MPS 001 POLITICAL THEORY Solved Assignment 2022-23

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MPS 001 POLITICAL THEORY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

This assignment consists of Sections I and II.

There are five questions in each section.

You have to answer a total of five questions in about 500 words each.

It is necessary to attempt at least two questions from each section.

Each question carries 20 marks


Q1. Examine political science as a science.

Introduction – Political Science is the scientific designation of the subject of our study. This name has been accepted by the political scientists drawn from various countries assembled in a meeting under UNESCO’s auspices. It covers the whole range of knowledge regarding the political governance of man. According to Paul Janet: “Political Science is that part of social science which treats the foundations of the State and the principles of government.” The foundations of the State and government principles have their roots in the past, and their branches swing towards the future. It is a systematic study that goes deep into yesterday’s political problems for the benefit of today and utilities the wisdom gained therefrom for the aspirations of better tomorrow.

Political Science as a Science – Political Science deals with men, and it is a living subject matter which can be explained in terms of living human activity. It cannot be expressed in fixed or static formulae. Man rs dynamic, and so must his institutions be They must adjust themselves with the changing demands of man and his manifold needs. No institution is today what it was yesterday and what it will be tomorrow, any more than I am myself the same on two consecutive days.

It is the human element or the subject’s liveliness that makes Political Science inexact and indefinite. Then Thee subject matter of Political Science is involved the problem of values, though contemporary political scientists have attempted to make the subject value tires. All political issues can best be explained in terms of mad and ethical standards, or to put it more precisely, they should be based on justice. From Plato’s and Aristotle’s times, men‘s ideas of what is do not agree, and the riddle of social justice remains unresolved. The endeavor in search of justice will continue in the future too and, yet, without any definite agreement thereon. Consequently, Political Science can’t attain the same degree of exactness and universal application of its laws as in the physical or even biological sciences.

Although political science borrows heavily from the other social sciences, it is distinguished from them by its focus on power—defined as the ability of one political actor to get another actor to do what it wants—at the international, national, and local levels. Political science is generally used in the singular, but in French and Spanish the plural (sciences politiques and ciencias políticas, respectively) is used, perhaps a reflection of the discipline’s eclectic nature. Although political science overlaps considerably with political philosophy, the two fields are distinct. Political philosophy is concerned primarily with political ideas and values, such as rights, justice, freedom, and political obligation (whether people should or should not obey political authority); it is normative in its approach (i.e., it is concerned with what ought to be rather than with what is) and rationalistic in its method. In contrast, political science studies institutions and behaviour, favours the descriptive over the normative, and develops theories or draws conclusions based on empirical observations, which are expressed in quantitative terms where possible.

Analyses of politics appeared in ancient cultures in works by various thinkers, including Confucius (551–479 BCE) in China and Kautilya (flourished 300 BCE) in India. Writings by the historian Ibn Khaldūn (1332–1406) in North Africa have greatly influenced the study of politics in the Arabic-speaking world. But the fullest explication of politics has been in the West. Some have identified Plato (428/427–348/347 BCE), whose ideal of a stable republic still yields insights and metaphors, as the first political scientist, though most consider Aristotle (384–322 BCE), who introduced empirical observation into the study of politics, to be the discipline’s true founder.

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Q2. Trace the genesis of democracy.

Introduction – Democracy means rule by the people. The name is employed for various sorts of government, where the people can participate within the decisions that affect the way their community is run. A democratic government is a system of government that is elected by the whole adult population, people over the age of 18 years. They do this by choosing someone to represent their community at an area , state, and federal level. The purpose of the elected government is to protect the people and promote their rights, interests, and welfare to the benefit of everyone. Where the term democracy derives from? The word democracy originated in ancient Greece over 2400 years ago.

The Genesis of democracy  – ‘Demos’ means common people ‘Kratos’ means strength Democracy as we know it today as freedom system of government in which citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from amongst themselves. The term democracy first appeared in ancient Greek political and philosophical Fort in the city state of Athens during classical antiquity even the word democracy comes from the agent Greek language demos meaning people and kratos meaning strength, Athenians established what is generally held is the first democracy in 580 – 507BC. Cleisthenes is known as the father of Athenian democracy Athenian democracy took the form of a direct democracy and it had to distinguishing features the random selection of ordinary citizens to fill the few existing government administrative and judicial officers and the legislative assembly consisting of all the senior citizens.

All eligible citizens were allowed to speak and vote in the assembly which set the laws of the city state however opinion citizenship excluded women slaves foreign so wasn’t that free of world in voters we know today but it was a good start. The Roman Republic contributed significantly to many aspects of democracy only a minority of Romans for citizens with votes in elections for representatives additionally the Roman model of governments inspired many political thinkers health centuries,

days modern representative democracies imitate more the Roman the Greek models because it was a state in which supreme power was held by the people and their elected representatives and which had an elected or nominated leader another example that the natives in North America which between around 1450 -1680 AD also develop the form of democratic society before they came in contact with the Europeans this indicates the forms of democracy may have been invented in other societies around the world in medieval times most regions in Europe or ruled by clergy or future loads almost no democracy remain from the ancient Greeks or Romans the parliament.

The first English parliament was created in 1265 starting separation of powers in state many laws and rules are made after this event in the whole of Europe the power of kings began to fade to local nobles and afterwards to the people after some centuries the case of proclamations in 1610 in England decided that the king by his proclamation or other ways cannot change any part of the common law or statute law all the customs of the realm awesome after World War One Austria Hungary and the Ottoman Empire collapse giving the opportunity to oppressed nations to be free in 1918 the United Kingdom granted the right to vote to women and in 1928 granted women and men equal rights in 1920 women stop the right to vote in the United States and in 1944 in France 1920 for granted full US citizenship to Americas indigenous peoples. History of direct Democracy One strand of thought sees direct democracy as common and widespread in pre-state societies. The earliest well-documented direct democracy is claimed to be the Athenian democracy of the 5th century BC. The main bodies within the Athenian democracy were the assembly, composed of male citizens; the boul, composed of 500 citizens; and therefore the law courts, composed of a huge number of jurors chosen by lot, with no judges. Ancient Attica had only about 30,000 male citizens, but several thousand of them. were politically active in each year and many of them quite regularly for years on end.

The Athenian democracy was direct not only within the sense that the assembled people made decisions, but also within the sense that the people – through the assembly, boul, and law courts – controlled the whole political process, and an outsized proportion of citizens were involved constantly publicly affairs. Most modern democracies, being representative, not direct, don’t resemble the Athenian system. Also relevant to the history of direct democracy is that the history of Ancient Rome, specifically during the Roman Republic , traditionally founded around 509 BC.

Rome displayed many aspects of democracy, both direct and indirect, from the age of Roman monarchy all the thanks to the collapse of the Roman Empire. While the Roman senate was the most body with historical longevity, lasting from the Roman kingdom until after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, it did not embody a purely democratic approach, being made up – during the late republic – of former elected officials, providing advice instead of creating law.

The democratic aspect of the constitution resided within the Roman popular assemblies, where the people organised into centuriae or into tribes – counting on the assembly – and cast votes on various matters, including elections and laws, proposed before them by their elected magistrates. Some classicists have argued that the Roman Republic deserves the label of democracy, with universal suffrage for man citizens, popular sovereignty, and transparent deliberation of public affairs. Many historians mark the top of the Republic with the lex Titia, passed on 27 November 43 BC, which eliminated many oversight provisions. Ultramodern Direct Republic also occurs within the Crow Nation, a Native American Tribe in the United States of America. The lineage is organized around a General Council formed of all voting- age members. The General Council has the power to produce fairly- binding opinions through blackballs.

The General Council was first elevated in the 1948 Crow Constitution and was upheld andre-instated with the 2002 Constitution. Some of the issues girding the affiliated notion of a direct republic using the Internet and other dispatches technologies are dealt with in the composition one-democracy and below under the heading Electronic direct republic. Further compactly, the conception of open- source governance applies principles of the free software movement to the governance of people, allowing the entire crowd to share in government directly, as much or as little as they please. Direct republic is the base of challenger and left-libertarian political study Direct republic has been supported by challenger thinkers since its commencement, and direct republic as a political proposition has been largely told by anarchism.

Democracy is a state in which the system of government sovereignty is in the hands of the people/people, the highest power is in a joint decision with the community, the community is in power, the government of the people and by the community.[2] Democracy political system, or decision-making system is within an institution, organization, or state, where all members or all citizens have the same share of power.

Modern democracies are characterized by two capabilities that differentiate them fundamentally from earlier forms of government: the capacity to intervene in their own societies and the recognition of their sovereignty by an international legalistic framework of similarly sovereign states. Democratic government is commonly juxtaposed with oligarchic and monarchic systems, which are ruled by a minority and a sole monarch respectively. Democracy is generally associated[vague] with the efforts of the ancient Greeks, whom 18th-century intellectuals considered the founders of Western civilization. These individuals attempted to leverage these early democratic experiments into a new template for post-monarchical political organization.

The extent to which these 18th-century democratic revivalists succeeded in turning the democratic ideals of the ancient Greeks into the dominant political institution of the next 300 years is hardly debatable, even if the moral justifications they often employed might be. Nevertheless, the critical historical juncture catalyzed by the resurrection of democratic ideals and institutions fundamentally transformed the ensuing centuries and has dominated the international landscape since the dismantling of the final vestige of the empire following the end of the Second World War. Modern representative democracies attempt to bridge the gulf between the Hobbesian ‘state of nature’ and the grip of authoritarianism through ‘social contracts’ that enshrine the rights of the citizens, curtail the power of the state, and grant agency through the right to vote.[5] While they engage populations with some level of decision-making, they are defined by the premise of distrust in the ability of human populations to make a direct judgement about candidates or decisions on issues.

Q3. Examine the inter-relationship of duties and rights within liberal thought.

Q4. Discuss negative liberty.

Q5. What is equality? Explain.


Q6. (a) Classical Liberalism

Although liberal ideas were not noticeable in European politics until the early 16th century, liberalism has a considerable “prehistory” reaching back to the Middle Ages and even earlier. In the Middle Ages the rights and responsibilities of individuals were determined by their place in a hierarchical social system that placed great stress upon acquiescence and conformity. Under the impact of the slow commercialization and urbanization of Europe in the later Middle Ages, the intellectual ferment of the Renaissance, and the spread of Protestantism in the 16th century, the old feudal stratification of society gradually began to dissolve, leading to a fear of instability so powerful that monarchical absolutism was viewed as the only remedy to civil dissension. By the end of the 16th century, the authority of the papacy had been broken in most of northern Europe, and rulers tried to consolidate the unity of their realms by enforcing conformity either to Roman Catholicism or to the ruler’s preferred version of Protestantism.

These efforts culminated in the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), which did immense damage to much of Europe. Where no creed succeeded in wholly extirpating its enemies, toleration was gradually accepted as the lesser of two evils; in some countries where one creed triumphed, it was accepted that too minute a concern with citizens’ beliefs was inimical to prosperity and good order.

The ambitions of national rulers and the requirements of expanding industry and commerce led gradually to the adoption of economic policies based on mercantilism, a school of thought that advocated government intervention in a country’s economy to increase state wealth and power. However, as such intervention increasingly served established interests and inhibited enterprise, it was challenged by members of the newly emerging middle class. This challenge was a significant factor in the great revolutions that rocked England and France in the 17th and 18th centuries—most notably the English Civil Wars (1642–51), the Glorious Revolution (1688), the American Revolution (1775–83), and the French Revolution (1789). Classical liberalism as an articulated creed is a result of those great collisions.

(b) Liberal democratic welfare state

Q7. (a) Libertarianism

(b) Party as vanguard of the proletariat (V. I. Lenin)

8. (a) Gramsci’s notion of hegemony

(b) Critique of Marxism and Democratic Socialism

9. (a) Conservatism

(b) Fundamentalism

10. (a) Nationalism

(b) Multiculturalism


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MPS 001 POLITICAL THEORY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

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