IGNOU MPSE 007 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MPSE 007 SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND POLITICS IN INDIA Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MPSE 007 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MPSE 007 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

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IGNOU MPSE 007 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field.
IGNOU MPSE 007 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 007 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23


Q1. Examine the features of the Gandhian approach to the study of social movements.

The Gandhian approach to the study of social movements is characterized by several distinctive features:

  • Non-Violence: The Gandhian approach emphasizes the principle of non-violence as a means of social change. According to Gandhi, non-violence is not a passive or weak approach, but a powerful tool for social transformation. Non-violence involves active resistance to injustice and oppression, but without using physical force or violence. Instead, non-violent methods such as civil disobedience, non-cooperation, and peaceful protests are used to challenge the status quo and promote social change.
  • Self-Reliance: The Gandhian approach emphasizes the importance of self-reliance and self-sufficiency as a means of achieving social and economic independence. Gandhi believed that self-reliance was necessary to break the cycle of dependence on external forces, such as the state or other institutions. He promoted the idea of self-sufficient villages, where people could produce their own food, clothing, and other basic necessities, without relying on outside sources.
  • Satyagraha: Satyagraha is a term coined by Gandhi that means “truth-force” or “soul-force”. It is a non-violent method of resistance that involves standing up for what is right, even in the face of opposition or oppression. Satyagraha involves using peaceful means to achieve social and political change, such as strikes, boycotts, and demonstrations.
  • Swaraj: Swaraj is a term that means self-rule or self-governance. Gandhi believed that true freedom could only be achieved through self-rule, where people have control over their own lives and destinies. He advocated for the decentralization of power and the empowerment of local communities to make decisions about their own affairs.
  • Social Equality: The Gandhian approach emphasizes the importance of social equality and the elimination of discrimination based on caste, religion, or gender. Gandhi believed that everyone was equal and that discrimination was a major obstacle to social progress. He fought against the caste system and promoted the idea of a society based on mutual respect and cooperation.

Overall, the Gandhian approach to the study of social movements emphasizes non-violence, self-reliance, satyagraha, swaraj, and social equality as key principles for achieving social change.

Q2. What are the issues and concerns of environmental movements in India?

Environmental movements in India have been focused on a range of issues and concerns, including:

  • Deforestation: India is home to a large forest cover, but deforestation has been a major concern due to industrialization, infrastructure development, and urbanization. Environmental activists are concerned about the loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, and the impact on the livelihoods of indigenous communities.
  • Pollution: India is one of the most polluted countries in the world, with air and water pollution being major concerns. The country has some of the highest levels of particulate matter in the air, and rivers like the Ganges are severely polluted with industrial waste and untreated sewage.
  • Climate change: India is one of the most vulnerable countries to the effects of climate change, including rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and sea level rise. Environmental activists are concerned about the impact of climate change on agriculture, water resources, and public health.
  • Wildlife conservation: India is home to a diverse range of wildlife, including tigers, elephants, and rhinos, but many species are threatened by habitat loss and poaching. Environmental activists are concerned about the need to protect these species and their habitats.
  • Energy: India is one of the world’s largest consumers of energy, and environmental activists are concerned about the need to transition to renewable sources of energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and combat climate change.
  • Waste management: India generates a large amount of waste, and environmental activists are concerned about the need for better waste management practices, including recycling and composting.

Overall, the environmental movements in India are concerned with protecting the country’s natural resources, preserving biodiversity, and promoting sustainable development.

Q3. Describe the context of the rise of Backward Class movements in India.

The rise of Backward Class movements in India can be traced back to the early 20th century when the Indian social reformer, Jyotirao Phule, started advocating for the rights of the lower castes and backward classes. Phule argued that the caste system was a tool of oppression that kept the lower castes in perpetual poverty and ignorance.

However, it was in the post-independence period, particularly during the 1970s, that the Backward Class movements gained momentum in India. This was due to the recommendations of the Mandal Commission report, which was established by the Indian government to identify and provide solutions to the social, economic, and educational backwardness of certain communities.

The Mandal Commission identified several communities as socially and economically backward and recommended that they be provided with reservation in education and employment. The report sparked a nationwide debate, with proponents arguing that reservations were necessary to address historical injustices and provide opportunities for upward social mobility to the lower castes and backward classes. Opponents, on the other hand, argued that reservations were discriminatory and went against the principle of meritocracy.

Despite the opposition, the recommendations of the Mandal Commission were eventually implemented by the Indian government in 1990, leading to a significant increase in the representation of backward classes in government jobs and educational institutions. This move gave a boost to the Backward Class movements, as they saw it as a significant victory in their struggle for social and economic equality.

Overall, the rise of Backward Class movements in India can be understood as a response to historical injustices and systematic discrimination faced by certain communities in the country. The movements aim to promote social justice and provide opportunities for upward social mobility to those who have been traditionally marginalized.

Q4. Trace the evolution of tribal movements in India. What has been the response of the central government?

Tribal movements in India have a long and complex history, dating back to colonial times when tribal communities were subjected to displacement, exploitation, and oppression. The following is a brief overview of the evolution of tribal movements in India and the response of the central government.

  • Pre-Independence Era: Tribal communities in India were largely isolated and self-sufficient before British colonial rule. However, the arrival of the British disrupted their way of life through the introduction of forest laws, land revenue policies, and commercialization of natural resources. Tribal communities began to resist these policies, resulting in movements like the Santhal Rebellion (1855-56) and the Munda Rebellion (1899-1900).
  • Post-Independence Era: After India gained independence in 1947, the central government introduced policies to uplift the socio-economic status of tribal communities. However, many of these policies were poorly implemented, leading to further marginalization of these communities. In response, tribal movements emerged in various parts of India, such as the Telangana Armed Struggle (1946-51), the Naxalite movement (1967-present), and the Adivasi movement in Jharkhand (1980s-present).
  • Recognition of Tribal Rights: In the 1990s, the Indian government recognized the need to protect the rights of tribal communities and enacted the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA) and the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 (FRA). These laws recognized the traditional rights of tribal communities over their land, forests, and natural resources.
  • Current Situation: Despite these legislative efforts, tribal communities in India continue to face challenges in accessing their rights and resources. Many tribal movements have been labeled as “Maoist” or “terrorist” by the government, leading to increased militarization and repression. However, there have also been efforts by the government to address the concerns of tribal communities, such as the Tribal Affairs Ministry and the implementation of various welfare schemes.

Overall, the response of the central government to tribal movements in India has been mixed. While there have been efforts to recognize and protect the rights of tribal communities, there has also been a history of neglect, exploitation, and repression. The challenge for the government is to balance the development needs of the country with the protection of the rights and interests of its most marginalized communities.

Q5. Describe Dalit politicization, bringing out its significance.

Dalit politicization refers to the process by which Dalits, who are considered to be part of India’s lowest caste, have become more politically active and organized to demand their rights and improve their socio-economic conditions. Historically, Dalits have faced discrimination and oppression in various forms, including untouchability, exclusion from education and jobs, and violence.

Dalit politicization began in the early 20th century, with the formation of various organizations that sought to raise awareness about Dalit issues and promote their political rights. These organizations also advocated for affirmative action policies, such as reservations in education and government jobs, to provide greater opportunities for Dalits.

The significance of Dalit politicization is multi-fold. Firstly, it has brought greater visibility to the issues faced by Dalits and has forced the government and society to acknowledge and address their grievances. This has led to the enactment of laws and policies aimed at promoting the social, economic, and political inclusion of Dalits, such as the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 and the reservation system.

Secondly, Dalit politicization has empowered Dalits to assert their rights and demand greater representation in decision-making processes. This has led to the emergence of Dalit leaders and politicians who have played a significant role in shaping public discourse and policy.

Thirdly, Dalit politicization has challenged the traditional power structures and social hierarchies in India, which have been dominated by upper-caste communities. This has led to greater social mobility and opportunities for Dalits to improve their socio-economic conditions.

In summary, Dalit politicization has been a significant development in Indian politics and society, as it has brought greater attention to the issues faced by Dalits, empowered them to assert their rights, and challenged traditional power structures.


6. a) Movements for statehood

Movements for statehood refer to the efforts of a group of people within a particular region or territory to achieve recognition as a sovereign state or to become part of an existing sovereign state. These movements may arise due to various reasons such as cultural, political, economic, or historical factors.

Some examples of movements for statehood include:

  • Catalonia: Catalonia is an autonomous region in Spain with a distinct culture, language, and history. The movement for statehood in Catalonia seeks to establish an independent state separate from Spain.
  • Kurdistan: Kurdistan is a region spanning across several countries including Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. The Kurdish people have long sought statehood and recognition as a separate sovereign state.
  • Puerto Rico: Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States located in the Caribbean. The movement for statehood in Puerto Rico seeks to become the 51st state of the United States.
  • Scotland: Scotland is a country within the United Kingdom with a distinct culture and history. The movement for statehood in Scotland seeks to establish an independent state separate from the United Kingdom.
  • Palestine: Palestine is a region in the Middle East that has been the subject of a long-standing conflict between Israel and Palestine. The movement for statehood in Palestine seeks to establish a separate sovereign state recognized by the international community.

These movements can be complex and controversial, often involving political, economic, and social factors. Ultimately, the decision to grant statehood or recognition as a sovereign state rests with the international community and the existing sovereign states.

b) Relative Deprivation Theory

Relative Deprivation Theory is a social psychological theory that explains how individuals or groups who feel that they are deprived of something they believe they deserve, compared to others who have it, may experience frustration, anger, and other negative emotions, which can lead to a range of individual and collective actions.

The theory proposes that people compare their current situation with that of others who they perceive as similar to themselves, and then evaluate their own outcomes relative to these comparisons. If they perceive that their outcomes are worse than those of others, they may experience a sense of relative deprivation.

This sense of relative deprivation can arise in different domains such as economic resources, social status, and political power. For example, people may feel relative deprivation if they perceive that others have better-paying jobs, live in nicer neighborhoods, or have greater access to political power or opportunities than they do.

According to the theory, when people experience relative deprivation, they may engage in a range of individual or collective actions to address the perceived unfairness. These actions may include joining social movements, engaging in protest, or other forms of collective action to improve their situation.

Overall, Relative Deprivation Theory helps to explain how people’s perceptions of fairness and equality are influenced by social comparisons and how these perceptions can lead to individual and collective actions aimed at reducing inequality and achieving greater social justice.

7. a) Changing nature of Indian society

The Indian society has undergone significant changes in the past few decades. Some of the major changes include:

  • Modernization: With the advent of globalization and modernization, there has been a significant change in the lifestyle and values of Indian society. People have become more liberal and open-minded in their thinking, and are more willing to embrace new ideas and practices.
  • Women Empowerment: There has been a significant improvement in the status of women in Indian society. Women are now more educated, empowered and are playing a larger role in decision making.
  • Nuclear Families: The traditional Indian joint family system is slowly giving way to nuclear families, with more and more people opting for smaller families.
  • Education: Education has become more accessible to people from all sections of society, resulting in a more educated and informed population.
  • Technology: The rapid advancements in technology have had a major impact on Indian society, with the use of smartphones, social media, and other digital platforms becoming more widespread.
  • Urbanization: With the rapid pace of urbanization, there has been a significant shift in the demographic and economic landscape of India. More and more people are migrating to urban areas, resulting in a rise in urbanization and a decline in rural population.

Overall, these changes have had a profound impact on the Indian society, leading to a more modern, diverse, and cosmopolitan culture.

b) Liberal approach to study social movements

A liberal approach to studying social movements would emphasize the importance of individual rights, freedom of expression, and peaceful protest. It would view social movements as a legitimate expression of democratic participation and would seek to understand their goals, strategies, and impact on society.

In a liberal framework, social movements are seen as a means for individuals to exercise their rights and to push for change within the existing political and social structures. This approach recognizes that social movements often arise in response to perceived injustices and that they can play an important role in shaping public discourse and policy.

At the same time, a liberal approach would also recognize the importance of respecting the rights of all individuals, including those who may disagree with the goals or tactics of a particular social movement. It would emphasize the importance of nonviolent protest and seek to understand the ways in which social movements can create positive change without resorting to violence or coercion.

Overall, a liberal approach to studying social movements would emphasize the importance of individual rights and democratic participation, while also recognizing the need for peaceful and respectful discourse. It would seek to understand the ways in which social movements can promote positive change within existing social and political structures.

Q8. a) Fisher folks organizations

Fisher folks organizations are groups of people who work in the fishing industry and come together to advocate for their rights, promote sustainable fishing practices, and improve their livelihoods. These organizations may also work towards protecting the marine environment and advocating for policies that benefit small-scale fishers.

Examples of fisher folks organizations include the World Forum of Fisher Peoples, the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers, and the International Federation of Fishermen’s Organisations. In addition, there are numerous national and local fisher folks organizations in countries around the world.

Fisher folks organizations play an important role in ensuring that the voices and needs of small-scale fishers are heard and taken into account in decision-making processes. They also provide a forum for fishers to share knowledge and experiences, and to collaborate on issues of common concern.

b) Communal and religious movements and their impact

Communal and religious movements have had significant impacts on societies throughout history. Here are a few examples:

  • Hindu Nationalism in India: Hindu nationalism, also known as Hindutva, is a political movement that seeks to establish a Hindu state in India. This movement has had a significant impact on Indian politics, and its supporters have been associated with religious violence against non-Hindus.
  • Protestant Reformation in Europe: The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement in 16th-century Europe that sought to reform the Roman Catholic Church. This movement had a significant impact on the politics and culture of Europe, leading to the establishment of new Protestant churches and the fragmentation of the Catholic Church.
  • Islamic Fundamentalism: Islamic fundamentalism is a movement that seeks to return to the original teachings of Islam and reject Western influence. This movement has had a significant impact on the politics of many Muslim-majority countries, and its adherents have been associated with terrorism and political violence.
  • Amish Community in the United States: The Amish are a religious community that lives a simple, rural lifestyle in the United States. Their communal lifestyle has had a significant impact on the culture of rural America, and their rejection of modern technology has influenced debates about the role of technology in society.
  • Quaker Movement: The Quaker movement is a religious movement that emphasizes personal experience of God and the importance of social justice. This movement has had a significant impact on the abolition of slavery, women’s suffrage, and other social justice movements in the United States and Europe.

Overall, communal and religious movements have had a significant impact on the politics, culture, and social structures of societies throughout history. While some of these movements have been associated with violence and oppression, others have led to positive social change and the promotion of human rights.

Q9. a) Challenges of secularism

Secularism is the principle of separation of religion and state. It is a fundamental concept in many modern societies that promotes freedom of religion, equality of all citizens regardless of their religion, and the neutrality of the state towards all religions. However, implementing secularism poses several challenges that can vary depending on the context and country. Some of these challenges include:

  • Balancing the rights of individuals and communities: Secularism aims to promote the rights of individuals to freedom of religion while also protecting the rights of minority religious communities. However, in some cases, these rights can come into conflict, such as when religious practices conflict with the laws of the state. Finding a balance between these competing rights can be a challenge.
  • Dealing with religious extremism: While secularism promotes freedom of religion, it also requires the state to maintain its neutrality towards all religions. This can lead to tensions when extremist religious groups seek to impose their beliefs on society and undermine the secular order.
  • Addressing religious diversity: Many countries are becoming increasingly diverse in terms of religion, which can pose challenges for secularism. Governments must navigate how to respect the beliefs of different religious communities while maintaining a secular state. This can be especially challenging when religious communities have different beliefs about social issues such as gender equality, sexuality, and reproductive rights.
  • Maintaining a balance between religion and state: Secularism requires the state to remain neutral towards religion and not promote any particular religion. However, this can be difficult to achieve in practice, as some religious groups may seek to influence government policies or promote their beliefs through political means.
  • Ensuring social cohesion: In some cases, secularism can be seen as a threat to social cohesion, especially in societies where religion plays a significant role in people’s lives. Maintaining a cohesive society while promoting secularism can be a difficult balancing act.

Overall, the challenges of secularism are complex and multifaceted. While secularism can promote individual freedom and social cohesion, it also requires careful management of religious diversity, extremism, and the relationship between religion and state.

b) Relationship between the state, market and social movements

The relationship between the state, market, and social movements can be complex and multifaceted, and can vary depending on the specific context and historical moment.

At a broad level, the state, market, and social movements can be seen as three distinct spheres of power and influence in society. The state refers to the government and its institutions, which hold legal and coercive power over society. The market refers to the economic system and the institutions that facilitate the exchange of goods and services for profit. Social movements refer to collective efforts by groups of people to bring about social, political, or cultural change.

In some cases, these spheres can overlap or intersect in various ways. For example, the state can regulate and shape the market through laws and policies, while the market can influence the state through lobbying and campaign contributions. Social movements can also influence both the state and the market through protests, boycotts, and other forms of collective action.

In some cases, the relationship between these spheres can be characterized by conflict or competition. For example, social movements may push for policies that challenge the interests of powerful corporations or political elites, leading to resistance or repression from the state or market actors. Conversely, the state or market may seek to co-opt or undermine social movements in order to maintain their power and control.

However, in other cases, the relationship between these spheres can be more collaborative or symbiotic. For example, social movements may work with the state or market actors to achieve shared goals, such as promoting environmental sustainability or social justice.

Overall, the relationship between the state, market, and social movements is complex and dynamic, and can vary depending on a range of factors such as historical context, power dynamics, and the specific issues at stake.

Q10. a) Impact of globalization on social movements

Globalization has had a significant impact on social movements around the world. On one hand, it has created opportunities for social movements to connect, mobilize, and gain greater visibility across borders. On the other hand, it has also posed challenges for social movements, as they navigate an increasingly complex and interconnected global system.

One of the key impacts of globalization on social movements is the increased interconnectedness of people and communities around the world. Advances in technology, transportation, and communication have made it easier for people to connect and share information, which has enabled social movements to form transnational networks and collaborate across borders. For example, the global environmental movement has brought together activists from around the world to work on issues such as climate change and deforestation.

At the same time, globalization has also created challenges for social movements. As the global economy has become more integrated, many governments and corporations have become more powerful and resistant to change. This has made it harder for social movements to challenge entrenched interests and push for social change. Moreover, the global spread of neoliberal economic policies has undermined many of the social protections and public services that social movements have fought for, leading to greater inequality and social unrest.

In conclusion, globalization has both empowered and challenged social movements in different ways. While it has created new opportunities for social mobilization and collaboration, it has also posed new obstacles and risks. As such, social movements will need to continue to adapt to the changing global landscape if they are to remain effective agents of social change.

b) Reservation politics in India.

Reservation politics in India refers to the system of affirmative action that has been implemented in the country to address historical and ongoing discrimination against marginalized communities such as Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Classes (OBCs).

The reservation system was first introduced in India in 1950 through the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order, which provided reservations in education and government jobs for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Later, in 1989, the Mandal Commission recommended the extension of reservations to Other Backward Classes as well. The Mandal Commission report resulted in the implementation of reservations for OBCs in government jobs and educational institutions in 1990.

The reservation system has been a highly controversial issue in India, with some arguing that it is necessary to address historical discrimination and inequality, while others argue that it perpetuates discrimination and creates resentment among non-reserved categories.

One of the major debates around reservations is about the extent of its implementation. Currently, reservations are provided up to 50% in educational institutions and government jobs for SC, ST, and OBC categories, with some states even exceeding this limit. There have been demands for increasing the reservation quota, especially from some politically influential groups representing the marginalized communities.

Reservation politics has become a key issue in Indian politics, with political parties using it as a tool to mobilize votes from the reserved categories. Some parties have advocated for further extension of reservations to other communities, such as economically weaker sections, while others have argued for a reduction in the reservation quota or the abolition of the system altogether.

Overall, the reservation system remains a highly sensitive and contentious issue in India, and the government continues to navigate the challenges of balancing the demands of different communities while ensuring equality and social justice for all.

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