IGNOU MTTM 10 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MTTM 10 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MMTM 10 TOURISM IMPACTS Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MTTM 10 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MTTM 10 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

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IGNOU MTTM 10 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23  is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field.
IGNOU MTTM 10 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MTTM 10 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

Q1. Describe in detail types of economic analysis done to measure the tourism impacts.

Tourism is an important sector in many countries, contributing significantly to their economies. As such, it is essential to understand the economic impacts of tourism and how it affects various industries and communities. Economic analysis is one of the ways to measure tourism impacts. Below are the different types of economic analysis done to measure tourism impacts:

  • Input-Output Analysis: Input-Output (IO) analysis is a widely used economic tool that helps to quantify the inter-industry relationships within an economy. It measures the economic impact of a given industry on other sectors and the broader economy. For tourism, IO analysis can be used to estimate the direct, indirect, and induced effects of tourist spending on the local economy. Direct effects are the result of tourist spending on goods and services produced by the tourism industry, while indirect effects are the result of the industry’s purchases of goods and services from other sectors. Induced effects occur when people employed in the tourism industry spend their wages on goods and services in the local economy.
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis: Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a method used to evaluate the economic benefits and costs associated with a particular project or activity. For tourism, CBA can be used to assess the benefits and costs of building a new tourist attraction or hosting a major event, for example. The analysis considers the direct and indirect economic benefits, such as increased spending by tourists, as well as the social benefits, such as improved quality of life for residents. It also considers the economic and social costs, such as the cost of infrastructure upgrades, environmental degradation, and social impacts such as overcrowding and cultural erosion.
  • Multipliers: Multipliers are a measure of the indirect and induced impacts of an economic activity on the broader economy. In tourism, multipliers can be used to estimate the total economic impact of tourism on a particular region or economy. The multiplier effect takes into account the direct impact of tourism on the economy, as well as the indirect and induced effects. Multipliers can be used to estimate the total number of jobs created by tourism, the total amount of income generated, and the total value of goods and services produced by the industry.
  • Economic Impact Analysis: Economic Impact Analysis (EIA) is a method used to assess the economic effects of a particular event or activity. For tourism, EIA can be used to evaluate the economic impact of hosting a major event, such as the Olympic Games or a World Cup. The analysis considers the direct and indirect economic benefits of the event, such as increased spending by tourists, as well as the costs, such as the cost of building new infrastructure or security measures. It also considers the economic and social benefits and costs of hosting the event, such as increased employment opportunities, improved quality of life, and environmental degradation.

In conclusion, the economic analysis of tourism impacts is crucial in assessing the overall contribution of tourism to an economy, as well as understanding the potential benefits and costs associated with tourism activities. Input-output analysis, cost-benefit analysis, multipliers, and economic impact analysis are the main methods used to measure the economic impacts of tourism.

Q2. What do you understand by tourism carrying capacity? Calculate tourism carrying capacity of any beach area.

Tourism carrying capacity refers to the maximum number of visitors that a destination can sustainably accommodate without degrading its natural, cultural, and social resources. It takes into account factors such as the availability of infrastructure and services, environmental conditions, and visitor behavior.

Calculating the tourism carrying capacity of a beach area involves assessing various aspects of the site, such as the size of the beach, the capacity of local infrastructure and services, the environmental conditions, and the potential impacts of visitors. The calculation should also consider the type and frequency of recreational activities that visitors engage in and the level of visitor satisfaction that can be achieved.

To provide an example, let’s consider a hypothetical beach area. We’ll call it “Sunset Beach.”

  1. Size of the beach: Sunset Beach is 1 mile long and 50 yards wide, with an area of 35 acres.
  2. Local infrastructure and services: Sunset Beach has a parking lot that can accommodate 200 cars, four restroom facilities, and a lifeguard station.
  3. Environmental conditions: Sunset Beach has a fragile ecosystem with a variety of endangered species, and the beach is prone to erosion and pollution.
  4. Potential impacts of visitors: Visitors may cause damage to the ecosystem, contribute to pollution, and create noise pollution.
  5. Type and frequency of recreational activities: Visitors to Sunset Beach typically engage in activities such as sunbathing, swimming, surfing, and beach volleyball.

Based on the above factors, the tourism carrying capacity of Sunset Beach can be estimated as follows:

  • The parking lot can accommodate 200 cars, which at an average of 2.5 visitors per car, gives a total of 500 visitors.
  • Assuming that each restroom facility can accommodate 100 visitors at any given time, this gives a total of 400 visitors.
  • The lifeguard station can accommodate up to 50 visitors at a time.
  • The total number of visitors that Sunset Beach can accommodate at any given time is, therefore, 500+400+50=950 visitors.

It is important to note that the tourism carrying capacity is not a fixed number and can change based on factors such as weather conditions, visitor behavior, and changes to the infrastructure and services available. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the tourism carrying capacity is necessary to ensure that it remains sustainable over time.

Q3. Discuss the global characteristics of travel and tourism.

Travel and tourism are integral parts of the global economy and have significant impacts on people’s lives, culture, and the environment. Here are some of the global characteristics of travel and tourism:

  • Economic Impact: Travel and tourism are major contributors to the global economy. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, the travel and tourism sector contributed 10.4% of global GDP and 330 million jobs in 2019. The industry generates significant foreign exchange earnings and plays a critical role in the development of many economies.
  • Cultural Exchange: Travel and tourism provide opportunities for people from different countries and cultures to interact, share experiences, and learn from each other. It allows travelers to experience different cultures, traditions, and customs, and broadens their perspectives.
  • Environmental Impact: The travel and tourism industry has a significant impact on the environment. Transportation, accommodation, and activities all contribute to the carbon footprint of travel. The industry also puts pressure on natural resources such as water and land.
  • Technological Advancements: Technology has revolutionized the travel and tourism industry. The internet has made it easier for travelers to plan and book their trips, while social media has enabled them to share their experiences with a wider audience. Emerging technologies such as virtual reality and artificial intelligence are also transforming the industry.
  • Growing Demand: The demand for travel and tourism is growing globally. According to the UN World Tourism Organization, international tourist arrivals grew by 4% in 2019, reaching 1.5 billion. The rise of the middle class in emerging economies has led to an increase in travel and tourism, while an aging population in developed countries is driving demand for new forms of tourism.
  • Political and Security Concerns: Political instability, terrorism, natural disasters, and health crises are some of the security concerns that impact travel and tourism. Such events can result in a decrease in demand, cancellations, and lost revenue for the industry.

In summary, travel and tourism have significant economic, cultural, and environmental impacts on the global economy. The industry is experiencing rapid growth, driven by technological advancements and changing demographics. However, it also faces significant challenges such as environmental sustainability and security concerns.

Q4. How tourism, artisans and crafts are interrelated. Give suitable examples.

Tourism, artisans, and crafts are interrelated in various ways. Artisans and craftspeople create unique and culturally significant products that attract tourists seeking authentic and locally-made souvenirs. Tourists, in turn, provide a market for artisans and craftspeople, which allows them to continue practicing their craft and preserving cultural traditions.

Here are a few examples of how tourism, artisans, and crafts are interconnected:

  1. In many tourist destinations around the world, there are local artisans who create unique crafts and souvenirs that attract visitors. For instance, in Bali, Indonesia, tourists can visit villages where artisans create intricate wood carvings, batik textiles, and silver jewelry. Tourists can purchase these items as souvenirs and help support the local artisans’ livelihoods.
  2. In some cases, the craft itself becomes a tourist attraction. For example, in Oaxaca, Mexico, tourists flock to the local market to purchase traditional pottery, textiles, and other handmade crafts. The market itself has become a tourist destination, as visitors can watch the artisans at work and learn about the history and cultural significance of the craft.
  3. Tourists can also learn about the history and culture of a destination through its traditional crafts. For instance, in Kyoto, Japan, tourists can visit traditional Japanese paper-making workshops and learn about the history and techniques of this ancient craft. By learning about the craft, tourists gain a deeper understanding of Japanese culture and history.
  4. Artisans and craftspeople can also benefit from tourism by offering workshops or demonstrations to visitors. For example, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, tourists can take classes in traditional adobe brick-making, weaving, and other crafts. These classes not only provide an opportunity for tourists to learn a new skill but also offer a source of income for the artisans and craftspeople who teach them.

Overall, tourism, artisans, and crafts are interrelated in complex ways, with each element depending on the others to thrive. By supporting local artisans and craftspeople, tourists can help preserve cultural traditions and contribute to sustainable tourism development.

5. Write an essay on “Tourism related gambling and use of drugs”.

Tourism, gambling, and drug use are interconnected in several ways. People often travel to various destinations to experience new cultures, try new cuisines, and indulge in various recreational activities such as gambling. Unfortunately, tourism-related gambling and drug use have become major concerns in many tourist destinations worldwide. The aim of this essay is to explore the link between tourism-related gambling and drug use.

Tourism-related gambling is a booming industry that has attracted a lot of visitors worldwide. Many tourist destinations have developed various forms of gambling, such as casinos, lotteries, and horse racing, to attract visitors. However, the availability of gambling facilities in tourist destinations often leads to increased rates of gambling addiction among tourists. Gambling addiction is a serious problem that can lead to financial ruin, social isolation, and even suicide.

Moreover, tourism-related gambling is also linked to the use of drugs. Many tourists who visit casinos and other gambling establishments use drugs to enhance their gambling experience. For instance, some tourists use drugs such as cocaine, ecstasy, and methamphetamine to increase their energy levels and stay awake for longer periods. Others use drugs such as marijuana to reduce anxiety and improve their mood while gambling.

Tourism-related drug use is not limited to gambling alone. Tourists also engage in drug use in various other recreational activities such as parties and nightlife. Unfortunately, the availability of drugs in many tourist destinations has contributed to the growth of drug-related problems such as addiction, drug trafficking, and drug-related crimes.

Furthermore, tourism-related drug use and gambling also have a significant impact on the local community. The tourism industry is an essential source of income for many communities worldwide. However, the growth of drug-related problems and gambling addiction can negatively affect the local economy. For instance, an increase in crime rates and a decline in the tourism industry can lead to job losses, reduced revenue, and economic instability.

In conclusion, tourism-related gambling and drug use are serious problems that affect both tourists and the local community. While the tourism industry provides many benefits, it is essential to address the negative impact of drug use and gambling addiction. Local authorities and tourism industry stakeholders should work together to develop strategies to reduce the prevalence of these problems in tourist destinations. This could involve implementing stricter regulations on gambling and drug use, providing support for those struggling with addiction, and promoting alternative forms of entertainment that do not involve gambling or drug use.

6. Write short notes on

a) Cultural attraction

Cultural attractions are places, events, or experiences that provide insight into the history, art, traditions, and customs of a particular culture or community. These attractions can include museums, galleries, historical sites, festivals, performances, and other cultural events.

Visiting cultural attractions can offer a unique and enriching experience that allows individuals to learn about and appreciate different cultures. They can help to foster an understanding and appreciation of the diversity of human experiences and can contribute to a more tolerant and inclusive society.

Examples of cultural attractions include the Louvre Museum in Paris, the Great Wall of China, the Carnival of Rio de Janeiro, the Sydney Opera House, the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., and many others.

b) Contrived attractions

Contrived attractions are tourist destinations or experiences that have been created specifically to attract visitors, rather than being naturally occurring or historical sites. These types of attractions are often designed to be entertaining or gimmicky, with the goal of generating revenue from tourism.

Examples of contrived attractions include theme parks, zoos, aquariums, and man-made beaches. While these attractions may provide entertainment and recreational opportunities, they may also be criticized for their artificiality and lack of cultural or historical significance.

Critics argue that contrived attractions can lead to a homogenization of culture, as destinations around the world begin to resemble one another in their offerings of manufactured entertainment. Additionally, some people may find these types of attractions to be exploitative, as they often charge high admission fees and may rely on low-paid labor.

Overall, while contrived attractions can be fun and enjoyable experiences for visitors, they should be considered alongside more traditional cultural and natural attractions when planning a trip.

Q7. “Authenticity and historicity go hand in hand”. Critically analyse the statement.

The statement “Authenticity and historicity go hand in hand” can be interpreted in different ways, but generally it suggests that the authenticity of historical events and artifacts is important for their historicity, or their status as genuinely belonging to the past. In other words, to be considered historically significant, an object or event must be authentic and accurate to the time and place in which it occurred.

One possible interpretation of this statement is that it emphasizes the importance of using reliable sources and methods for studying history. Historians and other scholars rely on primary sources, such as documents, artifacts, and eyewitness accounts, to reconstruct the past. They also use analytical methods to interpret these sources and draw conclusions about historical events and trends. If these sources are not authentic or reliable, the resulting historical accounts may be inaccurate or misleading.

Another way to interpret the statement is to focus on the relationship between authenticity and the meaning of historical objects or events. For example, a historical artifact such as a painting or a piece of pottery may be considered authentic if it was created during the period it claims to represent and if it accurately reflects the cultural and artistic traditions of that time. However, the artifact may also have historical significance because of its symbolic or representational meaning. In this case, the artifact’s authenticity is important not only for its historical accuracy, but also for its ability to convey a deeper meaning about the past.

It is important to note, however, that the relationship between authenticity and historicity is not always straightforward. Historical sources and artifacts may be authentic but incomplete, or they may be incomplete but still have historical significance. Additionally, the interpretation of historical sources and artifacts may be subject to bias or the influence of contemporary values and beliefs. Therefore, while authenticity is an important factor in determining historicity, it is not the only factor, and it should be considered in conjunction with other factors such as cultural context, interpretive methods, and the goals of historical inquiry.

In conclusion, the statement “Authenticity and historicity go hand in hand” highlights the importance of authenticity in understanding the past and the significance of historical events and objects. While the relationship between authenticity and historicity is complex and multifaceted, it is clear that authenticity is an essential component of historical inquiry and interpretation.

Q8. Discuss the impacts resulting from increased human use of wildlife area. Give suitable examples.

Increased human use of wildlife areas can have a range of impacts on the environment, wildlife, and local communities. These impacts can be positive or negative depending on the type and intensity of human activity, the natural conditions of the area, and the management practices in place. Here are some examples of the impacts of increased human use of wildlife areas:

  • Habitat loss and fragmentation: As human activity increases, natural habitats can be destroyed or fragmented, reducing the available space for wildlife to live and breed. This can lead to population decline, reduced genetic diversity, and increased competition for resources. For example, the conversion of forests into agricultural land or urban development can fragment and degrade the habitats of many wildlife species, such as primates and birds.
  • Disturbance and displacement: Human activities such as tourism, hunting, fishing, and logging can cause disturbance to wildlife, leading to behavioral changes and even displacement from their natural habitats. For example, the noise and disruption caused by boats and ships can affect the behavior and communication of marine mammals like whales and dolphins, while the presence of tourists can cause stress and anxiety in primates and other sensitive wildlife.
  • Spread of disease: Increased human use of wildlife areas can also increase the risk of disease transmission between humans and wildlife, as well as between wildlife populations. This can lead to the spread of zoonotic diseases, such as Ebola, COVID-19, and HIV, which can have devastating consequences for both human and wildlife populations. For example, the recent outbreak of COVID-19 is believed to have originated from the wildlife trade in China.
  • Overexploitation: Human activities such as hunting, fishing, and harvesting of plants can lead to overexploitation of wildlife populations, causing declines in their numbers and potential extinction. For example, the demand for ivory and rhino horn has led to the poaching of elephants and rhinos in many parts of Africa, threatening their survival.
  • Positive impacts: However, increased human use of wildlife areas can also have positive impacts, such as providing opportunities for conservation, education, and sustainable livelihoods for local communities. For example, ecotourism can generate income for local communities and provide incentives for conservation, while sustainable hunting and fishing practices can provide food and income for rural communities.

In conclusion, increased human use of wildlife areas can have both positive and negative impacts on the environment, wildlife, and local communities. It is essential to balance the benefits of human use with the need to protect and conserve natural habitats and wildlife populations for future generations.

9. Discuss the impacts of tourism on “Mountain Environment”. How to minimise the same.

Tourism has both positive and negative impacts on the mountain environment. On one hand, tourism can bring economic benefits to the local communities and promote cultural exchange, while on the other hand, it can also lead to environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity, and disruption of the fragile mountain ecosystem.

One of the most significant impacts of tourism on the mountain environment is the increased demand for infrastructure, such as roads, accommodation, and recreational facilities. The construction of these structures can cause deforestation, soil erosion, and damage to wildlife habitats. Additionally, the influx of tourists can also increase the pressure on water resources, resulting in overuse and pollution of water bodies.

Tourism can also lead to an increase in waste generation, particularly non-biodegradable waste, which can have severe consequences on the environment. The accumulation of litter and garbage in the mountains can be detrimental to the wildlife and the natural ecosystem. Furthermore, increased pollution due to transportation and energy use can have adverse effects on air quality and contribute to climate change.

To minimize the negative impacts of tourism on the mountain environment, it is crucial to adopt sustainable tourism practices. These practices include:

  • Encouraging responsible tourism: Tourists should be educated about the impact of their actions on the environment and encouraged to adopt responsible behavior while visiting the mountains. This can include reducing waste generation, conserving water, and respecting the local culture and traditions.
  • Promoting eco-tourism: Eco-tourism focuses on minimizing the impact of tourism on the environment while providing economic benefits to local communities. This can be achieved by offering low-impact recreational activities, such as hiking and wildlife viewing, and promoting sustainable tourism practices.
  • Developing sustainable infrastructure: Infrastructure development should be planned and implemented in a sustainable manner, taking into account the impact on the environment. This can include using renewable energy sources, designing buildings to be energy-efficient, and minimizing the impact on the natural landscape.
  • Protecting biodiversity: Efforts should be made to protect the natural biodiversity of the mountains, including the conservation of wildlife and their habitats. This can be achieved through the creation of protected areas and the implementation of regulations and guidelines to prevent wildlife disturbance and habitat destruction.

In conclusion, tourism can have both positive and negative impacts on the mountain environment. To minimize the negative impacts, sustainable tourism practices should be adopted, focusing on responsible tourism, eco-tourism, sustainable infrastructure development, and biodiversity conservation.

10. Write short notes on the following:

a) NGO’s role in tourism

NGOs (non-governmental organizations) play an important role in the tourism industry. Here are some examples:

  • Conservation: NGOs work to protect the natural and cultural resources of tourist destinations. They may undertake research, lobby for policy changes, and collaborate with local communities to promote sustainable tourism practices.
  • Advocacy: NGOs can serve as a voice for local communities, advocating for their interests in the face of tourism development. They may work to ensure that tourism benefits are distributed equitably and that the negative impacts of tourism, such as displacement and environmental degradation, are minimized.
  • Education and awareness-raising: NGOs can raise awareness among tourists about sustainable travel practices, the impact of tourism on local communities and the environment, and the importance of responsible tourism. They may also provide education and training to local communities on sustainable tourism practices.
  • Capacity-building: NGOs can help build the capacity of local communities and small businesses to participate in the tourism industry. They may provide training and technical assistance on tourism development, marketing, and management.
  • Monitoring and evaluation: NGOs can monitor and evaluate the impacts of tourism on local communities and the environment, and work with stakeholders to develop strategies to mitigate negative impacts and enhance positive impacts.

Overall, NGOs can serve as important advocates for sustainable and responsible tourism, helping to ensure that tourism development benefits local communities and protects natural and cultural resources.

b) Relevance of tourism legislation

Tourism legislation refers to a set of laws, regulations, and policies that govern the operation and management of the tourism industry. It plays a crucial role in the development and sustainability of the tourism industry, as it sets standards and guidelines for tourism activities and protects the interests of tourists, tourism businesses, and the environment.

Here are some of the key reasons why tourism legislation is relevant:

  • Protection of tourists: Tourism legislation ensures that tourists are protected from fraudulent or misleading practices, unsafe accommodations or activities, and any other potential risks that may arise during their travels. This helps to build trust in the tourism industry and encourages more people to travel.
  • Quality standards: Tourism legislation establishes quality standards for tourism products and services, such as hotels, restaurants, and tour operators. This helps to ensure that tourists receive high-quality and consistent experiences, which can enhance the reputation of the tourism industry and lead to repeat business.
  • Environmental sustainability: Tourism legislation promotes responsible and sustainable tourism practices that minimize the impact of tourism on the environment. This includes regulations on waste management, conservation of natural resources, and protection of biodiversity.
  • Economic development: Tourism legislation can help to stimulate economic development by providing incentives for the development of tourism infrastructure and supporting small and medium-sized tourism businesses. This can create jobs and contribute to the growth of local economies.

Overall, tourism legislation is essential for ensuring the sustainable and responsible development of the tourism industry. It helps to balance the interests of tourists, tourism businesses, and the environment, and contributes to the long-term success of the industry.

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