IGNOU MTTM 9 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MTTM 9 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MMTM 9 UNDERSTANDING TOURISM MARKETS Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MTTM 9 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MTTM 9 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

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IGNOU MTTM 9 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23  is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field.

IGNOU MTTM 9 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

Q1. What is meant by Tourism Markets? Discuss the importance of intra-regional and inter-regional tourism flow in the context of Indian tourism market. 

Tourism markets refer to the various groups of travelers who participate in the tourism industry. These markets are typically segmented based on factors such as demographics, geographic location, travel behavior, and motivation for travel. In the context of the Indian tourism market, there are various tourism markets such as domestic tourists, inbound tourists, outbound tourists, adventure tourists, heritage tourists, cultural tourists, etc.

The importance of intra-regional and inter-regional tourism flow in the context of the Indian tourism market cannot be overstated. Intra-regional tourism refers to travel within a particular region, while inter-regional tourism refers to travel between regions. In the case of India, intra-regional tourism comprises the largest share of the tourism market, as the majority of tourists traveling within the country are domestic tourists. However, inter-regional tourism is also significant, as India is a diverse country with numerous cultural, historical, and natural attractions that attract foreign tourists.

Intra-regional tourism flow is crucial for the Indian tourism industry as it drives economic growth and job creation in various regions of the country. Domestic tourists contribute significantly to the tourism industry by spending on accommodation, food, transportation, and other tourism-related activities. This generates revenue for local businesses, creates employment opportunities, and contributes to the development of the tourism infrastructure in the region.

Inter-regional tourism flow is equally important as it helps to promote India as a tourist destination to the world. Foreign tourists visiting India typically travel to multiple regions, such as the Golden Triangle (Delhi, Agra, and Jaipur), Kerala, Goa, etc. This helps to spread tourism revenues and promote the development of tourism infrastructure across the country. Additionally, inter-regional tourism can help to create cultural exchange opportunities, promote regional cooperation, and build bridges between different communities.

In conclusion, intra-regional and inter-regional tourism flow are both critical for the Indian tourism market. By promoting tourism within and between regions, India can achieve sustainable tourism development, create employment opportunities, and generate revenue for local businesses. Furthermore, the promotion of regional cooperation and cultural exchange through tourism can contribute to India’s overall socio-economic development.

Q2. Explain the various types of information which should be generated to enable effective tourism marketing decision making.

Effective tourism marketing decision making requires a thorough understanding of various types of information, including:

  1. Market research data: This includes information about the target market, such as demographics, psychographics, behavior patterns, preferences, and travel habits. Market research data can be collected through surveys, focus groups, online analytics, and other methods.
  2. Destination data: This includes information about the destination’s attractions, events, accommodations, transportation, infrastructure, and other amenities. This information can be gathered through site inspections, destination assessments, and other forms of research.
  3. Competitive data: This includes information about the destination’s competitors, such as their pricing, marketing strategies, product offerings, and customer feedback. Competitive data can be collected through online research, mystery shopping, and other methods.
  4. Economic data: This includes information about the local and regional economy, such as employment rates, income levels, and consumer spending patterns. Economic data can be obtained through government reports, industry associations, and other sources.
  5. Industry data: This includes information about the tourism industry, such as trends, forecasts, challenges, and opportunities. Industry data can be obtained through trade associations, industry publications, and other sources.
  6. Marketing data: This includes information about the effectiveness of past marketing campaigns, such as return on investment (ROI), website traffic, social media engagement, and conversion rates. Marketing data can be collected through analytics tools, surveys, and other methods.

Overall, effective tourism marketing decision making requires a comprehensive understanding of the target market, the destination, the competition, the economy, the industry, and past marketing efforts. By gathering and analyzing this information, tourism marketers can make informed decisions about product development, pricing, promotion, and distribution.

Q3. Why do we need to segment markets? Discuss the various tourism market segmentation variables.

Market segmentation is the process of dividing a market into smaller groups of consumers with similar needs, characteristics, or behaviors. Tourism market segmentation is particularly important because it allows tourism businesses to identify and target specific groups of customers with tailored products and marketing messages.

Segmenting the tourism market allows businesses to develop marketing strategies that are more effective in attracting customers and meeting their needs. By understanding the needs and preferences of different market segments, tourism businesses can create targeted marketing campaigns, tailor products and services, and allocate resources more efficiently. It also helps businesses to differentiate themselves from their competitors by offering unique products and services that meet the specific needs of each segment.

There are several variables that can be used to segment the tourism market:

  • Demographic variables: These include age, gender, income, education, occupation, family size, and ethnicity.
  • Geographic variables: These include location, region, country, climate, terrain, and proximity to other tourist attractions.
  • Psychographic variables: These include lifestyle, personality, values, attitudes, and interests.
  • Behavioral variables: These include travel habits, spending patterns, brand loyalty, and usage rates.
  • Cultural variables: These include language, religion, customs, and traditions.
  • Occasion variables: These include the reason for travel, such as business, leisure, adventure, or cultural tourism.
  • Benefit variables: These include the benefits sought by the tourist, such as relaxation, adventure, socialization, or cultural enrichment.

Tourism businesses can use one or more of these variables to segment the market and tailor their products and services accordingly. For example, a hotel may target families with children by offering special amenities and activities for kids, or a travel agency may target adventure tourists by promoting outdoor activities and extreme sports.

Q4. How is East-Asia Pacific region an important tourism generating market for India. Explain with suitable example.

The East-Asia Pacific region is an important tourism generating market for India due to several reasons. Firstly, this region has a large population, comprising several countries such as China, Japan, South Korea, and others, with a high percentage of middle-class travelers who are increasingly looking for new and exotic destinations to explore. Additionally, this region has a growing economy, and as a result, many people in the region have disposable income that they can use for leisure travel.

India, with its diverse cultural heritage, natural beauty, and historical sites, presents a unique and attractive tourism destination for travelers from the East-Asia Pacific region. For instance, the Buddhist pilgrimage sites of Bodh Gaya, Sarnath, and Kushinagar in India are significant attractions for Buddhist travelers from countries such as Japan, Thailand, and Vietnam. These sites are associated with the life and teachings of Gautama Buddha and offer an opportunity for travelers to learn about Buddhism and its history.

Another example is the popularity of Indian yoga and Ayurveda practices in the East-Asia Pacific region. Many people in countries like China and Japan are interested in holistic health and wellness practices, and India, with its rich tradition of Ayurveda and yoga, has become a popular destination for such travelers. They come to India to learn yoga and meditation, attend Ayurveda wellness retreats, and experience holistic healing practices.

In conclusion, the East-Asia Pacific region is an important tourism generating market for India due to the large population, growing economy, and cultural similarities with India. The country’s diverse tourism offerings, including religious, cultural, and wellness tourism, attract travelers from the region and offer significant potential for further growth in the future.

Q5. Define Market research and its purpose in tourism industry. Explain the survey methodologies in market research.

Market research refers to the process of gathering and analyzing information about a particular market, including the needs, preferences, behavior, and buying patterns of customers. The primary purpose of market research in the tourism industry is to understand the market demand, identify opportunities for growth, and develop effective marketing strategies to attract and retain customers.

Market research in the tourism industry involves the use of various survey methodologies to collect data from customers, including:

  • Online surveys: This method involves sending questionnaires to customers via email or social media platforms. Online surveys are cost-effective and can reach a large number of customers.
  • Phone surveys: This method involves calling customers and asking them to complete a survey over the phone. Phone surveys are suitable for collecting detailed information and can provide a high response rate.
  • Focus groups: This method involves gathering a small group of customers and asking them to share their opinions and feedback on a particular product or service. Focus groups are useful for collecting in-depth insights and opinions.
  • Observation: This method involves observing customer behavior, preferences, and buying patterns in real-life situations. Observational research is useful for understanding how customers interact with products and services.
  • Mail surveys: This method involves mailing questionnaires to customers and asking them to complete and return them by mail. Mail surveys are suitable for collecting detailed information and can reach customers who do not use the internet.

Overall, market research is an essential tool for the tourism industry to better understand customers and develop effective marketing strategies to meet their needs and preferences.

Q6. Write a detailed note on the potential and dimensions of Indian domestic tourism.

Domestic tourism refers to travel within one’s own country, and it has the potential to significantly contribute to the economy of a nation. In the case of India, domestic tourism is a vast and largely untapped market. India is a country with diverse cultures, traditions, and languages, which make it a unique destination for domestic tourists.

The potential of domestic tourism in India is immense, and it can have a substantial impact on the country’s economy. According to a report by the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), the domestic tourism sector in India is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.9% between 2019 and 2029. The report also states that the domestic tourism sector’s contribution to India’s GDP is expected to increase from 82.1% in 2019 to 83.9% by 2029.

There are several dimensions of Indian domestic tourism that make it a unique and exciting market. Here are some of the key dimensions:

  • Cultural Diversity: India is a country with diverse cultures, traditions, and languages. Each state has its own unique history, cuisine, and traditions, which makes it an attractive destination for domestic tourists.
  • Heritage Tourism: India is home to some of the world’s most iconic monuments and historical sites, including the Taj Mahal, the Red Fort, and the Ajanta and Ellora caves. Heritage tourism is a growing segment of the Indian domestic tourism market.
  • Adventure Tourism: India offers a range of adventure tourism activities, including trekking, mountaineering, rafting, and wildlife safaris. The Himalayas in the north and the Western Ghats in the south provide excellent opportunities for adventure tourism.
  • Religious Tourism: India is a land of spirituality, and it is home to many important religious sites, including the Char Dham Yatra, the Kumbh Mela, and the Golden Temple. Religious tourism is a significant segment of the Indian domestic tourism market.
  • Medical Tourism: India is emerging as a popular destination for medical tourism, with world-class hospitals and medical facilities offering affordable treatments for a range of medical conditions.
  • Rural Tourism: India’s villages offer a glimpse into the country’s rural life and traditions. Rural tourism is a growing segment of the Indian domestic tourism market, offering opportunities for visitors to experience local culture and traditions.

In conclusion, the potential of domestic tourism in India is enormous, and the country has a lot to offer to domestic tourists in terms of cultural diversity, heritage tourism, adventure tourism, religious tourism, medical tourism, and rural tourism. The Indian government has recognized the importance of domestic tourism and is taking steps to promote it further. With the right policies and infrastructure in place, domestic tourism in India has the potential to become a significant contributor to the country’s economy.

Q7. Discuss the characteristics of Japanese and Chinese outbound tourism market respectively.

Japanese and Chinese outbound tourism markets are both significant players in the global tourism industry, but they have some distinct characteristics.

Characteristics of the Japanese outbound tourism market:

  • High spending power: Japanese tourists are known for their high spending power and willingness to pay for premium travel experiences.
  • Emphasis on cultural experiences: Japanese travelers often seek out cultural experiences, including visits to historic sites, museums, and traditional markets.
  • Safety-conscious: Japanese tourists prioritize safety and security when traveling abroad, which often translates into carefully planned itineraries and travel arrangements.
  • Love for nature and outdoor activities: Japanese tourists often enjoy outdoor activities such as hiking, skiing, and cycling.
  • Preference for group travel: Japanese travelers often prefer to travel in organized groups, which can help them navigate language barriers and cultural differences.

Characteristics of the Chinese outbound tourism market:

  • Rapidly growing: China’s outbound tourism market is one of the fastest-growing in the world, with millions of Chinese tourists traveling abroad every year.
  • High demand for shopping: Chinese tourists are known for their love of shopping, particularly for luxury brands.
  • Emphasis on sightseeing and photography: Chinese travelers often prioritize sightseeing and photography, with a focus on capturing iconic landmarks and scenic vistas.
  • Family-oriented: Chinese tourists often travel with family members, including children and elderly relatives.
  • Love for food: Chinese tourists often seek out local culinary experiences and are willing to try new and exotic foods.
  • Increasingly independent: While group travel remains popular, there is a growing trend of independent travel among Chinese tourists, particularly younger travelers.

Q8. Differentiate between NRI and PIOs. As the Marketing manager of a tour operation company, discuss the various issues which you will have to address while targeting these market segments.

NRI (Non-Resident Indian) and PIO (Person of Indian Origin) are two distinct categories of people with a connection to India, but there are some differences between them.

NRI refers to an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country and stays there for employment, education or any other purpose for an uncertain period of time. An NRI may hold an Indian passport, but he or she doesn’t reside in India.

On the other hand, PIO refers to a foreign citizen of Indian origin who has at least one grandparent who was born in India or is a spouse of an Indian citizen or PIO. A PIO may or may not have an Indian passport but is entitled to certain benefits like visa-free entry into India, right to own property, and investment opportunities.

As a marketing manager of a tour operation company targeting these market segments, there are various issues to address.

  • Cultural Sensitivity: It’s important to understand the cultural differences between these market segments and design the tour packages accordingly.
  • Legal requirements: NRIs and PIOs have different legal requirements when traveling to India. NRIs may need to obtain an Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) card, while PIOs may need to obtain a Person of Indian Origin (PIO) card.
  • Language: NRIs and PIOs may speak different languages, and it’s important to have tour guides who can communicate effectively in their language.
  • Marketing Strategies: Marketing strategies for these market segments should be different as they have different needs and expectations. For example, NRIs may be more interested in exploring their ancestral roots while PIOs may be more interested in exploring popular tourist destinations.
  • Budget: NRIs and PIOs may have different budget requirements, and tour packages should be designed accordingly.
  • Safety: Safety is a major concern for all tourists, and it’s important to ensure that the tour packages cater to the safety needs of NRIs and PIOs.

Overall, targeting NRIs and PIOs requires a customized approach to cater to their unique needs and preferences. Understanding the differences between the two market segments is crucial in designing an effective marketing strategy.

Q9. Explain with suitable examples the market constraints in developing Indian tourism industry.

The Indian tourism industry has the potential to be a major contributor to the country’s economy, but there are several market constraints that have hindered its development. Some of the main market constraints are:

  • Infrastructure: The lack of proper infrastructure such as roads, airports, and hotels in many parts of India has been a major constraint in developing the tourism industry. Tourists often have to face difficulties in accessing certain destinations due to poor infrastructure. For example, the lack of proper roads in many remote areas of India makes it difficult for tourists to reach those destinations.
  • Safety and Security: Safety and security concerns are also major constraints for the Indian tourism industry. Incidents of crime, terrorism, and civil unrest can discourage tourists from visiting the country. For example, the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks had a significant negative impact on the Indian tourism industry.
  • Cultural Barriers: India is a diverse country with a rich cultural heritage, but this can also be a barrier to the development of the tourism industry. Language barriers, cultural differences, and lack of understanding of local customs can create difficulties for tourists. For example, tourists may be hesitant to visit certain parts of the country where they do not understand the local language or are not familiar with local customs.
  • Government Policies: The Indian government’s policies on tourism have also been a constraint in the development of the industry. High taxes, complicated regulations, and bureaucratic procedures can discourage foreign investment and hinder the growth of the industry. For example, the high taxes on air travel in India make it more expensive for tourists to visit the country.
  • Environmental Concerns: India’s natural beauty is a major attraction for tourists, but environmental concerns such as pollution and deforestation can discourage tourism. For example, the pollution in major cities like Delhi and Mumbai can make it difficult for tourists to enjoy their visit.

Overall, these market constraints have limited the growth of the Indian tourism industry. However, efforts are being made to address these constraints and promote tourism in the country. For example, the government has launched several initiatives to improve infrastructure and safety, and private sector companies are investing in new hotels and resorts.

10. Write short notes on the following

a) Destination specific travel motivators

Destination-specific travel motivators refer to the unique characteristics of a particular place or destination that motivate people to visit. Here are some examples:

  • Natural beauty: Destinations that boast natural wonders, such as beaches, mountains, waterfalls, or national parks, often attract travelers who are seeking scenic beauty and outdoor adventure.
  • Cultural attractions: Some destinations are known for their museums, galleries, historic landmarks, and cultural festivals, which can be a draw for travelers interested in art, history, or anthropology.
  • Food and drink: Many destinations are famous for their local cuisine and drink, such as Italy’s pizza and wine, Mexico’s tacos and tequila, or Japan’s sushi and sake. Foodies and wine lovers may be motivated to visit these places to indulge in the local fare.
  • Adventure activities: Some destinations offer unique adventure activities, such as bungee jumping, white-water rafting, or zip-lining, which can be a draw for adrenaline junkies.
  • Relaxation: Some destinations are known for their tranquil beaches, spas, and wellness retreats, which may attract travelers looking for a peaceful escape from the hustle and bustle of daily life.
  • Events and festivals: Destinations that host major events or festivals, such as Mardi Gras in New Orleans or the Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, may be a draw for travelers looking for a lively party atmosphere.
  • Wildlife and nature: Some destinations offer unique wildlife experiences, such as safari tours or whale watching, which can be a draw for nature enthusiasts.
  • Sports: Some destinations are famous for their sports teams, stadiums, and sporting events, such as football in Barcelona or basketball in New York. Sports fans may be motivated to visit these places to witness the excitement firsthand.

b) Market-led tourism

Market-led tourism refers to the approach where tourism development is driven by market demand and consumer preferences. It is a customer-oriented approach that seeks to meet the needs and wants of tourists and create products and services that are tailored to their preferences.

In market-led tourism, tourism businesses and destinations conduct market research to identify the needs and wants of different market segments, and then develop products and services that cater to those segments. For example, if a destination identifies a growing demand for adventure tourism, it might develop new hiking or mountain biking trails, or offer guided tours that cater to adrenaline-seeking tourists.

This approach contrasts with supply-led tourism, where tourism development is driven by the availability of resources or attractions, rather than market demand. Market-led tourism is generally seen as a more sustainable approach to tourism development, as it ensures that resources are used efficiently and that tourism businesses are able to generate sufficient revenue to sustain their operations.

c) Alternative forms of tourism

Alternative forms of tourism are types of travel that differ from traditional mass tourism in terms of their focus, purpose, and impact. These alternative forms of tourism prioritize sustainable and responsible tourism practices, cultural immersion, and unique experiences that are not typically found in mainstream tourism. Here are some examples of alternative forms of tourism:

  • Ecotourism: Ecotourism involves traveling to natural areas with the aim of conserving the environment and promoting sustainable development. It focuses on responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the well-being of the local people, and involves interpretation and education.
  • Volunteer tourism: Volunteer tourism, or “voluntourism,” combines travel with volunteering in local communities. The goal is to contribute to sustainable development while immersing oneself in the local culture and gaining new perspectives.
  • Cultural tourism: Cultural tourism focuses on learning about and experiencing the unique traditions, customs, and history of a destination. This type of tourism involves visiting cultural sites, attending festivals, participating in cultural activities, and interacting with local people.
  • Adventure tourism: Adventure tourism is all about pushing oneself to the limit and trying new things. Activities can include hiking, rock climbing, kayaking, bungee jumping, and other thrilling experiences. Adventure tourism can be done in natural or urban environments.
  • Rural tourism: Rural tourism involves traveling to rural areas to experience local life and culture. Activities can include farm stays, agro-tourism, wine tours, and cultural immersion in small towns and villages.
  • Wellness tourism: Wellness tourism is all about improving one’s physical and mental health. Activities can include yoga retreats, meditation workshops, spa treatments, and other wellness-related experiences.

Overall, alternative forms of tourism offer travelers unique and meaningful experiences while promoting sustainable and responsible tourism practices.

d) Forecasting in tourism

Forecasting in tourism is the process of predicting future trends and patterns in tourism demand and supply. The tourism industry relies heavily on accurate forecasting to make informed decisions about marketing, pricing, investment, and resource allocation.

There are different methods and techniques for forecasting in tourism, including qualitative methods (such as expert opinions, Delphi method, and scenario analysis) and quantitative methods (such as time series analysis, econometric modeling, and artificial intelligence techniques).

One of the key factors in tourism forecasting is understanding the drivers of tourism demand, which include factors such as economic conditions, exchange rates, transportation accessibility, natural disasters, political instability, and global events.

Tourism forecasting is essential for a range of stakeholders, including tourism businesses, destination marketing organizations, governments, and policymakers. By accurately predicting future trends, they can make informed decisions about investment, infrastructure, and policies that support the growth of the tourism industry while minimizing risks.

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