IGNOU MPSE 006 PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 006 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MPSE 006 PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MPSE 006 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MPSE 006 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

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IGNOU MPSE 006 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field.
IGNOU MPSE 006 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 006 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23


Q1. Describe the modes of peaceful settlement of disputes under the UN system.

Under the UN system, there are several modes of peaceful settlement of disputes that member states can use to resolve their differences without resorting to armed conflict. Here are the main modes of peaceful settlement of disputes under the UN system:

  • Negotiation: This is the most common mode of peaceful settlement of disputes under the UN system, where the parties involved in a dispute engage in direct talks to resolve their differences. Negotiation can be conducted through formal or informal channels, and it can involve the use of mediators or facilitators.
  • Mediation: Mediation is another mode of peaceful settlement of disputes, where a neutral third party, the mediator, helps the parties involved in a dispute reach a mutually acceptable agreement. The mediator facilitates communication and negotiation between the parties but does not impose a decision on them.
  • Conciliation: This is a process of dispute resolution where a neutral third party, the conciliator, assists the parties in reaching an agreement. Unlike mediation, the conciliator may propose a settlement to the parties, but the parties still retain control over the final outcome.
  • Arbitration: Arbitration is a more formal mode of peaceful settlement of disputes where a neutral third party, the arbitrator, hears the arguments of the parties and makes a binding decision. The parties agree in advance to abide by the arbitrator’s decision, and the decision is legally binding.
  • Judicial settlement: This mode of peaceful settlement of disputes involves the referral of a dispute to an international court or tribunal, such as the International Court of Justice, for a binding decision.

Overall, the UN system encourages the peaceful settlement of disputes and provides various mechanisms for member states to do so.

Q2. What is insurgency? What are its major forms?

Insurgency is a form of political violence characterized by an armed struggle between an insurgent group and a government or other established authority. Insurgents seek to overthrow or undermine the authority of the government or to achieve political, social, or economic change through violent means.

Insurgency can take many forms, but some of the major types include:

  1. Separatist insurgency: This type of insurgency is characterized by a group seeking to break away from a larger political entity, such as a region or province seeking independence from a central government.
  2. Ideological insurgency: This type of insurgency is motivated by a particular ideology, such as communism or radical Islamism, and seeks to establish a new political or social order based on that ideology.
  3. Resource-based insurgency: This type of insurgency is driven by control over natural resources, such as oil, minerals, or timber, and seeks to gain control over those resources to fund its activities.
  4. Nationalist insurgency: This type of insurgency is characterized by a group seeking to achieve greater autonomy or political representation for a particular ethnic or national group.
  5. Criminal insurgency: This type of insurgency is driven by organized criminal networks seeking to profit from activities such as drug trafficking, smuggling, or extortion, and may use violence to protect their interests.

Q3. Trace the evolution of peace movement across world.

The peace movement has evolved over time in response to various historical events and social, political, and economic changes. Here is a brief overview of the evolution of the peace movement across the world:

  • Early peace movements: The earliest recorded peace movement was the Buddhist movement in India during the 3rd century BCE. The movement aimed to promote non-violence and compassion towards all living beings. Other early peace movements include the pacifist traditions in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
  • Anti-war movements: In the 19th century, anti-war movements emerged in Europe and North America in response to the rise of nationalism and the growing military-industrial complex. These movements aimed to prevent wars and promote disarmament.
  • Women’s peace movements: During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, women’s peace movements emerged in Europe and North America. These movements were led by women who were opposed to war and sought to promote peace and disarmament.
  • Interwar period: After the First World War, the League of Nations was established as an international organization aimed at promoting peace and preventing future wars. However, the League of Nations failed to prevent the outbreak of the Second World War.
  • Nuclear disarmament movements: The use of nuclear weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 led to the emergence of nuclear disarmament movements across the world. These movements aimed to prevent the use of nuclear weapons and promote disarmament.
  • Anti-colonial movements: During the 1950s and 1960s, anti-colonial movements emerged in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. These movements sought to end colonialism, imperialism, and exploitation by Western powers.
  • Vietnam War protests: During the 1960s and 1970s, the Vietnam War protests emerged in the United States and Europe. These protests were against the Vietnam War and the military-industrial complex.
  • Cold War era: During the Cold War era, peace movements emerged in response to the arms race and the threat of nuclear war. These movements aimed to promote disarmament and reduce tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States.
  • Global peace movement: Since the end of the Cold War, the global peace movement has become more diverse and inclusive. It includes movements for environmental justice, human rights, and social justice, as well as anti-war and disarmament movements.

Overall, the peace movement has evolved over time in response to changing historical and social contexts, and has addressed a wide range of issues related to peace, justice, and human rights.

Q4. Make a critical assessment of the Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention (BTWC).

The Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention (BTWC) is an international treaty signed in 1972 that prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, and use of biological and toxin weapons. The convention aims to promote international peace and security by preventing the use of biological and toxin weapons and ensuring the peaceful use of microbiology and biotechnology. While the BTWC has been successful in establishing norms against the use of biological weapons, there are several limitations to its effectiveness as a disarmament and non-proliferation instrument.

First, the BTWC has no formal verification mechanism, making it difficult to ensure compliance with its provisions. States are expected to declare their biological and toxin weapons capabilities and facilities, but there are no provisions for inspection and enforcement. This means that a state could potentially violate the treaty without detection, and there is no clear mechanism for addressing such violations.

Second, there is no clear definition of what constitutes a biological weapon, which can make it difficult to determine whether a state is in violation of the treaty. Some states have been accused of conducting research and development that could be used to produce biological weapons, but have claimed that these activities are for peaceful purposes, making it difficult to determine their intent.

Third, the BTWC only covers state actors, and does not address the threat of biological weapons use by non-state actors, such as terrorist groups. This is a significant limitation given the increased risk of terrorist groups acquiring and using biological weapons, as well as the potential for state actors to provide support to non-state actors in the development of biological weapons.

Finally, the BTWC has not been effectively implemented by all states, with some countries continuing to develop and maintain biological weapons capabilities in violation of the treaty. This underscores the need for stronger measures to ensure compliance, including the establishment of a formal verification mechanism and increased transparency and information-sharing between states.

In summary, while the BTWC has contributed to the establishment of international norms against the use of biological weapons, its effectiveness as a disarmament and non-proliferation instrument is limited by its lack of a formal verification mechanism, unclear definition of biological weapons, limited scope, and incomplete implementation. There is a need for stronger measures to ensure compliance and prevent the use of biological weapons by state and non-state actors.

Q5. Describe various causes of intra-societal conflict.

Intra-societal conflict refers to conflicts that arise within a society or community between different groups or individuals who share the same culture, ethnicity, religion, or nationality. There are many causes of intra-societal conflict, and some of the most common ones are:

  • Differences in beliefs and values: Differences in beliefs and values are often at the root of intra-societal conflict. When individuals or groups have divergent views on what is right or wrong, what is acceptable or unacceptable, they may clash with others who hold opposing views.
  • Economic disparities: Economic inequalities can create a sense of resentment and frustration among those who feel left behind. When some groups have greater access to resources, wealth, and power, while others struggle to make ends meet, it can lead to conflicts.
  • Political differences: Political differences can also create intra-societal conflict. When different groups have different political ideologies or preferences, they may clash with each other, especially when political power is at stake.
  • Ethnic or cultural differences: Differences in ethnicity, language, or culture can also lead to intra-societal conflicts. When different groups have distinct cultural identities, it can create a sense of tribalism, and the fear of the other can exacerbate tensions.
  • Historical grievances: Historical grievances, such as past injustices, colonialism, or oppression, can also fuel intra-societal conflict. When one group feels wronged or disadvantaged by past events, they may seek retribution or redress, which can lead to tensions and conflicts.
  • Competition for resources: Competition for resources such as land, water, or oil can also lead to intra-societal conflict. When different groups have conflicting claims on resources, it can create tensions and sometimes lead to violence.
  • Social identity: Social identity is another factor that can contribute to intra-societal conflict. When individuals or groups strongly identify with certain labels, such as religion, ethnicity, or nationality, it can create a sense of “us” versus “them,” and this can lead to conflict with other groups who are seen as different or “the other.”

6. a) Concept of limited war

The concept of limited war refers to a military conflict between two or more states, where the parties involved set specific limits on the objectives, scope, and methods of the war, in order to avoid a full-scale war or a nuclear war.

Limited wars are typically fought over specific territorial or political disputes, and are characterized by a restrained use of military force, with the intention of achieving limited objectives while minimizing casualties and damage. Such wars are often conducted with the use of conventional weapons, and may involve limited air strikes, naval blockades, or ground operations.

Limited wars are often seen as a means to achieve political or military objectives without escalating the conflict to a point where it becomes uncontrollable or threatens global stability. However, the concept of limited war has been criticized as being inherently flawed, as it is difficult to control the intensity and escalation of a conflict once it has started, and the boundaries between limited and full-scale wars can be blurry.

b) Realist view of war

A realist view of war emphasizes the role of power, self-interest, and the pursuit of security in international relations. Realists see war as an inevitable and natural aspect of the international system, driven by the competition between states for resources, influence, and security.

Realists argue that states are the primary actors in international relations, and their behavior is shaped by the pursuit of power and security. They view war as a means of achieving these goals, whether through aggression or defense. Realists also emphasize the importance of the balance of power, arguing that states will engage in war to maintain their relative position in the international system.

According to realists, the international system is anarchic, meaning that there is no overarching authority or government to regulate the behavior of states. In such a system, states must rely on their own capabilities and resources to protect their interests, which can lead to conflict and war.

Realists also believe that war can be beneficial under certain circumstances. For example, they argue that war can help to restore the balance of power, deter aggression, or achieve political objectives that cannot be achieved through diplomacy.

Overall, a realist view of war portrays it as a natural and inevitable aspect of international relations, driven by the pursuit of power and security in an anarchic system. While war can be devastating and destructive, realists argue that it can also be a necessary and effective means of achieving certain political objectives.

7. a) Distinguish between peacekeeping, peacemaking and peace building.

Peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peacebuilding are three distinct concepts related to conflict resolution and management.

Peacekeeping refers to the deployment of a neutral international force to a conflict zone with the aim of maintaining peace and stability between warring parties. The primary role of peacekeepers is to monitor ceasefires, ensure compliance with peace agreements, and protect civilians. Peacekeepers are typically deployed in situations where there is an existing ceasefire or peace agreement, but there is a risk of renewed violence or instability.

Peacemaking involves diplomatic efforts aimed at ending a conflict or preventing its escalation. It is typically undertaken by third-party actors such as mediators or negotiators who work to bring the warring parties to the negotiating table and facilitate a peace agreement. Peacemaking often involves shuttle diplomacy, where the mediator shuttles between the parties to build trust and find common ground. The focus of peacemaking is on resolving the underlying causes of the conflict and finding a sustainable solution that is acceptable to all parties.

Peacebuilding refers to the long-term process of building sustainable peace and addressing the root causes of conflict. It involves activities that promote social cohesion, reconciliation, and the rule of law, among other things. Peacebuilding is a complex and multi-dimensional process that involves a wide range of actors, including governments, civil society, international organizations, and local communities. It aims to address the underlying structural, social, and economic factors that contribute to conflict and to build resilience to future conflict.

In summary, peacekeeping is about maintaining peace and stability in a conflict zone, peacemaking is about ending or preventing a conflict, and peacebuilding is about building sustainable peace and addressing the root causes of conflict.

b) India -Pakistan Confidence Building Measures

India and Pakistan have a long history of conflicts and tensions, particularly over the disputed region of Kashmir. In order to build confidence and reduce tensions between the two nations, various Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) have been initiated over the years.

Some of the CBMs between India and Pakistan include:

  • Bus and Train Services: The Samjhauta Express and the Thar Express are train services that run between India and Pakistan, while the Delhi-Lahore and the Munabao-Khokhrapar bus services are also operational. These services facilitate people-to-people contact and promote cultural exchanges.
  • Exchange of Prisoners: India and Pakistan exchange prisoners who have completed their sentences and are awaiting repatriation. This move helps in building trust between the two nations.
  • Sports Diplomacy: Sports events, especially cricket matches, have been used as a platform for India-Pakistan diplomacy. These events help in easing tensions and building goodwill between the two countries.
  • Border Meetings: High-level military and civilian officials from both countries hold regular meetings at the Wagah-Attari border to discuss and resolve issues related to the border.
  • Visa Liberalization: India and Pakistan have also worked towards easing visa restrictions for each other’s citizens, enabling greater people-to-people contact and promoting trade and tourism.

Overall, the CBMs between India and Pakistan have had varying degrees of success. While some have helped in reducing tensions and building trust, others have been less effective. However, the importance of continuing to explore and implement new CBMs cannot be overstated, as they play a crucial role in promoting peace and stability in the region.

8. a) Feminist approach to peace

A feminist approach to peace is based on the idea that traditional approaches to peace-building and conflict resolution have been largely dominated by men and patriarchal values. Feminist theorists argue that this approach has ignored the unique experiences and contributions of women in conflict and post-conflict situations, leading to ineffective and incomplete solutions.

A feminist approach to peace emphasizes the importance of gender equality and women’s empowerment in achieving sustainable peace. It recognizes the ways in which gender-based violence and discrimination contribute to conflict and acknowledges the crucial role that women play in building and maintaining peace.

This approach highlights the need to address root causes of conflict, including gender-based inequality and injustice, and to include the voices and perspectives of marginalized groups, particularly women and girls, in peace-building efforts. It also recognizes the importance of addressing the intersectionality of oppression and recognizing that different forms of oppression are interconnected.

Feminist peace-building initiatives include promoting women’s participation in conflict resolution and peace-building efforts, addressing gender-based violence and discrimination, and promoting women’s economic empowerment and access to education and healthcare.

Overall, a feminist approach to peace seeks to challenge and transform the patriarchal structures and power dynamics that contribute to conflict and create more inclusive and sustainable peace-building strategies.

b) Core features of Gandhian approach to peace

The Gandhian approach to peace is based on the principles of nonviolence, truth, love, and compassion. Some of the core features of the Gandhian approach to peace include:

  • Nonviolence: Nonviolence is the cornerstone of the Gandhian approach to peace. According to Gandhi, nonviolence is not just the absence of physical violence, but it also includes noncooperation with injustice and exploitation.
  • Truth: Truth is another essential aspect of the Gandhian approach to peace. Gandhi believed that truth is the ultimate reality and that it has the power to overcome any injustice or violence.
  • Love and Compassion: The Gandhian approach to peace is rooted in love and compassion. Gandhi believed that love is the strongest force in the universe and that compassion is essential for building harmonious relationships between people.
  • Satyagraha: Satyagraha, which means “truth force,” is a form of nonviolent resistance that Gandhi developed. Satyagraha is based on the principle of using nonviolence to resist oppression and injustice.
  • Swaraj: Swaraj, which means “self-rule,” is another important concept in the Gandhian approach to peace. Gandhi believed that true peace can only be achieved when people have control over their own lives and are able to govern themselves.
  • Ahimsa: Ahimsa, which means “nonviolence” or “non-harm,” is a central principle in the Gandhian approach to peace. Gandhi believed that all life is sacred and that violence or harm to any living being is unacceptable.

Overall, the Gandhian approach to peace emphasizes the importance of nonviolence, truth, love, compassion, self-rule, and non-harm in creating a more peaceful and just world.

Q9. a) Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty

The Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a landmark international treaty signed in 1968. Its goal is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, promote cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and work towards nuclear disarmament. The NPT has been widely considered as a cornerstone of global efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

The treaty has three main pillars: non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful uses of nuclear technology. Non-proliferation refers to the commitment of the five nuclear-weapon states (the United States, Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom) to refrain from transferring nuclear weapons or nuclear weapons technology to other countries, and the commitment of non-nuclear-weapon states not to acquire nuclear weapons or nuclear weapons technology. Disarmament refers to the obligation of the nuclear-weapon states to work towards the ultimate goal of eliminating all nuclear weapons, and peaceful uses refer to the right of all states to access nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, such as energy generation and medical applications.

The treaty is reviewed every five years at a conference attended by all state parties. The latest conference was held in 2020. The NPT has been signed by 191 states, making it the most widely adhered to arms control treaty in history. India, Israel, Pakistan, and North Korea are the only four countries that have not signed the treaty. However, India, Israel, and Pakistan are all nuclear-armed states. North Korea withdrew from the treaty in 2003.

b) Role of regional organizations in conflict prevention and resolution

Regional organizations play an important role in conflict prevention and resolution by promoting cooperation, dialogue, and diplomatic efforts among member states. These organizations have a better understanding of the cultural, political, and historical factors that may contribute to regional conflicts, which allows them to develop targeted approaches to conflict prevention and resolution.

One of the main roles of regional organizations in conflict prevention is to identify and address potential sources of conflict before they escalate into violence. This can involve monitoring political, social, and economic trends in the region, facilitating dialogue between conflicting parties, and promoting conflict resolution through negotiation and mediation.

In the area of conflict resolution, regional organizations can provide a platform for negotiations between warring parties, provide peacekeeping forces, and assist with the implementation of peace agreements. These organizations can also facilitate post-conflict reconstruction and reconciliation efforts, including the establishment of truth and reconciliation commissions, the rebuilding of infrastructure, and the provision of humanitarian assistance.

Examples of regional organizations that have played important roles in conflict prevention and resolution include the African Union (AU), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the European Union (EU), the Organization of American States (OAS), and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

In conclusion, regional organizations play a crucial role in preventing and resolving conflicts by providing a framework for cooperation and dialogue among member states, and by developing targeted approaches to addressing the root causes of regional conflicts.

Q10. a) Challenges of human security

Human security refers to the protection of individuals from various threats to their well-being, including economic, political, environmental, and social threats. Some of the challenges of human security include:

  • Poverty: Poverty remains one of the most significant challenges to human security, as it affects access to basic needs such as food, shelter, and healthcare. Poverty can also lead to crime and social unrest, which can threaten the security of individuals and communities.
  • Conflict and Violence: Conflict and violence, whether they are caused by civil wars, terrorism, or other forms of political or social instability, can have severe consequences for human security. People living in areas of conflict or violence are at risk of physical harm, displacement, and psychological trauma.
  • Climate Change: Climate change is a significant threat to human security, as it can lead to environmental disasters such as floods, droughts, and extreme weather events. Climate change also exacerbates existing social and economic inequalities, which can lead to increased poverty and conflict.
  • Human Rights Violations: Human rights violations, such as discrimination, torture, and extrajudicial killings, can undermine human security by violating basic human rights and eroding trust in government institutions.
  • Cybersecurity: As our world becomes increasingly digital, cybersecurity threats pose a growing challenge to human security. Cyberattacks can disrupt critical infrastructure, compromise personal information, and undermine trust in institutions.
  • Pandemics: Pandemics such as COVID-19 have highlighted the significant challenges to human security posed by infectious diseases. Pandemics can have severe social, economic, and health consequences, and they require a coordinated global response to address effectively.

In conclusion, addressing the challenges of human security requires a comprehensive approach that considers the interplay between economic, political, social, and environmental factors. It also requires a commitment to upholding human rights, promoting social justice, and investing in effective policies and programs to protect individuals and communities.

b) Confidence Building Measures between India and China

India and China have had a complex and sometimes contentious relationship over the years. Confidence-building measures (CBMs) have been implemented between the two countries to reduce tensions and promote peaceful coexistence.

Here are some of the key confidence-building measures between India and China:

  • Border Meetings: High-level border meetings have been taking place regularly between the two countries. These meetings are aimed at resolving border issues and maintaining peace and tranquility on the border.
  • Military Hotlines: India and China have established several military hotlines to facilitate communication between their armed forces. This helps in the timely resolution of any military issues that may arise on the border.
  • Cultural Exchanges: India and China have also encouraged cultural exchanges between the two countries to promote mutual understanding and strengthen people-to-people ties.
  • Economic Cooperation: Economic cooperation between India and China has been growing rapidly in recent years. The two countries have established various trade and investment initiatives that have helped build mutual trust and understanding.
  • Joint Military Exercises: India and China have also conducted joint military exercises to improve their military cooperation and interoperability. These exercises help build trust and confidence between the two countries’ armed forces.
  • Track-II Diplomacy: Track-II diplomacy involves non-governmental actors such as think tanks, academics, and other experts who engage in dialogue and brainstorming on issues of mutual interest. India and China have been using this mechanism to promote mutual understanding and identify areas of cooperation.

Overall, these confidence-building measures have helped to reduce tensions and build trust between India and China. However, the relationship between the two countries remains complex, and there is still much work to be done to resolve longstanding issues and build a more peaceful and stable relationship.

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