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IGNOU BPCE 145 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCE 145 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks in Assignment two.
1. Describe the types of counseling and the approaches to counseling.
Counseling typically helps bring about change.The process begins with exploring the challenges a client faces before assisting them in resolving developmental and situational difficulties (Sajjad, 2017).The counselor supports clients with physical, emotional, and mental health issues, helping them resolve crises, reduce feelings of distress, and improve their sense of wellbeing (American Psychological Association, 2008).When successful, treatment can change how a client thinks, feels, and behaves regarding an upsetting experience or situation (Krishnan, n.d.).This article explores what counseling is and is not, and the stages and steps involved in a successful outcome.Before you continue, we thought you might like to download our three Positive Psychology Exercises for free. These science-based exercises will explore fundamental aspects of positive psychology including strengths, values, and self-compassion, and will give you the tools to enhance the wellbeing of your clients, students, or employees.Defining the Counseling ProcessAll of us will, occasionally, take on the role of counselor. We informally offer family, friends, and colleagues advice regarding their relationships, finances, career, and education.On the other hand, “a professional counselor is a highly trained individual who is able to use a different range of counseling approaches with their clients” (Krishnan, n.d., p. 5).Counseling as a profession involves (Krishnan, n.d.):
- Dedicated time set aside to explore difficulties, stressful situations, or emotional upset faced by a client
- Helping that client see their situation and feelings from a different viewpoint, potentially to facilitate change
- Building a relationship based on trust and confidentiality
The counseling process should not include:
- Providing advice
- Being judgmental
- Pushing the counselor’s values
- Encouraging the client to behave as the counselor would in their own life
- Emotional attachment between the counselor and client
According to the American Psychological Association (2008), counseling psychologists “help people with physical, emotional and mental health issues improve their sense of wellbeing, alleviate feelings of distress and resolve crises.”Counseling works with clients from childhood through to old age, focusing on “developmental (lifespan), environmental and cultural perspectives,” including (American Psychological Association, 2008):
- Issues and concerns in education and career
- Decisions regarding school, work, and retirement transitions
- Marital and family relationship difficulties
- Managing stressful life events
- Coping with ill health and physical disability
- Mental disorders
- Ongoing difficulties with getting along with people in general
While we often see counseling and psychotherapy as interchangeable, there are subtle distinctions. Counseling is typically short term, dealing with present issues and involving a helping approach that “highlights the emotional and intellectual experience of a client,” including how they feel and think about a problem or concern (Krishnan, n.d., p. 6).Psychotherapy is often a longer term intensive treatment, helping the client overcome profound difficulties resulting from their psychological history and requiring them to return to earlier experiences (Krishnan, n.d.; Australia Counselling, n.d.).The counseling process has been described as both an art and a science, helping to bring about changes in thought, emotion, and behavior in the client (Sajjad, 2017).
The Stages of the Counseling Process
While counseling varies in both form and purpose, most counseling theories embody some form of the following three stages (Krishnan, n.d.): relationship building, problem assessment, and goal setting.
Counselors and clients must both be aware that the counseling process requires patience. There is rarely a quick fix, and things may need to get worse before they get better. In addition, the counseling process is collaborative. The counselor does not fix the client; the work requires interaction and commitment from both parties (Krishnan, n.d.).
The counseling process is a planned and structured dialogue between client and counselor. The counselor is a trained and qualified professional who helps the client identify the source of their concerns or difficulties; then, together, they find counseling approaches to help deal with the problems faced (Krishnan, n.d.).
Hackney and Cormier (2005) propose a five-stage model for defining the counseling process through which both counselor and client move (Krishnan, n.d.).
Stage one: (Initial disclosure) Relationship building
The counseling process begins with relationship building. This stage focuses on the counselor engaging with the client to explore the issues that directly affect them.
The vital first interview can set the scene for what is to come, with the client reading the counselor’s verbal and nonverbal signals to draw inferences about the counselor and the process. The counselor focuses on using good listening skills and building a positive relationship.
When successful, it ensures a strong foundation for future dialogue and the continuing counseling process.
Stage two: (In-depth exploration) Problem assessment
While the counselor and client continue to build a beneficial, collaborative relationship, another process is underway: problem assessment.
The counselor carefully listens and draws out information regarding the client’s situation (life, work, home, education, etc.) and the reason they have engaged in counseling.
Information crucial to subsequent stages of counseling includes identifying triggers, timing, environmental factors, stress levels, and other contributing factors.
Stage three: (Commitment to action) Goal setting
Effective counseling relies on setting appropriate and realistic goals, building on the previous stages. The goals must be identified and developed collaboratively, with the client committing to a set of steps leading to a particular outcome.
Stage four: Counseling intervention
This stage varies depending on the counselor and the theories they are familiar with, as well as the situation the client faces.
For example, a behavioral approach may suggest engaging in activities designed to help the client alter their behavior. In comparison, a person-centered approach seeks to engage the client’s self-actualizing tendency.
Stage five: Evaluation, termination, or referral
Termination may not seem like a stage, but the art of ending the counseling is critical.
Drawing counseling to a close must be planned well in advance to ensure a positive conclusion is reached while avoiding anger, sadness, or anxiety (Fragkiadaki & Strauss, 2012).
Part of the process is to reach an early agreement on how the therapy will end and what success looks like. This may lead to a referral if required.
2. Discuss the various stages of counseling with the help of a case example.
There are a number of different approaches used by professional counsellors. Perhaps the three main approaches are psychodynamic, humanistic and behavioural. Each of these has a different theory and ideas underpinning it, and the therapists and counsellors using each will approach problems and issues in different ways.
These three main approaches each support a number of individual therapies. Some therapies may also use ideas from more than one approach. Some professional counsellors use only one approach, but others are more flexible and might use techniques from more than one method.
Untrained people may possess and develop some skills that are desirable to a counsellor. However, if you are regularly required to provide counselling in your work or personal life, you should undertake a recognised professional counselling course. It is possible to do more harm than good through a little knowledge.
You may also be interested in our introductory page – What is Counselling?
Psychodynamic Approach to Counselling
Psychodynamic counselling evolved from the work of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). During his career as a medical doctor, Freud came across many patients who suffered from medical conditions which appeared to have no ‘physical cause’.
This led him to believe that the origin of such illnesses lay in the unconscious mind of the patient.
Freud therefore started to investigate the unconscious mind, so that he could understand his patients and help them recover. Over time, many of Freud’s original ideas have been adapted, developed, disregarded or even discredited. They have therefore been used in a number of different schools of thought and practice. Psychodynamic counselling is based on Freud’s idea that true knowledge of people and their problems is possible through an understanding of three particular areas of the human mind.
These areas are:
- The Conscious – things that we are aware of, including feelings or emotions, such as anger, sadness, grief, delight, surprise, and happiness.
- The Subconscious – these are things that are below our conscious awareness but fairly easily accessible. They may include, for example, events that we have forgotten, but will easily remember when asked an appropriate question.
- The Unconscious – this is the area of the mind where memories have been suppressed and is usually very difficult to access. Such memories may include extremely traumatic events that have been blocked off and require a highly skilled practitioner to help recover.
Freud’s main interest and aim was to bring things from the unconscious into the conscious. This practice is known as psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is used to encourage the client to examine childhood or early memory trauma to gain a deeper understanding of events. This in turn may help the client to release negativities associated with these earlier events. Psychoanalysis is based upon the assumption that we can only progress psychologically by becoming aware of earlier dilemmas that have been repressed into our unconscious because of painful associations.
Freud maintained that the personality consists of three related elements:
- The Id is the part of our personality concerned with satisfying instinctual basic needs of food, comfort and pleasure. It is therefore present from (or possibly before) birth.
- The Ego is defined as “the realistic awareness of self”. It is the logical and common sense side to our personality. Freud believed that the Ego develops as the infant becomes aware that it is a separate being from its parents.
- The Superego develops later in a child’s life, from about the age of three. The Superego curbs and controls the basic instincts of the Id, which may be socially unacceptable. It therefore acts as our conscience.
Freud believed that everybody experiences tension and conflict between the three elements of their personalities. For example, desire for pleasure (from the Id) is restrained by the moral sense of right and wrong (from the Superego). The Ego balances the tension between the Id wanting to be satisfied and the Superego being over strict.
The main goal of psychodynamic counselling, therefore, is to help people to balance the three elements of their personality so that neither the Id nor the Superego is dominant.
It is rooted in exploring and understanding past experience to identify repressed issues that are affecting current behaviour. Psychodynamic counselling is therefore a long and ongoing process, and is mainly used when people are experiencing severe problems that are not resolved using other methods.
Humanistic Approach to Counselling
Humanistic counselling recognises the uniqueness of every individual.
It assumes that everyone has an innate capacity to grow emotionally and psychologically towards the goals of self-actualisation and personal fulfilment.
Humanistic counsellors work with the belief that problems are not caused by life events themselves, but how we experience them. Our experience, in turn, will affect and be affected by how we feel about ourselves, influencing self-esteem and confidence. The humanistic approach to counselling therefore encourages the client to learn to understand how negative responses to life events can lead to psychological discomfort. The approach aims for self-acceptance of both negative and positive aspects of our characters and personalities.
Humanistic counsellors therefore aim to help clients to explore their own thoughts and feelings and to work out their own solutions to their problems.
This is very similar to the approach used in coaching, except that coaches are more focused on the present, and less on the past. In essence, coaching aims to address the issue of ‘how’, and counselling looks at ‘why’.
For more about the differences between coaching and counselling, see our page What is Coaching?
The American psychologist, Carl Rogers (1902-1987) developed one of the most commonly used humanistic therapies, client-centred counselling. This encourages the client to concentrate on how they feel at the present moment, this is also the essence of mindfulness.
The central theme of client-centred counselling is the belief that we all have inherent resources that enable us to deal with whatever life brings.
Client-centred therapy focuses on the belief that the client—and not the counsellor—is the expert on their own thoughts, feelings, experiences and problems. The client is therefore the person most capable of finding appropriate solutions. The counsellor does not suggest any course of action, make recommendations, ask probing questions or try to interpret anything the client says. The responsibility for working out problems rests wholly with the client. When the counsellor does respond, their aim is to reflect and clarify what the client has been saying.
3. Explain the ethical guidelines in counseling.
4. Explain the criteria for selecting an appropriate test.
5. Discuss the role of counselor in existential therapy
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6. Case history
7. Five stages of grief
8. Benefits of art therapy
9. Cerebral palsy
10. Imagery re-scripting
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