IGNOU MPSE 013 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MPSE 013 AUSTRALIA’S FOREIGN POLICY Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MPSE 013 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MPSE 012 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.
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IGNOU MPSE 013 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field. IGNOU MPSE 013 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 1 IGNOU MPSE 013 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 2 Q1. Critically examine the domestic source of Australian foreign policy.
- 3 Q3. Describe Australia -US relations during the Cold War.
- 4 Q4. Give an overview of Sino- Australian economic relations.
- 5 Q8. a) Australia policy of economic restructuring
IGNOU MPSE 013 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
Q1. Critically examine the domestic source of Australian foreign policy.
The domestic sources of Australian foreign policy are complex and multifaceted, and can be influenced by a range of factors including political ideology, economic interests, national security concerns, public opinion, and the role of various stakeholders such as the media and interest groups.
One important domestic source of Australian foreign policy is political ideology. The government of the day and its political orientation can have a significant impact on the country’s foreign policy decisions. For example, conservative governments may prioritize national security concerns and maintain close relationships with traditional allies such as the United States, while more progressive governments may emphasize multilateralism and international cooperation.
Economic interests also play a significant role in shaping Australian foreign policy. As a resource-rich country with a strong reliance on international trade, Australia’s foreign policy is often influenced by economic considerations. This can manifest in a range of ways, including pursuing free trade agreements with other countries, protecting Australian businesses and industries, and leveraging relationships with key trading partners such as China and the United States.
National security concerns are another important domestic source of Australian foreign policy. As a geographically isolated country with a relatively small population, Australia is particularly vulnerable to security threats such as terrorism and regional conflicts. As a result, Australian foreign policy often prioritizes national security concerns, including through close cooperation with intelligence partners such as the United States and the Five Eyes alliance.
Public opinion can also have a significant impact on Australian foreign policy. Public opinion polls and media coverage can shape government priorities and influence foreign policy decisions, particularly in the context of contentious issues such as military intervention and asylum seeker policy. Interest groups such as business associations, environmental organizations, and ethnic communities also play a role in shaping foreign policy, often by lobbying the government or raising awareness of specific issues.
Overall, the domestic sources of Australian foreign policy are complex and multifaceted, and reflect a range of political, economic, and social factors. While the government of the day ultimately shapes foreign policy decisions, it is important to consider the broader context and range of interests that inform these decisions.
Sino-Australian economic relations refer to the economic ties between the People’s Republic of China and Australia. These two countries have had a strong economic relationship since the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1972. Today, China is Australia’s largest trading partner and Australia is China’s seventh-largest trading partner.
Trade between the two countries has grown significantly in recent years, with bilateral trade in goods and services totaling AUD 252 billion in 2021. Australia mainly exports commodities to China, including iron ore, coal, and natural gas. Meanwhile, China exports a range of goods to Australia, including machinery, clothing, and electronics.
However, the economic relationship between the two countries has also been marked by tensions, particularly in the areas of national security and human rights. In recent years, Australia has expressed concerns about China’s actions in the South China Sea, and has taken steps to limit foreign investment in sensitive sectors such as telecommunications and energy.
Additionally, Australia has been critical of China’s human rights record, particularly in relation to its treatment of Uyghur Muslims in Xinjiang and the crackdown on democracy activists in Hong Kong. These issues have led to tensions between the two countries, with China imposing restrictions on Australian exports, particularly in the agriculture and mining sectors.
Overall, while the economic relationship between China and Australia remains strong, the tensions in other areas of the relationship suggest that the future of Sino-Australian economic relations may be uncertain.
5. Describe the nature and features of Australia –ASEAN relations.
Australia and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have a longstanding relationship that is based on mutual economic, political, and strategic interests. ASEAN is a regional organization that consists of ten member countries, including Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
The relationship between Australia and ASEAN has been strengthened by the ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement (AANZFTA), which was signed in 2009. This agreement has promoted trade and investment between the two regions, and has led to increased economic cooperation and cultural exchanges.
One of the key features of the Australia-ASEAN relationship is the annual ASEAN-Australia Special Summit, which was first held in 2018. This summit brings together leaders from both regions to discuss a wide range of issues, including trade, security, and cultural exchange. The summit provides a platform for both sides to deepen their understanding of each other and to identify areas for further collaboration.
Another important feature of the Australia-ASEAN relationship is the Joint Declaration on Comprehensive Partnership between ASEAN and Australia, which was signed in 2015. This declaration outlines the shared vision and goals of the two regions, and provides a framework for cooperation in areas such as trade and investment, security, education, and people-to-people exchanges.
Australia also has a number of bilateral relationships with individual ASEAN member countries, such as Indonesia and Singapore. These relationships are based on shared interests and values, and are aimed at promoting economic growth, regional stability, and cultural exchange.
Overall, the Australia-ASEAN relationship is characterized by a strong commitment to cooperation, mutual respect, and shared values. It is a partnership that is built on a foundation of economic, political, and strategic interests, and is likely to continue to grow and evolve in the years to come.
6. a) Analyze Australian immigration Policy
Australia has a well-defined and comprehensive immigration policy that is designed to ensure the country benefits from the skills, diversity, and cultural contributions of people from all over the world. The policy has been refined over several decades and is based on a number of core principles, including economic benefit, humanitarian assistance, and national security.
Economic Benefit: Australia’s immigration policy is designed to attract highly skilled workers who can contribute to the country’s economy. The Skilled Migration Program, for example, allows individuals with the skills and experience that are in demand in Australia to apply for permanent residency. This program is based on a points system, which takes into account factors such as age, English language proficiency, education, work experience, and other factors that are likely to contribute to an individual’s success in Australia.
Humanitarian Assistance: Australia’s immigration policy also includes a significant humanitarian component, aimed at providing assistance to refugees and other displaced people who are in need of protection. The Refugee and Humanitarian Program, for example, provides resettlement opportunities for people who are recognized as refugees under international law. This program is designed to provide protection and assistance to people who have been forced to flee their home countries due to persecution, war, or other forms of violence.
National Security: Australia’s immigration policy also includes measures to protect national security. This includes extensive background checks and security screening for all applicants, as well as the enforcement of strict visa conditions and compliance requirements. The government also has the power to cancel visas and deport individuals who pose a threat to national security or who have committed serious crimes.
Overall, Australia’s immigration policy is designed to balance the country’s economic, social, and security interests. It is aimed at attracting highly skilled workers, providing assistance to refugees, and protecting national security, while also ensuring that migrants are able to fully participate in Australian society and contribute to its ongoing development.
b) Evaluate the contribution of environmental agencies in Australia
Environmental agencies in Australia have played a crucial role in protecting and conserving the country’s natural resources and promoting sustainable development. Here are some of the contributions of these agencies:
- Protection of biodiversity: Environmental agencies in Australia have taken various measures to protect the country’s rich biodiversity. This includes the establishment of national parks and reserves, the protection of endangered species, and the regulation of activities that may harm the environment.
- Regulation of pollution: Environmental agencies in Australia have implemented policies and regulations to control pollution from various sources, including industry, transportation, and agriculture. This has helped to reduce the impact of pollution on the environment and human health.
- Management of natural resources: Environmental agencies in Australia have taken steps to manage natural resources such as water, land, and minerals in a sustainable manner. This includes the development of policies and programs to ensure the responsible use of these resources for current and future generations.
- Promotion of renewable energy: Environmental agencies in Australia have supported the development and use of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions.
- Education and awareness: Environmental agencies in Australia have played a significant role in raising public awareness about environmental issues and promoting environmentally responsible behavior. They have also provided education and training programs to help individuals and organizations reduce their environmental impact.
Overall, environmental agencies in Australia have made significant contributions to protecting the environment, promoting sustainable development, and raising public awareness about environmental issues. However, there is always room for improvement, and continued efforts are needed to address ongoing environmental challenges and ensure a sustainable future.
Q7. a) Australia policy towards human rights
Australia has a mixed record when it comes to human rights. On one hand, Australia has a strong legal framework and institutions to protect human rights, such as the Australian Human Rights Commission and the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission, as well as a robust system of checks and balances that ensures the rule of law.
However, Australia has also been criticized for its treatment of refugees and asylum seekers, its treatment of Indigenous Australians, and its counterterrorism measures. The Australian government has also been criticized for its lack of action on issues such as climate change and the rights of LGBTIQ+ individuals.
Australia is a signatory to several international human rights treaties, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, the government has faced criticism for not fully implementing these treaties into domestic law.
Overall, while Australia has made progress in protecting human rights, there is still room for improvement, particularly in the areas of refugee and asylum seeker rights, Indigenous rights, and climate justice.
Australia’s immigration policy has been a topic of much debate and controversy over the years. The policy has gone through several changes since the early 20th century, with the most significant changes happening after the Second World War. Here is an analysis of Australia’s immigration policy:
- Points-based system: Australia’s immigration policy is based on a points system that assesses the skills, education, work experience, and language proficiency of potential immigrants. This system ensures that immigrants who are most likely to contribute to the Australian economy are given priority.
- Humanitarian intake: Australia has a strong humanitarian intake program that focuses on resettling refugees and asylum seekers who are fleeing persecution, conflict, or war. The program provides a safe haven for those in need of protection, with Australia accepting around 13,750 refugees and 3,000 special humanitarian program visas per year.
- Family reunification: Australia also has a family reunification program that allows Australian citizens and permanent residents to sponsor their eligible family members to migrate to Australia. This program is aimed at keeping families together and promoting family values.
- Temporary visas: Australia issues temporary visas to international students, skilled workers, and working holidaymakers, among others. These visas allow temporary migration to Australia for study, work, or leisure purposes, and they are aimed at boosting the Australian economy and creating cultural exchange opportunities.
- Border protection: Australia has a strict border protection policy that aims to deter people from attempting to enter Australia illegally. This policy includes offshore detention centers and the use of naval vessels to intercept boats carrying asylum seekers.
In conclusion, Australia’s immigration policy is designed to attract skilled workers, refugees, and other migrants who can contribute to the country’s economy and society. The policy is also focused on protecting Australia’s borders and keeping the country safe. However, the policy has also been criticized for being too restrictive and for causing harm to refugees and asylum seekers in detention centers.
Q8. a) Australia policy of economic restructuring
Australia’s policy of economic restructuring has been a gradual process that began in the 1980s and continues to this day. It involves a range of measures aimed at increasing the competitiveness of the Australian economy and improving the country’s economic growth and prosperity.
Some of the key elements of Australia’s economic restructuring policy include:
- Deregulation: This involves removing government controls and regulations on various industries to increase competition and improve efficiency. Examples of deregulation in Australia include the deregulation of the financial sector in the 1980s and the deregulation of the telecommunications industry in the 1990s.
- Privatization: This involves the sale of government-owned assets to private companies, which can often run them more efficiently and profitably. Examples of privatization in Australia include the sale of government-owned banks, airlines, and utilities.
- Trade liberalization: This involves reducing barriers to trade, such as tariffs and quotas, to increase the flow of goods and services between countries. Australia has been a strong advocate of trade liberalization, and has signed a number of free trade agreements with other countries in recent years.
- Tax reform: This involves changing the tax system to make it more efficient and equitable. In Australia, tax reform has included the introduction of a goods and services tax (GST) in 2000, and the gradual reduction of corporate and personal income tax rates.
- Labor market reform: This involves changing the laws and regulations that govern the labor market to increase flexibility and efficiency. Examples of labor market reform in Australia include the introduction of enterprise bargaining in the 1990s and the more recent changes to the industrial relations system.
Overall, Australia’s policy of economic restructuring has been largely successful in improving the country’s economic performance and living standards. However, it has also been controversial, with some arguing that it has led to greater inequality and social dislocation.
The relationship between East Timor, Australia, and Indonesia has been complex and at times fraught with tension. East Timor, also known as Timor-Leste, was a former colony of Portugal until it gained independence in 1975. However, Indonesia invaded East Timor later that year and annexed it as its 27th province.
The annexation was not recognized by the international community, and East Timor remained a contested territory for decades. In 1999, Indonesia agreed to hold a referendum on independence for East Timor, which was overwhelmingly supported by the Timorese people. However, following the referendum, violent clashes broke out in East Timor, and many people were killed or displaced.
Australia played a significant role in helping East Timor achieve independence. In 1999, Australia led an international peacekeeping force that helped restore stability to the country. Since then, Australia has provided significant aid to East Timor and has helped build up its infrastructure and institutions.
However, relations between East Timor and Australia have been strained at times. One of the key points of contention has been the maritime boundary between the two countries, which has significant oil and gas reserves. In 2018, the two countries signed a treaty that settled the boundary dispute and outlined how the resources would be shared.
Indonesia has also been involved in the dispute over the maritime boundary between East Timor and Australia. Indonesia has claimed that the boundary should be drawn differently, which would give it a larger share of the resources.
Overall, the relationship between East Timor, Australia, and Indonesia has been shaped by a history of colonization, conflict, and resource competition. While there have been tensions and disagreements, the three countries have also worked together at times to resolve disputes and promote stability in the region.
Q9. a) Australia’s views on the nuclear arm race
Australia has long been a strong supporter of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament efforts. The Australian government has consistently emphasized the need for all countries to work towards a world free of nuclear weapons.
Australia is a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and has ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The country is also a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and the Australia Group, which aim to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and related technologies.
In terms of the current nuclear arms race, Australia has expressed concern about the modernization and expansion of nuclear arsenals by some nuclear-armed states. The Australian government has called for all nuclear-armed states to engage in meaningful disarmament negotiations, and has expressed support for the goal of a world without nuclear weapons.
Overall, Australia supports international efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons, reduce the number of nuclear weapons in the world, and ultimately eliminate them altogether.
b) Australia and WTO
Australia is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), an international organization that was established in 1995 to promote free and fair trade among its member countries. The WTO is responsible for setting and enforcing the rules of international trade, resolving disputes between member countries, and providing a forum for negotiations on trade liberalization.
As a member of the WTO, Australia is committed to the organization’s principles of free and open trade, and has been actively involved in its activities. Australia has been a strong advocate for the multilateral trading system and has worked to promote free trade through negotiations at the WTO.
Australia has also been involved in several disputes at the WTO, both as a complainant and as a respondent. Some of the notable cases involving Australia at the WTO include disputes over the country’s plain packaging laws for tobacco products and its restrictions on imports of apples.
Overall, Australia’s membership in the WTO has played an important role in promoting its economic growth and integration into the global economy.
10. a) Australia’s uranium export policy
Australia is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of uranium. The country’s uranium export policy is governed by strict regulations designed to ensure that the trade is conducted safely and responsibly.
Under Australian law, all uranium exports must be authorized by the Australian government, which ensures that the exports comply with all relevant domestic and international laws and regulations. The government also sets strict conditions on the use of Australian uranium, including requirements that it only be used for peaceful purposes, and that it be adequately safeguarded against theft or misuse.
In addition to these regulatory measures, the Australian government has also signed a number of international agreements and treaties aimed at promoting the safe and responsible use of nuclear technology. These agreements include the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Agreement, which requires that all countries that use nuclear technology for peaceful purposes must allow inspections of their facilities by the IAEA.
Overall, Australia’s uranium export policy is designed to ensure that the country’s uranium resources are used in a safe and responsible manner, while also supporting the development of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.
Australia’s foreign policy has undergone significant changes over the years, driven by global events and domestic priorities. Some of the key trends that have shaped Australia’s foreign policy in recent years include:
- Increasing focus on the Indo-Pacific region: Australia has been steadily shifting its foreign policy focus towards the Indo-Pacific region, which is seen as increasingly important due to its economic and strategic significance. This has involved strengthening relationships with countries such as India, Japan, and South Korea, and working to maintain stability in the region.
- Closer ties with the United States: Australia has long had a close relationship with the United States, but this has been reinforced in recent years with the growing strategic rivalry between the US and China. Australia has played an important role in supporting US efforts to maintain a free and open Indo-Pacific, and has also deepened its military ties with the US through initiatives such as the US-Australia Joint Defense Facility Pine Gap.
- Focus on economic diplomacy: As a small open economy, Australia has long relied on international trade and investment to drive its economic growth. In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on economic diplomacy, with efforts to expand free trade agreements and promote investment in key sectors such as resources and technology.
- Increased engagement with Southeast Asia: Australia has been seeking to deepen its engagement with Southeast Asia, which is a key economic and strategic partner. This has involved initiatives such as the Australia-ASEAN Summit and the establishment of the ASEAN-Australia Strategic Partnership.
- Focus on global challenges: Australia has also been actively engaged in addressing global challenges such as climate change, cybersecurity, and terrorism. This has involved working closely with international partners and multilateral organizations such as the United Nations.
Overall, the changing trends in Australia’s foreign policy reflect the country’s evolving priorities and strategic interests in a rapidly changing global landscape.
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