IGNOU MPSE 011 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MPSE 011 EUROPEAN UNION IN WORLD AFFAIRS Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MPSE 011 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MPSE 011 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

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IGNOU MPSE 011 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field.
IGNOU MPSE 011 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 011 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

Q1. Examine the major milestones in the integration of Europe.

The integration of Europe is a process that began after the Second World War with the aim of promoting peace, stability, and prosperity on the continent. Here are some of the major milestones in this process:

  • Schuman Declaration (1950): The Schuman Declaration proposed the creation of a European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) which would unite the coal and steel industries of France and Germany, making war between the two countries “not only unthinkable but materially impossible”. This proposal is considered the starting point of European integration.
  • Treaty of Rome (1957): The Treaty of Rome established the European Economic Community (EEC), which aimed to create a common market among its member states by eliminating trade barriers and harmonizing regulations. This treaty also established the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), which aimed to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.
  • Single European Act (1986): The Single European Act aimed to complete the single market by 1992, allowing for the free movement of goods, services, people, and capital within the EEC. It also increased the powers of the European Parliament and introduced the concept of Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) to make decision-making more efficient.
  • Maastricht Treaty (1992): The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union (EU) and created the framework for Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), which introduced the euro as the common currency of several EU countries. This treaty also established the pillars of the EU: the European Community (EC), Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA).
  • Enlargement of the EU (2004-2013): The EU underwent its largest expansion in history, admitting 12 new member states between 2004 and 2013. This expansion brought the total number of member states to 28 and expanded the EU’s geographic reach to include several Central and Eastern European countries.
  • Lisbon Treaty (2009): The Lisbon Treaty aimed to streamline the EU’s decision-making processes and increase its democratic legitimacy. It abolished the pillar structure and gave the EU legal personality, making it easier for the EU to enter into international agreements. It also strengthened the powers of the European Parliament and introduced the European Citizens’ Initiative, which allows citizens to propose new EU legislation.

Overall, these milestones represent a significant effort to bring European countries together and promote peace, stability, and prosperity on the continent. While there have been challenges and setbacks along the way, the integration of Europe remains an ongoing process.

Q2. Critically analyse the nature of EU- India relations.

The relationship between the European Union (EU) and India has evolved significantly over the past few decades. Although both sides share common interests in various areas, there are also several challenges that hinder the development of their relationship. In this answer, I will critically analyze the nature of EU-India relations, taking into account the key factors that shape this relationship.

One of the main areas of cooperation between the EU and India is trade and investment. The EU is India’s largest trading partner, and India is the EU’s 9th largest trading partner. The EU and India have been negotiating a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) for many years, but progress has been slow due to several issues, including intellectual property rights, non-tariff barriers, and agricultural subsidies. Despite these challenges, both sides have continued to deepen their economic relationship. The EU and India signed an agreement on investment in 2020, which aims to create a more favorable business environment for European companies in India and vice versa.

Another key area of cooperation is in the field of climate change and sustainable development. The EU and India have similar goals in terms of reducing carbon emissions and promoting sustainable development. However, there are significant differences between the two sides when it comes to the level of ambition and the speed of transition to a low-carbon economy. India is still heavily reliant on coal for its energy needs, whereas the EU is moving towards a more renewable energy mix. The EU has pledged to provide financial and technical support to India to help it transition to a more sustainable model, but progress has been slow.

In terms of security and defense cooperation, the EU and India have been working together to combat terrorism, piracy, and cybercrime. The EU and India have also conducted joint military exercises and signed agreements on defense cooperation. However, there are concerns on both sides about the lack of progress on key issues such as the fight against terrorism, regional stability, and nuclear disarmament.

There are also several challenges that hinder the development of EU-India relations. One of the main challenges is the lack of a shared vision for the relationship. While both sides have common interests, they often have different priorities and approaches. The EU’s focus on human rights and democracy can sometimes clash with India’s emphasis on sovereignty and non-interference in its internal affairs. Furthermore, there are differences between the EU and India on issues such as migration, data privacy, and the rule of law.

In conclusion, the relationship between the EU and India is complex and multifaceted. While both sides have common interests and cooperate on several issues, there are also significant challenges that need to be addressed. The EU and India need to work together to develop a shared vision for their relationship and find ways to overcome their differences in order to deepen their partnership.

Q3. What are the main features of the Neo–functional approach to European integration?

The neo-functional approach is a theory of European integration that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s. Its main features include:

  • Spillover effects: The neo-functionalists argue that economic integration (such as the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community) will create a spillover effect, leading to further integration in other areas such as political and social policies. This is because increased economic interdependence will create a need for greater coordination and cooperation in other areas.
  • Supranationalism: The neo-functionalists argue that supranational institutions (such as the European Commission and European Court of Justice) are necessary to promote European integration. These institutions have the power to make decisions that are binding on member states and can therefore overcome national interests and promote European integration.
  • Functionalism: The neo-functionalists argue that integration should proceed on a functional basis, with integration in specific policy areas (such as trade or agriculture) leading to greater integration in other areas. This approach allows integration to proceed at a pace that is manageable and acceptable to member states.
  • Elite-driven integration: The neo-functionalists argue that European integration is driven by elites, such as politicians, bureaucrats, and business leaders, who are motivated by economic and political interests. These elites can overcome domestic opposition to integration and promote greater cooperation at the European level.

Overall, the neo-functional approach emphasizes the importance of economic integration, supranational institutions, functionalism, and elite-driven integration in promoting European integration.

Q4. Identify the key issues and challenges in EU –China relations.

EU-China relations have been complex and multi-dimensional, with both countries being important trade partners and global actors. However, there are several key issues and challenges that have arisen in recent years:

  • Trade imbalances: The trade deficit between the EU and China has been a longstanding issue, with China exporting more to the EU than it imports. The EU has been calling for greater market access and fairer trade practices from China.
  • Human rights: The EU has been vocal about its concerns over human rights abuses in China, particularly in relation to Tibet, Xinjiang, Hong Kong and Taiwan. These issues have strained the relationship between the two sides.
  • Intellectual property theft: The EU has expressed concerns over China’s practices of intellectual property theft and forced technology transfer, which it sees as unfair and damaging to EU businesses.
  • Competition and strategic rivalry: The rise of China as a global superpower has led to increasing competition with the EU in areas such as technology, infrastructure and influence in developing countries.
  • Climate change: The EU and China are both major players in the fight against climate change, but there have been disagreements over issues such as carbon emissions and the use of renewable energy sources.
  • COVID-19 pandemic: The outbreak of COVID-19 in China and its subsequent spread around the world has led to tensions between the EU and China over issues such as transparency, cooperation and the origins of the virus.

These challenges have made EU-China relations more complex and difficult to manage, and both sides will need to work together to find ways to overcome these issues in order to maintain a productive and beneficial relationship.

Q5. What is neo-realism? How do the Neo–realists explain European integration?

Neo-realism, also known as structural realism, is a school of thought in international relations theory that emphasizes the importance of the international system and its structure in shaping state behavior. According to neo-realism, states are the main actors in international politics and their behavior is primarily driven by their pursuit of power and security.

When it comes to explaining European integration, neo-realists argue that the process of integration is driven by the need for European states to increase their power and security in the international system. They believe that the creation of the European Union (EU) was a response to the changing power dynamics of the post-World War II international system, which saw the rise of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers.

Neo-realists argue that the EU was created as a way for European states to pool their resources and increase their power and influence in the international system. They also point to the role of the United States in supporting European integration, which they see as a way for the US to create a more stable and predictable international system in the post-war era.

In summary, neo-realism is a school of thought in international relations theory that emphasizes the importance of the international system and its structure in shaping state behavior. Neo-realists explain European integration as a response to the changing power dynamics of the post-World War II international system and as a way for European states to increase their power and security in the face of these changes.


Q6. a) European Union’s development policy

The European Union (EU) has a comprehensive development policy aimed at promoting sustainable development, reducing poverty, and contributing to the achievement of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The EU’s development policy is guided by the European Consensus on Development, which was adopted in 2017.

The EU’s development policy is based on a human rights-based approach, which emphasizes the importance of promoting democracy, good governance, and respect for human rights. The policy also prioritizes gender equality and empowerment, as well as addressing climate change and environmental sustainability.

The EU provides development assistance to countries in three different categories: low-income countries, lower-middle-income countries, and upper-middle-income countries. The EU also provides humanitarian aid and supports the development of civil society organizations and private sector initiatives.

In addition to financial assistance, the EU also provides technical assistance to support governance, economic development, and social progress. This includes support for education, health, and social protection systems, as well as initiatives to promote sustainable agriculture and rural development.

The EU also works to promote trade and investment as a means of supporting economic growth and reducing poverty. This includes providing support for regional economic integration and promoting the participation of developing countries in the global trading system.

Overall, the EU’s development policy is aimed at promoting sustainable and inclusive development, reducing poverty, and contributing to global efforts to achieve the SDGs.

b) European Union’s environmental policy

The European Union (EU) has a comprehensive environmental policy that aims to protect the environment, improve the quality of life for European citizens, and promote sustainable development. The EU’s environmental policy is based on a series of treaties, directives, and regulations that have been adopted over the years.

One of the key principles of the EU’s environmental policy is the “polluter pays” principle, which means that those who cause pollution or damage to the environment should be responsible for paying the costs of remedying the situation. This principle is reflected in a range of EU policies and initiatives, including the EU Emissions Trading System, which puts a price on carbon emissions, and the EU’s chemicals regulation, which requires companies to demonstrate the safety of their products before they can be sold in the EU.

The EU’s environmental policy covers a wide range of issues, including climate change, air and water quality, biodiversity, waste management, and sustainable agriculture. The EU has set ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the share of renewable energy in the EU’s energy mix. The EU’s biodiversity strategy aims to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU by 2020.

The EU also has a strong focus on circular economy, aiming to reduce waste, increase recycling, and promote sustainable consumption and production. The EU has adopted a range of initiatives and regulations to promote the circular economy, including the Circular Economy Action Plan and the EU Waste Framework Directive.

Overall, the EU’s environmental policy is based on the principles of sustainability, precaution, and the polluter pays principle. The EU’s efforts to protect the environment and promote sustainable development are widely recognized and have been praised by many stakeholders, including environmental organizations, industry, and governments around the world.

Q7. a) European Parliament

The European Parliament is one of the seven institutions of the European Union (EU) and is directly elected by the citizens of the EU member states. It represents the people of the European Union, and its main role is to debate and pass legislation that affects the lives of citizens in the EU.

The European Parliament is based in Strasbourg, France, but it also has offices and committee meetings in Brussels, Belgium, and Luxembourg. It has 705 members, known as Members of the European Parliament (MEPs), who are elected every five years by EU citizens in their respective member states. The number of MEPs allocated to each member state is based on the size of its population.

The European Parliament has several powers and responsibilities, including co-legislating with the Council of the European Union on most policy areas, scrutinizing and supervising the work of the European Commission, approving the EU budget, and establishing the EU’s foreign and security policies.

The President of the European Parliament is elected by the MEPs and serves as the presiding officer during parliamentary sessions. The current President of the European Parliament is Roberta Metsola, who took office in January 2022.

b) Regionalism in Europe

Regionalism in Europe refers to the phenomenon of regions within European countries seeking greater autonomy or independence. This can take many forms, including demands for more local control over decision-making, greater economic autonomy, and even calls for secession from the larger country.

Some of the most well-known examples of regionalism in Europe include the Basque Country and Catalonia in Spain, Scotland in the United Kingdom, and Flanders and Wallonia in Belgium. In each of these cases, there are political parties and movements advocating for greater regional autonomy or independence, often citing cultural or historical differences as justification.

Regionalism in Europe can also be seen in the form of regional economic integration, such as the European Union, which allows member states to pool their resources and cooperate on a variety of issues.

While regionalism can sometimes be a divisive force, it can also lead to greater decentralization and local control, which can help to address issues specific to certain regions and promote a more diverse and inclusive political landscape. However, it is important to balance regional autonomy with national unity to avoid fragmentation and instability.

Q8. a) Functions of the European Commission

The European Commission is one of the key institutions of the European Union, and it has several functions, including:

  • Executive function: The European Commission is responsible for enforcing EU laws, managing EU policies, and ensuring that the EU’s budget is spent properly. It is also responsible for negotiating international trade agreements on behalf of the EU.
  • Legislative function: The European Commission proposes new EU laws and regulations, and it works with the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union to adopt these laws.
  • Supervisory function: The European Commission monitors the implementation of EU laws by member states and takes legal action against those that do not comply.
  • Policy development function: The European Commission develops and proposes policies in areas such as environmental protection, social policy, and energy policy, among others.
  • External representation function: The European Commission represents the EU in international organizations and negotiations, such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, and the G20.

Overall, the European Commission plays a crucial role in shaping the direction of the European Union, ensuring that the EU’s laws and policies are implemented, and representing the EU’s interests on the global stage.

b) European defense and security policy

The European Union (EU) has developed a comprehensive framework for its defense and security policy, with the aim of ensuring the safety and protection of its citizens, promoting stability and security in its neighborhood, and contributing to international peace and security.

The EU’s defense and security policy includes a range of instruments and mechanisms, such as the Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP), which provides a framework for EU member states to cooperate on security and defense issues. The CSDP enables the EU to conduct civilian and military operations abroad, such as crisis management missions and peacekeeping operations, in order to address security challenges in different regions of the world.

In addition, the EU has established various agencies and institutions to support its defense and security policy, including the European Defence Agency (EDA), which promotes cooperation in defense research, procurement, and capabilities development among EU member states, and the European External Action Service (EEAS), which supports the EU’s foreign and security policy.

The EU also works closely with its partners, including NATO, to address common security challenges and promote stability and security in Europe and beyond. The EU and NATO have developed a strategic partnership and cooperate on a range of issues, including crisis management, cybersecurity, and counterterrorism.

Overall, the EU’s defense and security policy is aimed at ensuring the safety and protection of its citizens, promoting stability and security in its neighborhood, and contributing to international peace and security through cooperation with its partners.

Q9. a) Framework of EU -US bilateral relations

The framework of EU-US bilateral relations is built on a complex set of diplomatic, economic, and security ties. The relationship between the two is often referred to as the “transatlantic relationship,” and it is one of the most important partnerships in the world. Here are some key elements of this relationship:

  • Economic Relations: The EU and the US have a huge economic relationship, which is based on trade and investment. The two economies are the largest in the world, and they have a total trade relationship that amounts to more than $1 trillion each year. There are also significant flows of investment, with the US being the largest foreign investor in the EU, and the EU being the largest foreign investor in the US.
  • Diplomatic Relations: The EU and the US are also bound together by a strong diplomatic relationship. The EU has a delegation in Washington DC, and the US has a delegation in Brussels. These delegations work together on a wide range of issues, including trade, energy, climate change, security, and human rights.
  • Security Relations: The EU and the US also have a strong security relationship. They work together to combat terrorism, cyber threats, and other security challenges. The NATO alliance, which includes both the US and several EU member states, is a cornerstone of this security relationship.
  • Cultural Relations: The EU and the US also have a vibrant cultural relationship, which is based on a shared history, values, and interests. There are many exchanges of people, ideas, and culture between the two sides, which help to deepen and strengthen the relationship.

Overall, the framework of EU-US bilateral relations is multifaceted and constantly evolving. It is a vital partnership that has helped to shape the global order for more than half a century, and it is likely to continue to play a central role in world affairs in the years to come.

b) India trade and economic relations with EU

India has a long-standing trade and economic relationship with the European Union (EU). The EU is one of India’s largest trading partners, accounting for around 10% of India’s total trade in goods and services. In turn, India is the EU’s ninth-largest trading partner.

In recent years, the economic relationship between India and the EU has been strengthened through various initiatives. In 2004, the EU and India launched a Strategic Partnership, which covers areas such as political dialogue, trade and investment, energy and climate change, and education and research.

The EU and India have also been negotiating a comprehensive free trade agreement, known as the EU-India Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA), since 2007. However, negotiations have been stalled since 2013 due to differences over issues such as intellectual property rights, investment protection, and market access.

Despite these challenges, there have been some positive developments in the trade relationship between India and the EU. In 2017, the EU and India signed an agreement on mutual recognition of certain medical products, which will help to boost trade in this sector. In addition, India and the EU have been exploring opportunities to cooperate in areas such as renewable energy, clean technologies, and sustainable urbanization.

Overall, while there are some obstacles to deeper economic integration between India and the EU, both sides recognize the importance of their relationship and are working to strengthen it in various ways.

Q10. a) European Union participation in Globalization

The European Union (EU) has been a major player in the process of globalization, both as a promoter of free trade and as a recipient of foreign investment and migrants. Here are some ways in which the EU participates in globalization:

  • Trade: The EU is one of the largest trading blocs in the world, with a total trade volume of around €4.2 trillion in 2019. The EU has concluded free trade agreements with many countries and regions around the world, including Canada, Japan, and South Korea. The EU is also currently negotiating free trade agreements with other countries such as Australia, New Zealand, and the Mercosur countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay).
  • Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): The EU is a major recipient of FDI from other countries, particularly from the United States and China. In 2019, the EU received €301 billion in FDI inflows. The EU also invests heavily in other countries, particularly in developing countries, with a total outward FDI stock of €7.2 trillion in 2018.
  • Migration: The EU is a destination for many migrants from other countries, particularly from neighboring countries in North Africa and the Middle East. The EU has developed policies and institutions to manage migration, such as the European Asylum Support Office and the European Border and Coast Guard Agency. The EU also provides development aid to countries in Africa and other regions to address the root causes of migration.
  • International Organizations: The EU is a member of many international organizations, such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, and the International Monetary Fund. The EU also plays an active role in regional organizations such as the African Union and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

In summary, the EU participates in globalization through its trade, investment, migration, and membership in international organizations. However, the EU also faces challenges and criticisms related to globalization, such as concerns about the impact of trade on domestic industries and the management of migration.

b) Significance of Maastricht treaty

The Maastricht Treaty, also known as the Treaty on European Union, is a treaty that was signed in Maastricht, Netherlands, in 1992. It established the European Union (EU) and laid the foundation for the creation of a single currency, the Euro.

The Maastricht Treaty is significant for several reasons:

  • Creation of the European Union: The treaty created the European Union, which is a political and economic union of 27 member states that are primarily located in Europe. The EU aims to promote economic, social, and political cooperation among its members.
  • Single Currency: The treaty established the framework for the creation of a single currency, the Euro, which was introduced in 1999. The Euro has become one of the most important currencies in the world, with many countries using it as a reserve currency.
  • Common Foreign and Security Policy: The treaty established a common foreign and security policy for the EU. This policy aims to promote the EU’s values, interests, and security in the world.
  • Citizenship of the EU: The treaty introduced the concept of EU citizenship, which gives citizens of EU member states the right to live and work in any other EU member state.
  • Strengthened Cooperation: The treaty established a framework for closer cooperation between EU member states in areas such as justice and home affairs, defense, and foreign policy.

Overall, the Maastricht Treaty was a significant step towards deeper integration among EU member states and helped to establish the EU as a major player in global affairs.

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