IGNOU MPSE 012 STATE AND SOCIETY IN AUSTRALIA Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 012 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MPSE 012 STATE AND SOCIETY IN AUSTRALIA Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MPSE 012 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MPSE 012 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

Important Links : Handwritten Hardcopy 

IGNOU MPSE 012 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field. IGNOU MPSE 012 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 012 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

Q1. Examine the key features of multiculturalism in Australia.

Multiculturalism is a significant aspect of Australian society, and it has been officially embraced by the government since the early 1970s. Here are some of the key features of multiculturalism in Australia:

  • Diversity: Australia is a culturally diverse country, with a population that includes people from many different ethnic, linguistic, and cultural backgrounds. This diversity is reflected in the country’s many different religions, customs, traditions, and languages.
  • Acceptance and tolerance: Multiculturalism in Australia is based on the idea that people from all backgrounds should be accepted and respected, regardless of their cultural, religious, or linguistic differences. This means that Australians are generally tolerant of other cultures and customs and are welcoming of people from diverse backgrounds.
  • Government policies: The Australian government has developed a range of policies and initiatives to support multiculturalism. These include funding for multicultural events and programs, anti-discrimination laws, and government services provided in different languages.
  • Cultural exchange: Cultural exchange is an important aspect of multiculturalism in Australia. Many Australians are interested in learning about other cultures, and there are many opportunities for cultural exchange, such as festivals, language classes, and cultural events.
  • Multicultural education: Multiculturalism is also reflected in the education system in Australia, with many schools and universities offering courses and programs that promote cross-cultural understanding and respect.
  • Indigenous culture: Multiculturalism in Australia also recognizes and celebrates the country’s indigenous culture. The indigenous population has a unique and important place in Australian society, and their culture and traditions are an integral part of the country’s identity.

Overall, multiculturalism is an essential feature of Australian society, and it is reflected in many aspects of life in the country, including government policies, education, and cultural exchange. The country’s diverse population is celebrated, and there is a strong commitment to tolerance, acceptance, and respect for all cultures and traditions.

Q2. Describe nature and features of federalism in Australia.

Federalism in Australia is a system of government in which powers are divided between a central government and state and territorial governments. The Australian federal system was established with the adoption of the Commonwealth Constitution in 1901, which created a federal government with powers over a range of issues, including defense, foreign affairs, and trade, while also granting significant powers to the states.

One of the key features of federalism in Australia is the distribution of powers between the federal and state governments. The Australian Constitution lists the specific powers of the federal government, such as defense, immigration, and taxation, while the remaining powers are left to the states. However, the federal government has the power to override state laws in certain circumstances, such as when they are inconsistent with federal laws or when the federal government needs to protect national interests.

Another feature of federalism in Australia is the role of the High Court in interpreting the Constitution and resolving disputes between the federal and state governments. The High Court has the power to determine the constitutionality of laws passed by both the federal and state governments and to determine the limits of their respective powers.

In addition, the Australian federal system includes a system of intergovernmental relations, which involves regular meetings between federal and state leaders to discuss policy and coordinate efforts on issues of national importance. This system has led to the development of cooperative federalism in Australia, with the federal and state governments working together to achieve shared policy goals.

Overall, federalism in Australia has contributed to the country’s stability and democratic governance by allowing for the distribution of power and the protection of states’ interests while also promoting cooperation and coordination among all levels of government.

Q3. What is the role of Australian economy in the era of globalization?

Australia is a developed country with a highly advanced market economy. It is an open and export-oriented economy that has been significantly impacted by globalization. In the era of globalization, the role of the Australian economy has expanded, and it has become an important player in the global market.

Australia has a diversified economy, with its major sectors being mining, agriculture, and services. The country has significant reserves of natural resources, including coal, iron ore, and natural gas, which have helped it become a major exporter of these commodities. The service sector, which includes finance, tourism, and education, has also become increasingly important to the Australian economy.

In the era of globalization, Australia has become more integrated into the global economy, with trade and investment playing an important role. The country has signed several free trade agreements, including with major economies like China, Japan, and South Korea, which have helped boost its exports and attract foreign investment. Additionally, Australia is a member of several regional and international organizations, including the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and the G20, which have helped shape global economic policies.

Overall, the role of the Australian economy in the era of globalization has been to promote trade, investment, and economic growth, both domestically and internationally. While the country faces challenges, such as declining commodity prices and a shifting global economic landscape, it has shown resilience and adaptability in response to these challenges.

Q4. Describe the features of party system in Australia.

Australia has a multi-party system, with several political parties represented in its federal and state parliaments. The two major parties in Australia are the Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberal Party of Australia, which is in coalition with the National Party of Australia. Other parties include the Australian Greens, One Nation, and the Australian Democrats, among others.

Some key features of the party system in Australia include:

  • Preferential voting system: Australia uses a preferential voting system, where voters rank their preferred candidates in order of preference. This system encourages voters to support smaller parties, as they can indicate their first preference without fearing that their vote will be wasted.
  • Coalition governments: As mentioned above, the Liberal Party of Australia and the National Party of Australia have formed a coalition government in the past. This allows smaller parties to gain a larger share of power in government, as they can work together to form a majority.
  • Mandatory voting: In Australia, voting in federal, state, and local government elections is compulsory. This means that parties must appeal to a broad range of voters, rather than just their core supporters.
  • Single-member electorates: Australia uses a system of single-member electorates, where voters in each electorate elect a single representative to parliament. This tends to favor larger parties, as smaller parties may struggle to win in individual electorates.
  • Decentralized structure: Political parties in Australia have a decentralized structure, with power and decision-making spread across local branches and state and territory organizations. This allows parties to respond to local issues and concerns, but can also make it difficult to coordinate party-wide policies and campaigns.

Q5. Analyze the response of the Australian state to women’s issues.

The response of the Australian state to women’s issues has been mixed, with some progress made in recent years, but significant challenges remaining.

One of the positive developments has been the establishment of government-funded organizations and initiatives focused on addressing violence against women, such as the National Plan to Reduce Violence Against Women and Their Children. The state has also taken steps to improve women’s access to healthcare and education, and has implemented policies aimed at increasing women’s participation in the workforce.

However, there have also been significant issues with the state’s response to women’s issues. Women in Australia continue to face significant barriers to equality, including gender-based violence, workplace discrimination, and a lack of political representation. In addition, the Australian government has been criticized for its handling of high-profile cases of sexual harassment and assault, including allegations of misconduct by members of parliament and other public officials.

Overall, while there have been some positive steps taken by the Australian state to address women’s issues, there is still significant work to be done to achieve true gender equality in the country.


6. a) Features of Australian federation

The Australian federation refers to the political union of six British colonies in Australia that occurred on January 1, 1901. The following are some of the key features of the Australian federation:

  • A federal system of government: The Australian federation established a federal system of government with a division of powers between the federal government and the state governments. The federal government has powers over matters that affect the entire country, while state governments have powers over matters that affect their respective states.
  • A written constitution: The Australian federation is governed by a written constitution that outlines the structure of government and the rights and responsibilities of citizens.
  • A bicameral parliament: The Australian parliament consists of two chambers – the House of Representatives and the Senate.
  • A system of responsible government: The Australian federation is based on the principle of responsible government, which means that the government is accountable to the parliament and the people.
  • A system of compulsory voting: Australia has a system of compulsory voting, which means that all citizens over the age of 18 are required to vote in federal, state, and local elections.
  • Protection of individual rights: The Australian constitution protects a range of individual rights, including the right to freedom of speech, religion, and association.
  • An independent judiciary: The Australian federation has an independent judiciary that is responsible for interpreting and enforcing the laws of the country.
  • A system of federalism: The Australian federation is a federation of states and territories, each with its own government and powers. The federal government has the power to make laws on matters that affect the whole country, while state and territory governments have powers over matters that affect their respective jurisdictions.
  • A system of checks and balances: The Australian federation has a system of checks and balances, which means that the power of each branch of government is limited by the other branches. This helps to prevent abuses of power and ensures that the government operates in the best interests of the people.
  • A multicultural society: The Australian federation is home to a diverse range of cultures and ethnicities, with a strong commitment to multiculturalism and diversity.

b) Indigenous people and self-determination in Australia

Indigenous people in Australia have a long history of struggle for self-determination and recognition of their rights. Australia has a diverse Indigenous population, with over 500 different language groups, each with their own distinct culture and history.

The Australian government has historically played a significant role in the oppression and marginalization of Indigenous people. The Stolen Generations policy, which removed Indigenous children from their families and placed them in institutions or with non-Indigenous families, is a prime example of this.

In recent years, however, there has been increasing recognition of the need to address the historical injustices and work towards reconciliation. The Australian government has made efforts to improve the situation of Indigenous people, including through initiatives such as the National Apology, the Close the Gap campaign, and the Uluru Statement from the Heart.

The concept of self-determination is central to the Indigenous rights movement in Australia. Self-determination means that Indigenous people have the right to determine their own future, including their cultural, social, economic, and political development. This includes the right to control and manage their own lands and resources, and to make decisions about their own communities and governance structures.

There are a number of challenges facing Indigenous self-determination in Australia. These include ongoing issues around land rights, resource extraction, and environmental degradation, as well as ongoing discrimination and inequality in areas such as health, education, and employment. However, there are also many Indigenous-led initiatives and organizations working towards achieving self-determination and recognition of Indigenous rights in Australia.

Q7. a) British colonial policies on aboriginals in Australia

The British colonial policies towards Aboriginal people in Australia were marked by a general disregard for their human rights, culture, and sovereignty. The British government claimed sovereignty over Australia through the doctrine of terra nullius, which deemed the land to be uninhabited and therefore available for colonial settlement. This notion ignored the fact that Aboriginal people had lived in Australia for tens of thousands of years and had their own societies, cultures, and languages.

The British government implemented policies that aimed to assimilate Aboriginal people into white Australian society, which involved separating children from their families and placing them in government-run institutions or with white families in a practice known as the Stolen Generations. The goal of this policy was to “breed out” Aboriginal culture and to force assimilation into Western ways of life. The trauma and intergenerational effects of this policy are still felt by many Aboriginal people and their families today.

Another key policy was the establishment of reserves and missions, which confined Aboriginal people to designated areas and controlled their movements and activities. These reserves were often poorly resourced and provided inadequate living conditions, which led to significant health and social problems. Aboriginal people were often forced to work for little or no pay, and their land was taken for colonial settlement and mining operations without their consent.

The British colonial government also implemented policies of violence and dispossession, including the widespread killing of Aboriginal people, the forced removal of people from their land, and the destruction of cultural sites and artifacts. These policies were justified through a rhetoric of “civilizing” and “protecting” Aboriginal people, but in reality, they were aimed at maintaining white dominance and control over the continent.

In summary, the British colonial policies towards Aboriginal people in Australia were characterized by a disregard for their sovereignty and human rights, and a desire to assimilate them into white Australian society through policies of violence, dispossession, and cultural destruction. The impacts of these policies are still felt by Aboriginal people today and continue to be a source of ongoing trauma and injustice.

b) Constitutional crisis of 1975 in Australia

The constitutional crisis of 1975 in Australia was a political event that occurred when the Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, dismissed the Prime Minister of Australia, Gough Whitlam, and his government from office.

In 1975, the Whitlam government was facing a political and economic crisis, and had been unable to pass its budget through the Senate. In response, Whitlam sought to secure funding for his government through alternative means, which ultimately led to a constitutional crisis.

Kerr, as the representative of the Queen of Australia and the head of state, dismissed Whitlam and his government on November 11, 1975, and appointed the Leader of the Opposition, Malcolm Fraser, as caretaker Prime Minister. This decision was controversial and sparked a political and constitutional debate in Australia.

Many Australians viewed Kerr’s actions as an abuse of power and interference in the political process. Others supported Kerr’s decision as a necessary measure to resolve the political deadlock and prevent further economic damage to the country.

The crisis ultimately led to a general election, which saw Fraser’s Liberal-National coalition win a landslide victory. The events of 1975 had a lasting impact on Australian politics and constitutional law, and raised important questions about the role and powers of the Governor-General in the Australian political system.

8. a) Politics of recognition in Australia.

The politics of recognition is a term that refers to the struggle for recognition and respect for the cultural and historical identity of minority groups in a society. In Australia, this struggle has primarily been focused on the recognition and inclusion of Indigenous Australians and their cultural traditions and history.

In recent years, the Australian government has taken steps to acknowledge and address the historical injustices and ongoing disadvantages experienced by Indigenous Australians. This has included the 2008 Apology to the Stolen Generations, the establishment of the National Sorry Day Committee, and the recognition of Indigenous land rights through the Native Title Act.

There have also been calls for constitutional recognition of Indigenous Australians, including a proposal for a First Nations Voice to Parliament. This proposal has been the subject of intense political debate and is yet to be fully realized.

The politics of recognition has also extended to other minority groups in Australia, including refugees, migrants, and LGBTIQ+ communities. However, the struggle for recognition and inclusion of Indigenous Australians remains a central issue in Australian politics and society.

b) Relationship between nationalism and multiculturalism in Australia

The relationship between nationalism and multiculturalism in Australia has been complex and at times contentious.

Nationalism, which can be broadly defined as a sense of pride and loyalty towards one’s nation, has been a significant force in Australian history. At various times, Australian nationalism has been associated with a range of ideas and values, including a commitment to democracy, egalitarianism, and the fair go.

Multiculturalism, on the other hand, refers to the recognition and celebration of the cultural diversity within a society. In Australia, multiculturalism has been an official policy since the 1970s, and is seen as a key part of the country’s identity.

The relationship between nationalism and multiculturalism in Australia has been shaped by a number of factors, including historical and cultural context, political ideology, and socio-economic factors. At times, there has been tension between these two concepts, with some arguing that multiculturalism undermines Australian identity and others arguing that nationalism can be exclusionary and divisive.

However, many Australians view nationalism and multiculturalism as complementary rather than conflicting. They believe that a strong sense of national identity can coexist with respect for cultural diversity, and that a diverse society can strengthen the nation as a whole.

Overall, the relationship between nationalism and multiculturalism in Australia is complex and evolving, and is likely to continue to be an important issue in the country’s social and political landscape.

Q9. a) Role of pressure groups in Australia

Pressure groups, also known as interest groups or advocacy groups, play an important role in Australia’s political system. These groups represent specific interests and concerns of individuals or organizations and seek to influence government policies and decision-making processes.

Some common examples of pressure groups in Australia include:

  • Environmental groups: such as the Australian Conservation Foundation and Greenpeace Australia, which advocate for the protection of the environment and sustainable resource use.
  • Business groups: such as the Business Council of Australia and the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, which represent the interests of Australian businesses and seek to promote economic growth.
  • Trade unions: such as the Australian Council of Trade Unions and the Australian Workers’ Union, which represent the interests of workers and advocate for better working conditions, wages, and benefits.
  • Social and community groups: such as the Australian Council of Social Service and the National Association of Community Legal Centres, which advocate for social justice and equality, and provide services and support to disadvantaged and marginalized communities.

The role of pressure groups in Australia can vary depending on their size, resources, and the nature of the issues they are advocating for. Some pressure groups are able to exert significant influence on government policies and decision-making processes through lobbying, media campaigns, and other forms of advocacy. Others may have less influence but still play an important role in representing the views and concerns of their members.

Overall, pressure groups in Australia provide an important avenue for individuals and organizations to participate in the political process and have their voices heard on issues that matter to them.

b) Australia’s nuclear non-proliferation policy

Australia’s nuclear non-proliferation policy is based on the principles of disarmament, non-proliferation, and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Australia is a signatory to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which is the cornerstone of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime.

Under the NPT, Australia has committed to not develop or acquire nuclear weapons and to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes. Australia’s nuclear regulatory framework is designed to ensure the safe and secure use of nuclear materials and technology, while preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

Australia also participates in a number of international efforts to promote nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. For example, Australia is a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, which aims to prevent the transfer of nuclear technology to countries that do not have safeguards in place to prevent the use of that technology for military purposes.

In addition, Australia is a party to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which aims to ban all nuclear explosions, and supports the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which monitors and promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

Overall, Australia’s nuclear non-proliferation policy reflects its commitment to international peace and security, and to promoting the responsible use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.

Q10. a) Role of Senate in Australian Parliament

The Senate is one of the two chambers of the Australian Parliament, the other being the House of Representatives. It is also known as the Upper House, while the House of Representatives is referred to as the Lower House.

The Senate plays an important role in the Australian parliamentary system by providing a check on the power of the government. Some of the key roles of the Senate include:

  • Legislative review: The Senate reviews and scrutinizes bills that are passed by the House of Representatives. It can propose amendments or reject bills altogether.
  • Representation: The Senate represents the interests of the states and territories. Each state has an equal number of senators, regardless of population, while the territories have two senators each.
  • Scrutiny of the government: The Senate has the power to investigate the activities of the government and public agencies. It can also call ministers and public officials to account for their actions.
  • Confirmation of appointments: The Senate has the power to approve or reject appointments madeb) Healthcare and Education policy of Australia by the government, including judges and senior public officials.
  • Budget scrutiny: The Senate scrutinizes the government’s budget proposals and has the power to reject or amend them.

Overall, the Senate plays a vital role in ensuring that the Australian Parliament operates effectively and that the government is held accountable to the people it serves.

b) Healthcare and Education policy of Australia

Australia has a universal healthcare system known as Medicare, which is funded by the government and provides access to medical services and hospital treatment to all Australian citizens and permanent residents. In addition, the government also provides financial assistance to eligible individuals and families to help cover the cost of medical expenses through the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS).

The Australian government also invests heavily in education, with a strong focus on early childhood education, primary and secondary education, vocational education and training (VET), and tertiary education. The government provides funding to schools and universities across the country and works closely with state and territory governments to ensure that all students have access to high-quality education regardless of their location or socio-economic background.

In recent years, there has been a focus on improving the quality of education and healthcare in regional and remote areas of the country, as well as addressing issues such as mental health and chronic disease management. The government has also introduced various policies and initiatives to promote healthy lifestyles and prevent chronic diseases, such as tobacco and alcohol control measures and vaccination programs.

Overall, the healthcare and education policies of Australia are designed to ensure that all Australians have access to high-quality, affordable healthcare and education, regardless of their background or location.

GET Handwritten Hardcopy 
All Over India Delivery 
WhatsApp – 8130208920

Leave a Comment