IGNOU MPYE 014 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MPYE 014 Philosophy of Mind Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MPYE 014 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MPYE 014 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.
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IGNOU MPYE 014 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field. IGNOU MPYE 014 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 1 IGNOU MPYE 014 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 1.1 Q1. Critically evaluate the view that Language is a contingent system of symbols which accidentally develops in the human community.
- 1.2 2. a) Do you agree that animal has consciousness? Give reasons to support your answer.
- 1.3 d) What is apohavada? How does Apohavada reject realist understanding of the relation between language and world?
IGNOU MPYE 014 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
Q1. Critically evaluate the view that Language is a contingent system of symbols which accidentally develops in the human community.
The view that language is a contingent system of symbols that accidentally develops in the human community is a controversial one. While there is no doubt that the development of language is contingent in some respects, there are also strong arguments against the idea that language is entirely accidental.
Firstly, it is true that the development of language is contingent in some respects. Language is a cultural artifact that has developed over time through a complex interaction of social, historical, and cognitive factors. There is no necessary connection between the sounds or symbols used in a language and the meanings that they convey. Instead, the meanings of words and phrases are largely determined by social convention and cultural context.
However, it is important to note that the contingency of language development does not mean that language is purely accidental. Instead, language development is shaped by a wide range of factors, including the cognitive and neurological capacities of the human brain, the social and cultural environment in which a language is spoken, and the specific needs and purposes that language serves within a community.
Furthermore, the universality of language across human societies suggests that there may be some inherent features of the human brain or social organization that make language development more likely or advantageous. It is also clear that the development of language involves a significant degree of intentional communication and cooperation among members of a community.
In addition, the study of language evolution has revealed that many features of language, such as the use of syntax and grammar, are not accidental but instead reflect underlying cognitive and communicative processes. The development of language has also been linked to the evolution of other cognitive capacities, such as theory of mind and the ability to make and use tools.
Overall, while the development of language is undoubtedly contingent in some respects, it is not accurate to view language as a purely accidental system of symbols. Instead, language development reflects a complex interplay of cognitive, social, and cultural factors, and it is shaped by intentional communication and cooperation among members of a community.
2. a) Do you agree that animal has consciousness? Give reasons to support your answer.
As an AI language model, I do not have personal beliefs or opinions. However, I can provide information about the current scientific understanding of animal consciousness.
There is a growing body of scientific evidence that suggests that many animals possess some level of consciousness. For example, many animals have the ability to feel pain and to respond to stimuli in their environment, which are important indicators of conscious awareness.
Studies have also shown that animals are capable of complex behaviors, such as problem-solving, decision-making, and even self-awareness. For example, chimpanzees have been observed using tools, dolphins have been shown to recognize themselves in mirrors, and elephants have demonstrated empathy and mourning behaviors.
Furthermore, many animals have complex social structures and communication systems, which also suggest some level of consciousness. For example, bees have been shown to communicate through a dance-like behavior that conveys information about the location of food sources.
Overall, while the exact level of consciousness in animals is still a topic of debate, there is ample evidence to suggest that many animals possess some form of conscious awareness.
b) What are the Ethical implications of denying mind to the animals?
Denying mind to animals has significant ethical implications, as it raises questions about how we treat and value non-human beings. Here are a few possible ethical implications:
- Moral status of animals: Denying mind to animals may imply that they do not have the same moral status as humans, which could justify treating them as objects to be used for our benefit rather than beings with inherent value and rights. This view has been criticized by many animal rights advocates who argue that animals should be afforded some level of moral consideration.
- Animal welfare: If animals are not considered to have minds, it may be easier to justify the use of practices that cause them pain and suffering, such as factory farming, animal experimentation, and hunting. This can raise questions about our responsibilities towards animals and whether we have a duty to protect them from unnecessary harm.
- Scientific research: Denying mind to animals may affect the validity and reliability of scientific research that uses animals as models for humans. If animals are not considered to have minds, it may be assumed that their behavior is solely driven by instinct and not influenced by cognitive processes, which could lead to flawed conclusions and potentially harmful treatments for humans.
- Environmental conservation: If animals are not considered to have minds, it may be easier to justify destroying their habitats and ecosystems in the name of human progress. This could have long-term implications for the survival of many species and the health of our planet.
In summary, denying mind to animals has significant ethical implications for how we treat and value non-human beings, our responsibilities towards them, and the impact of our actions on the natural world.
Q3. Answer any two questions in about 250 words each.
a) Write an essay on the Wittgenstein’s account of understanding.
Ludwig Wittgenstein was one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, and his ideas continue to have a significant impact on contemporary philosophy. One of his most important contributions was his account of understanding, which he developed in his later works, particularly in his posthumously published Philosophical Investigations. Wittgenstein’s account of understanding is a complex and multifaceted one, but at its core is the idea that understanding is not a matter of grasping a set of rules or concepts, but rather a kind of skill or ability that is acquired through practice and use.
Wittgenstein begins his investigation of understanding by challenging the traditional philosophical view that knowledge is a matter of grasping necessary truths or concepts. He argues that this view is based on a mistaken assumption about the nature of language and that, in fact, language is a kind of activity that is embedded in social practices and uses. According to Wittgenstein, language is not a set of rules or symbols that we apply to the world, but rather a way of engaging with the world in a particular way.
This insight leads Wittgenstein to develop his famous notion of language games. A language game is a form of social activity that involves the use of language in a particular context. For example, playing chess involves using a specific set of words and moves in a particular way, and understanding chess requires not just knowing the rules but also being able to apply them in practice. Wittgenstein argues that understanding any kind of language game, whether it be chess, a joke, or a scientific theory, is not a matter of grasping a set of rules or concepts, but rather a kind of skill or ability that is acquired through practice and use.
Wittgenstein’s account of understanding has several implications for our understanding of language, knowledge, and meaning. First, it suggests that there is no one fixed or absolute meaning for any word or concept, but rather that meaning is always context-dependent and tied to particular language games. This means that we cannot simply look up the definition of a word in a dictionary and expect to understand its meaning in all contexts.
Second, it suggests that knowledge is not a matter of having access to some kind of objective reality, but rather a matter of being able to engage with the world in a particular way. This means that knowledge is always contextual and tied to particular practices and uses.
Finally, Wittgenstein’s account of understanding challenges the traditional philosophical view that knowledge is a matter of grasping necessary truths or concepts. According to Wittgenstein, understanding is a kind of practical ability that cannot be reduced to a set of rules or concepts. This means that there is no one fixed or absolute way of understanding anything, but rather that understanding is always relative to particular language games and practices.
In conclusion, Wittgenstein’s account of understanding is a radical departure from traditional philosophical views of knowledge and meaning. By emphasizing the importance of language games and practical abilities, Wittgenstein challenges us to rethink our understanding of language, knowledge, and reality itself. While his ideas are complex and often difficult to grasp, they continue to inspire new ways of thinking about these fundamental philosophical issues.
b) What are the presuppositions of Sphotavada? Discuss.
Sphotavada is a philosophical doctrine in Indian philosophy that deals with the nature of language and its relation to reality. It was developed by the philosopher Bhartrhari in the 5th century CE. The term “sphota” refers to the phonetic or auditory aspect of language, which is believed to be the primary carrier of meaning. Sphotavada holds that there is a unity between the sphota and its meaning, and that this unity is the basis for linguistic communication.
The presuppositions of Sphotavada can be summarized as follows:
- Language is a means of communication: Sphotavada holds that language is a tool for communicating meaning between individuals. Language is not merely a set of sounds or symbols but is a means of expressing thoughts and ideas.
- Meaning is conveyed by sounds: Sphotavada asserts that meaning is conveyed by sounds, rather than by words or their referents. This means that the sound or phoneme is the primary unit of meaning in language.
- The sphota is the unit of meaning: Sphotavada posits that there is a unity between the sphota, or the auditory aspect of language, and its meaning. The sphota is the indivisible unit of meaning that is conveyed by sounds.
- The unity of the sphota and its meaning is real: Sphotavada holds that the unity of the sphota and its meaning is real and objective. This means that the meaning of a word or sentence is not arbitrary or subjective but is grounded in the nature of language itself.
- Language is not a mere convention: Sphotavada rejects the idea that language is a mere convention or agreement between individuals. Instead, it argues that language has a natural basis in the structure of the human mind and the world.
- Language is not limited to words: Sphotavada asserts that language is not limited to words or other linguistic symbols. It includes non-linguistic aspects such as tone, gesture, and facial expression.
Overall, Sphotavada represents a holistic approach to language and meaning, emphasizing the unity of the auditory and semantic aspects of language. Its presuppositions have influenced many subsequent philosophers and linguists in India and beyond.
c) “Mind and Language are inter-connected.” Explain and evaluate.
The relationship between mind and language has been a topic of debate among philosophers, linguists, and psychologists for centuries. While there is no definitive answer, it is generally agreed that the two are inter-connected and influence each other in various ways. In this response, I will explain and evaluate the relationship between mind and language.
First, it is important to understand what is meant by “mind” and “language.” The mind refers to the set of cognitive processes that allow us to think, reason, perceive, and experience the world around us. Language, on the other hand, refers to the system of communication that we use to convey meaning and interact with others.
One way in which the mind and language are inter-connected is through language acquisition. Children learn language by being exposed to it from their environment, and the ability to learn and use language is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. This suggests that language is an integral part of the human mind.
Additionally, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that language influences the way we think and perceive the world around us. This idea is supported by studies showing that different languages have different structures and vocabularies, which can affect the way we conceptualize and express certain ideas. For example, some languages have multiple words for the same color, while others have only one, which can affect how speakers perceive and categorize colors.
Moreover, language is often used as a tool for thinking and problem-solving. We use language to formulate and express our thoughts, and it allows us to communicate with others and collaborate on tasks. In this way, language is intimately tied to our cognitive processes and can shape the way we think about and approach different tasks.
However, while there is evidence to support the idea that mind and language are inter-connected, there are also limitations to this relationship. For example, there are some aspects of the mind, such as emotion and intuition, that may not be easily expressed through language. Additionally, not all human thought is necessarily expressed through language, and some forms of thinking, such as creativity and imagination, may be more closely linked to non-linguistic processes.
In conclusion, the relationship between mind and language is complex and multifaceted. While there is evidence to support the idea that the two are inter-connected, there are also limitations to this relationship. Ultimately, our understanding of the relationship between mind and language will continue to evolve as we learn more about human cognition and the ways in which we use language to interact with the world around us.
d) What is apohavada? How does Apohavada reject realist understanding of the relation between language and world?
Apohavada is a philosophical concept in Hinduism and Jainism that refers to the process of negating or eliminating erroneous knowledge in order to arrive at true understanding or knowledge.
In the context of language and world, Apohavada rejects the realist understanding of the relationship between language and the world. Realism posits that there is a one-to-one correspondence between language and the world, and that language is able to accurately represent or mirror reality. However, Apohavada argues that language is inherently limited and cannot fully capture the complexity and diversity of the world.
According to Apohavada, language is a construct of the mind, and as such, it is limited by the perceptions and biases of the individual using it. Additionally, language relies on the use of concepts and categories to make sense of the world, but these concepts and categories are inherently limited and cannot fully capture the richness and diversity of reality.
Therefore, Apohavada rejects the notion that language can accurately represent the world, and instead emphasizes the need for individuals to engage in a process of negating or eliminating erroneous knowledge in order to arrive at a more accurate understanding of reality. This process involves recognizing the limitations of language and the need to constantly revise and refine our understanding of the world based on new experiences and insights.
Q4. Answer any four questions in about 150 words each.
a) Write a note on the John Locke’s idea of complex ideas.
b) Discuss the idea of Intentionality.
c) What is Machine Functionalism? Explain briefly.
d) What is Substance Dualism? Explain briefly.
e) Critically analyze the idea of emotional mind.
f) “Understanding is a process”. Elucidate.
g) Critically evaluate Kant’s understanding of perception.
Q5. Write short notes on any five in about 100 words each.
a) Volition as adaptive decision making
b) Innate structure of language
c) Innate idea
f) Property dualism
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