and services across the continent. The AfCFTA has the potential to boost intra-African trade, stimulate economic growth, and reduce poverty on the continent.
Furthermore, the AU has been actively involved in promoting good governance, democracy, and human rights in Africa. The organization has established several mechanisms to monitor and report on the human rights situation in member states, including the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. The AU has also played a critical role in supporting democratic transitions in several countries, such as Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, and Madagascar.
In summary, the African Union has played a crucial role in promoting peace, security, economic development, good governance, democracy, and human rights in Africa. The organization has been instrumental in shaping world politics, particularly in the African continent. While there are still many challenges facing Africa, the AU remains a vital actor in the region and will likely continue to play a critical role in shaping the future of the continent.
Q3. Define the challenges of development in African countries.
There are many challenges associated with development in African countries, including:
- Poverty: Many African countries struggle with extreme poverty, with a large portion of the population living on less than $1 per day. This makes it difficult to invest in infrastructure and other development projects.
- Limited access to education: Many African countries lack the resources and infrastructure to provide quality education to their citizens. This limits the potential for human capital development, which is a critical component of economic growth.
- Political instability: Many African countries struggle with political instability, including civil wars, coups, and other forms of political unrest. This makes it difficult to implement long-term development plans and attract foreign investment.
- Poor infrastructure: Many African countries lack basic infrastructure, including roads, bridges, and transportation systems. This limits economic growth and makes it difficult to attract investment.
- Limited access to healthcare: Many African countries lack adequate healthcare systems, which leads to high levels of preventable disease and premature death.
- Corruption: Corruption is a significant problem in many African countries, which can lead to misallocation of resources and undermine development efforts.
- Climate change: Many African countries are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including droughts, floods, and other natural disasters. These events can have a devastating impact on agriculture, infrastructure, and overall development.
Q4. Critically examine the forms and causes of violence in Africa.
Violence in Africa takes many forms and has a complex set of causes. Examining these forms and causes can provide insight into how to address and prevent violence in the region.
Forms of violence in Africa:
- Political violence: This includes violence related to political power struggles, such as civil wars, insurgencies, and coups.
- Intercommunal violence: This is violence between different ethnic or religious groups, often rooted in historical grievances or competition over resources.
- Gender-based violence: This includes domestic violence, sexual violence, and other forms of violence against women and girls.
- Criminal violence: This includes activities such as gang violence, armed robbery, and human trafficking.
- State violence: This includes violence perpetrated by state actors, such as police brutality, torture, and extrajudicial killings.
Causes of violence in Africa:
- Political instability: Many African countries have experienced political instability, including coup d’états, civil wars, and other forms of political violence. This instability can create a cycle of violence, where different groups vie for power and control.
- Ethnic and religious tensions: In many parts of Africa, there are deep-seated ethnic and religious tensions that can lead to violence. This is often fueled by competition over resources, such as land or water.
- Poverty and inequality: Poverty and inequality are often at the root of violence in Africa. When people lack basic resources and opportunities, they may turn to violence as a means of survival or to express their frustrations.
- Corruption: Corruption is a pervasive problem in many African countries, and it can fuel violence by perpetuating inequalities and eroding trust in government institutions.
- External factors: External factors, such as the global drug trade, can also contribute to violence in Africa by fueling criminal activity and creating economic incentives for violence.
In order to address and prevent violence in Africa, it is important to address these underlying causes. This may involve promoting political stability, reducing ethnic and religious tensions, addressing poverty and inequality, and combating corruption. It is also important to address external factors, such as the global drug trade, through international cooperation and coordination. By addressing these underlying causes, it may be possible to create a more peaceful and stable Africa.
Q5. Describe the British and French pattern of colonialism in Africa.
The British and French pattern of colonialism in Africa had some similarities but also significant differences.
The British colonial approach in Africa was mainly characterized by indirect rule, which involved co-opting and working through pre-existing indigenous authorities and systems of governance. This approach allowed the British to govern more effectively and at lower costs, while also maintaining some level of cultural and political continuity in the colonies. In general, the British tended to establish their colonies as trade and administrative centers rather than settling and exploiting the land for resources.
In contrast, the French colonial approach in Africa was characterized by direct rule, which involved a more centralized and authoritarian system of governance. The French sought to impose their culture, language, and institutions on the colonies, often suppressing and disregarding pre-existing systems of governance. The French also placed more emphasis on the exploitation of natural resources, particularly in their West and Central African colonies, which were rich in resources such as rubber, timber, and minerals.
Another significant difference between the British and French colonial patterns was their approach to education. The British placed a greater emphasis on education and literacy, as they believed that educating the indigenous population would lead to more efficient administration and promote economic development. In contrast, the French placed less emphasis on education and tended to focus more on training locals for specific tasks, such as farming or mining, rather than on broader educational development.
Overall, while both the British and French colonial patterns had significant impacts on the societies and cultures of Africa, the British approach tended to be more focused on trade and administration, while the French approach was more focused on resource extraction and cultural assimilation.
6. a) Post-Cold War peace-keeping in Africa
The end of the Cold War in the early 1990s saw a surge in international peacekeeping efforts in Africa. The United Nations, along with regional organizations such as the African Union, played a key role in facilitating peacekeeping operations across the continent. Here are some of the notable post-Cold War peacekeeping efforts in Africa:
- Somalia: In 1992, the UN Security Council authorized the deployment of peacekeeping forces to Somalia in an effort to restore order and provide humanitarian assistance in the midst of a civil war. The operation was largely unsuccessful and resulted in the deaths of several hundred peacekeepers.
- Rwanda: The UN mission in Rwanda was established in 1993 to oversee a peace agreement between the Rwandan government and the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). The mission failed to prevent the 1994 genocide, during which an estimated 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were killed.
- Sierra Leone: In 1999, the UN authorized a peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone to support a ceasefire agreement between the government and rebel forces. The mission was successful in restoring order and facilitating the disarmament of rebels.
- Sudan: The UN has been involved in peacekeeping efforts in Sudan since 2004, when it authorized a mission to monitor a ceasefire agreement between the government and rebel forces in the Darfur region. The mission has been criticized for being ineffective in protecting civilians from violence.
- Mali: In 2013, the UN authorized a peacekeeping mission in Mali to support a peace agreement between the government and rebel groups in the north. The mission has faced significant challenges, including attacks by extremist groups and difficulty in implementing the peace agreement.
Overall, post-Cold War peacekeeping efforts in Africa have been mixed in terms of their success. While some missions have been successful in restoring order and promoting peace, others have been criticized for being ineffective or even exacerbating conflicts.
b) The end of Slave trade
The end of the transatlantic slave trade is a complex historical event that occurred over several decades, involving social, political, and economic factors.
In 1807, the British Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act, which prohibited British ships from participating in the transatlantic slave trade. This was followed by the passage of similar laws by other European powers and the United States, although the trade continued illegally.
Pressure to end the slave trade came from several sources, including abolitionist movements in Europe and the Americas, as well as from enslaved people themselves who resisted their captivity through acts of rebellion and escape.
In 1833, the British Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act, which abolished slavery throughout the British Empire. Other countries, including France, the United States, and Brazil, would not abolish slavery until several decades later.
The end of the transatlantic slave trade did not mean an end to slavery itself, as it continued in various forms in many parts of the world until the mid-20th century. The legacy of slavery and the transatlantic slave trade continues to impact societies around the world, particularly in terms of race relations and economic inequality.
7. a) Nature of anti-colonial movements in Africa
Anti-colonial movements in Africa were diverse in nature and varied across different countries and regions. However, there were some common themes and strategies that characterized many of these movements.
One of the most significant factors that drove anti-colonial movements in Africa was a desire for self-determination and independence. African societies had long been subjected to colonization, which had disrupted their traditional systems of governance and economic structures, and stripped them of their autonomy. Anti-colonial movements sought to reverse this process and restore African societies to their pre-colonial state.
To achieve this goal, many anti-colonial movements adopted strategies such as mass mobilization, strikes, and civil disobedience. These tactics were used to raise awareness among the general population about the need for independence and to put pressure on colonial governments to relinquish control.
Many anti-colonial movements were also influenced by Marxist and socialist ideas, which provided a framework for analyzing the economic and political structures of colonialism and for envisioning alternative systems. This led to the development of various forms of socialist and nationalist ideologies that were often incorporated into the rhetoric and strategies of anti-colonial movements.
The role of individuals such as Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela, and Patrice Lumumba was also crucial in many anti-colonial movements. These leaders provided inspiration, direction, and strategic vision to their movements, and played a key role in negotiating with colonial powers and securing independence for their countries.
Overall, anti-colonial movements in Africa were characterized by a diverse range of strategies, ideologies, and leaders, but shared a common goal of achieving independence and self-determination for their societies.
b) Rise of multi-party regimes of Africa
The rise of multi-party regimes in Africa refers to the process by which African countries transitioned from one-party or military rule to systems of governance that allowed for the existence of multiple political parties. This process began in the late 1980s and early 1990s and was largely driven by popular demand for greater political representation and democratization.
Prior to the rise of multi-party regimes, many African countries were governed by authoritarian leaders who either banned opposition parties or allowed only token opposition. This resulted in a lack of accountability and transparency, and often led to corruption, human rights abuses, and economic stagnation.
The process of democratization in Africa began with the wave of political and economic reforms that swept across the continent in the 1980s. These reforms were largely driven by the economic crises that many African countries were facing at the time, as well as by pressure from international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
As a result of these reforms, many African countries began to introduce multi-party systems and hold elections that were more free and fair than in the past. Some of the early examples of this trend included countries such as Zambia, which held its first multi-party elections in 1991, and Mali, which transitioned to a multi-party system in 1992.
The rise of multi-party regimes in Africa has been a mixed success. While many countries have made significant progress towards democracy, others have struggled with corruption, political violence, and weak institutions. Nevertheless, the process of democratization in Africa is ongoing, and many countries continue to work towards more open and representative systems of governance.
8. a) Challenges of development process in African countries
The development process in African countries is faced with several challenges, including:
- Limited resources: African countries often have limited resources in terms of finance, infrastructure, and technology, which can make it difficult to develop and implement effective development plans.
- Political instability: Many African countries are plagued by political instability, which can create uncertainty and undermine development efforts. This instability can be the result of civil wars, coups, corruption, or other factors.
- Poor governance: Weak governance structures can hinder development efforts by creating barriers to investment and growth. Corruption, lack of transparency, and poor public services can undermine the trust of citizens in their governments.
- Lack of skilled labor: African countries often lack the skilled labor necessary to drive development efforts. This can be the result of limited access to education and training opportunities or the emigration of skilled workers to other countries.
- Inadequate infrastructure: Limited access to basic infrastructure such as roads, electricity, and water supply can limit economic growth and development. This is particularly challenging in rural areas where infrastructure is often lacking.
- Climate change: Climate change is affecting African countries more severely than many other regions. The impacts of climate change, such as droughts, floods, and desertification, can undermine development efforts and exacerbate poverty.
- Limited access to markets: African countries often struggle to access global markets due to limited transportation infrastructure, high tariffs, and non-tariff barriers. This can limit the potential for export-led growth.
Addressing these challenges requires a multifaceted approach that addresses both short-term and long-term development goals. This includes investments in education, health care, infrastructure, and governance reforms that promote transparency, accountability, and good governance.
b) Ethnic conflict in Burundi and Rwanda
Burundi and Rwanda have both experienced ethnic conflict in their recent history. In both countries, the conflict has primarily been between the Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups.
In Burundi, the conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi has been ongoing since the country’s independence from Belgium in 1962. The Tutsi minority ruled the country until 1993, when the first democratic elections were held and the Hutu candidate, Melchior Ndadaye, was elected president. However, just a few months later, Ndadaye was assassinated by Tutsi extremists, leading to a civil war that lasted until 2005. The conflict resulted in the deaths of an estimated 300,000 people.
Similarly, in Rwanda, the Hutu-Tutsi conflict reached its peak in 1994 when Hutu extremists carried out a genocide against the Tutsi minority. The genocide resulted in the deaths of approximately 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. The conflict in Rwanda had been brewing for years, with the Tutsi minority holding power until 1959, when a Hutu-led revolution led to their overthrow. Tensions between the two groups continued to simmer until the genocide in 1994.
Both Burundi and Rwanda have made efforts to address the root causes of ethnic conflict and promote reconciliation in the years since their respective conflicts. However, ethnic tensions and political instability still exist in both countries, and there is a risk of renewed violence if these issues are not addressed effectively.
9. a) India policy towards Africa
India’s policy towards Africa is based on the principles of South-South cooperation, mutual respect, and solidarity. India has historically had friendly relations with many African countries and has been actively engaged in Africa since the 1950s.
India’s policy towards Africa has undergone significant changes in recent years. In 2015, India launched the India-Africa Forum Summit (IAFS) as a platform for cooperation between India and African countries. The IAFS is held every three years and brings together heads of state and government from India and 54 African countries to discuss issues of mutual interest.
India’s policy towards Africa is driven by a desire to deepen economic ties, enhance cultural and people-to-people exchanges, and promote regional stability and security. India has been actively involved in providing development assistance to Africa through grants, loans, and technical assistance. India has also provided training to African professionals in various fields, including agriculture, health, and information technology.
India’s engagement with Africa is also reflected in its participation in peacekeeping operations on the continent. India has been a major contributor to the United Nations peacekeeping missions in Africa and has deployed troops to several African countries, including Congo, Sudan, and South Sudan.
Overall, India’s policy towards Africa is aimed at strengthening ties with the continent and promoting mutual cooperation and development.
India has been actively investing in Africa in recent years, with the aim of strengthening economic ties between the two regions. Indian foreign direct investment (FDI) in Africa has increased significantly in the past decade, with India emerging as one of the top investors in the region. Some of the key sectors where Indian companies are investing in Africa include agriculture, healthcare, education, energy, infrastructure, and telecommunications.
One of the reasons for India’s interest in Africa is its vast natural resources and growing market potential. India sees Africa as an important destination for its exports and a source of raw materials for its industries. India has also been providing aid and technical assistance to African countries to support their development efforts.
According to the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), Indian FDI in Africa has increased from $11.3 billion in 2015 to $14.5 billion in 2019. The major recipients of Indian FDI in Africa are South Africa, Mauritius, and Mozambique. Indian companies such as Tata, Mahindra, and Birla Group have made significant investments in the region.
However, Indian FDI in Africa is still lower than that of other major investors such as China and the United States. India is working to increase its investments in the region and has set a target of $20 billion in investments by 2021. The Indian government has also launched various initiatives to promote economic cooperation between India and African countries, such as the India-Africa Forum Summit and the Duty-Free Tariff Preference Scheme for Least Developed Countries (DFTP) program.
10. a) Africa’s debt crisis
Africa’s debt crisis refers to the unsustainable level of debt that many African countries are currently facing. The debt crisis is characterized by high levels of external debt, low levels of economic growth, and an inability to service debt payments. The debt crisis has been exacerbated by a combination of factors, including external shocks such as falling commodity prices, rising interest rates, and a lack of access to credit.
Many African countries have borrowed heavily from international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, as well as from bilateral lenders such as China. While this borrowing has helped finance infrastructure projects and other development initiatives, it has also left many countries with a high debt burden. In some cases, debt levels have reached over 100% of GDP.
The debt crisis has had a significant impact on African economies, with many countries struggling to meet their debt obligations and finance basic public services. The crisis has also limited the ability of African countries to invest in infrastructure, education, and healthcare, which are crucial for economic development.
To address the debt crisis, many African countries have implemented austerity measures, such as cutting public spending and raising taxes, to reduce their debt levels. Some countries have also sought debt relief from international financial institutions, while others have turned to alternative sources of financing such as China.
Overall, the debt crisis remains a major challenge for many African countries, and addressing it will require a combination of policy reforms, debt relief, and new sources of financing.
b) African experiences of globalization
Globalization has had a significant impact on African countries, both positive and negative. On the positive side, globalization has increased trade and investment opportunities, facilitated technology transfer, and led to improvements in infrastructure and communication. However, it has also led to increased economic inequality, cultural erosion, and environmental degradation.
One of the most significant effects of globalization in Africa has been the increase in foreign investment, particularly in the extractive industries. This has led to economic growth in some countries, but it has also had negative consequences, such as environmental degradation and the displacement of local communities.
Another impact of globalization has been the integration of African countries into the global economy. This has led to increased trade and the adoption of Western business practices, but it has also created a dependence on global markets and increased vulnerability to economic shocks.
Globalization has also had cultural impacts on Africa, with the increased spread of Western culture and values. This has led to the erosion of traditional cultures and the loss of indigenous languages.
Overall, the experiences of globalization in Africa have been mixed, with both positive and negative outcomes. It is important for African countries to carefully manage the impacts of globalization to ensure that they benefit their people and protect their environment and cultural heritage.
GET Handwritten Hardcopy
All Over India Delivery
WhatsApp – 8130208920