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- 1 IGNOU MPSE 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 2 1. Distinguish between political thought, political theory and political philosophy.
- 3 2. Discuss the philosophical foundations of Plato’s political theory.
- 4 3. Write a note on Aristotle’s methodology.
- 5 4. What has been St. Augustine’s influence on western political thought? Examine. 5. Elaborate upon Machiavelli’s classification of governments.
- 6 IGNOU MPSE 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 8 GET IGNOU Handwritten Hardcopy , WhatsApp – 8130208920
- 9 Write a short note on each part of the following questions in about 250 words.
- 10 6. a) Thomas Hobbes on the rights and duties of sovereign b) John Locke on social contract and civil society
- 11 7. a) Rousseau’s theory of General Will b) Critique of Edmund Burke
- 12 8. a) Immanuel Kant’s transcendental–idealist view of human nature b) Alexis de Tocqueville on religion
- 13 9. a) J. S. Mill on representative government b) Hegel’s theory of state
- 14 10. a) Marx’s Historical Materialism b) Marx’s views on communist society
- 15 Get IGNOU MPSE 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Now here from this website.
- 17 GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23
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IGNOU MPSE 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
: Answer any five questions in about 500 words each. Attempt at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 20 marks.
1. Distinguish between political thought, political theory and political philosophy.
Political philosophy and Political theory are two subjects that differ from each other in certain aspects. Political philosophy deals with topics, namely, justice, property, rights, liberty and law. On the other hand, political theory deals with the theory of politics and how it originated. This is the basic difference between political philosophy and political theory.
Political theory deals with the general theory of constitution and citizenship. In other words, it can be said that political theory defines and explains the various forms of government, namely, kingship, tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy, polity and democracy. On the other hand, political philosophy deals with the duties of the citizens towards a legitimate government.
It is said that Aristotle formed the constitutional theory based on the theory of justice. The conception of universal justice forms the basis of political theory. Great thinkers of past have said that politics is based on universal justice. On the other hand, epistemology and metaphysics are used in the study of political philosophy. The origin of the state, its institutions and laws are studied as part of the study of political philosophy. This is not the case with political theory.
Political theory is logical in its explanation and conclusions. On the other hand, political philosophy is metaphysical in its explanation and conclusions. The explanation of the disposition of power in society forms the crux of political theory. Power has to be nicely balanced among three entities, namely, states, groups, and individuals. Political theory deeply studies the balancing of these three entities.
Political philosophers had been thinkers all through their life. On the other hand, the experts of political theory had been practitioners all through their life. Political theory develops a materialistic outlook, whereas political philosophy develops a philosophical look. These are the differences between political philosophy and political theory.
According to the political scientists who supported the traditional or normative view, political philosophy and political theory were synonymous. It was not until the nineteenth century that a distinction was made between the two.
At that time, the theory was included in political philosophy. According to the prevailing idea, the role of political philosophy and political theory was the same.
In fact, no political theory can be understood without its philosophical basis. That is, no political theory is important without a prominent philosophical point of view.
The Source of the Difference between Political Philosophy and Political Theory
The main reason for the distinction between political theory and political philosophy is the emergence of positivism in the nineteenth century. The application of positivism in political science led to an attempt to differentiate between political philosophy and political theory.
Must-Read– Political Theory and Why Should We Study Political Theory?
Then empirical political scientists turned their presence in political science into the twentieth century.
They reject philosophical ideas and engage in value-free political discussions and empirical discussions should be based on the application of the natural sciences and through the collection of factual information.
The aim is to turn political science into natural science. They seek to create real political theories that have nothing to do with philosophy.
Empirical political scientists are in favor of freeing the theoretical discussion of political science from philosophy. This initiative is observed among behaviorist political scientists.
Difference between Political Philosophy and Political Theory
Modern political scientists do not acknowledge that theory has a place in political philosophy. According to them, the difference between political philosophy and political theory is clear. They say –
- Political theory is the determinant, independent power. There is no independent existence of theory in state philosophy.
- Although theories come in political philosophy, they are not based on science or information. The political theory relies entirely on the information.
- Political philosophy depends on customs, traditions, and values. Political theory is value-neutral, rational.
- While political theory plays a constructive role, theory cannot go beyond established beliefs in political philosophy. Mystery and superstition have no place in political theory.
- Philosophy is the main thing in political philosophy. In political theory, politics is anointed with its own role.
From the above discussion, you can differentiate between political philosophy and political theory in three ways.
- The Objective Difference
- The difference in terms of Subject Matter
- Differences in Validity
1. The Objective Difference
The objective difference between political philosophy and political theory is present. The main goal of political philosophy is to develop a universal and general theory of life that should be ideal in nature.
Political theory, on the other hand, seeks to find the cause of something happening. Modern behavioral statesmen can be taken as an example. They want to build a theory through experimentation, analysis, conclusions, etc., along with the discussion of facts.
2. Difference in terms of Subject Matter
The purpose of political philosophy is to establish an ideal state system. The method or method of reaching this is discussed in political philosophy. That is to say, political philosophy is preoccupied with the way to reach certain goals. For example, Plato writes about ideal state and it speaks of the ‘Philosopher King’ for reaching that ideal state.
On the other hand, the scientific approach is applied to the analysis of the issues of political theory and the future is discussed through analytical review of content from contemporary events and history.
3. Differences in Validity
The validity of political theory can be judged. But the legitimacy of political philosophy cannot be judged.
Eager to see the difference between political philosophy and political theory, the writers offered some more explanations.
They said that political philosophy is purely partial. Cause, there is no reliance on judging or measuring and statistics of different elements.
Although there is a theory, it is completely biased. Political philosophy judges what can or should happen without judging what is happening.
Its only goal is to suggest what the state will do without solving the problems of the state, without identifying the root of the problem.
Political philosophy, however, considers what is happening and goes deeper into the problem and finds a solution.
Is it Right to Differentiate between Political Philosophy and Political Theory?
According to many, it is not appropriate to artificially delineate the line between political philosophy and political theory. Political theory cannot be formed by completely excluding political philosophy.
The political scientists are simply influenced by some of his particular ideologies and meditative ideas. Both political philosophy and political theory are part of political science. So the existence of a normal relationship between the two cannot be denied.
Leo Strauss in his “What is Philosophy” has determined the relationship between political theory and political philosophy.
He opposes distinguishing between political philosophy and political theory and political science as well. In his opinion, the existence of political science without philosophy is impossible. Political philosophy and political theory are complementary.
According to him, the nature of political issues is reviewed in political theory. Again in political philosophy an attempt is made to understand the nature of the political subject as well as the ideal political subject. Concepts and discussions of values are inextricably linked with political philosophy.
After the above discussion of the Difference between Political Philosophy and Political Theory, it can be concluded that Political theory cannot be separated from philosophy in the actual proposal.
Political theory is directly influenced by political philosophy. No political theory can be formed by ignoring political philosophy.
No political theory can be developed by denying its philosophical point of view. Because without any philosophical commitment, no theory can be widely accepted.
2. Discuss the philosophical foundations of Plato’s political theory.
Plato’s political philosophy has been the subject of much criticism. In Plato’s Republic, Socrates is highly critical of democracy and proposes an aristocracy ruled by philosopher-kings. Plato’s political philosophy has thus often been considered totalitarian by some.
Critique of democracy
In the Republic, Plato’s Socrates raises a number of objections to democracy. He claims that democracy is a danger due to excessive freedom. He also argues that in a system in which everyone has a right to rule all sorts of selfish people who care nothing for the people but are only motivated by their own personal desires are able to attain power. He concludes that democracy risks bringing dictators, tyrants, and demagogues to power. He also claims that democracies have leaders without proper skills or morals and that it is quite unlikely that the best equipped to rule will come to power.
Ship of State
Plato, through the character of Socrates, gives an analogy related to democracy: he asks us to imagine a ship whose owner surpasses all those on the ship in height and strength, but is slightly deaf; his vision is similarly impaired and his knowledge of navigation is just as bad. He then asks us to imagine the sailors, all of which are arguing about who should have control of the helm while none of them have studied navigation. The sailors don’t even know that there is such a thing as the craft of navigation. All the sailors try to convince the owner to give control of the ship over to them, and whoever convinces him becomes the navigator or captain. They manipulate and trick the owner into giving over the helm. The true captain, the one with the knowledge of navigation is seen as a useless stargazer and never becomes the helmsman. The true captain represents a philosopher-king, who knows the forms of justice and goodness.
The ideal form of governance
In the Republic, the character of Socrates outlines an ideal city-state which he calls ‘Kallipolis’.
Classes in ideal society
Plato lists three classes in his ideal society.
- Producers or Workers: The laborers who make the goods and services in society.
- Auxiliaries: Soldiers.
- Guardians/Soldiers: Those who keep order in the society and protect it from invaders. From them is chosen the Philosopher King/Queen.
Plato’s ideal rulers are philosopher-kings. Not only are they the most wise, but they are also virtuous and selfless. To combat corruption, Plato’s Socrates suggests that the rulers would live simply and communally. Contrary to societal values at the time, Socrates suggests that sex should not be a factor in deciding who should rule, so women as well as men can rule. Socrates proposes that the Guardians should mate and reproduce, and that the children will be raised communally rather than by their biological parents. The children’s biological parents will never be known to them, so that no Guardian will prefer his or her own offspring over the common good. The children of the guardian class will be tested, and only the most wise and virtuous will become rulers.
Concern of Plato as thinker
Plato belonged to Athens. The kingdom was in bad condition. It was also defeated by Sparta. Athens was once the most prominent state, Plato wanted to know the reasons behind the downfall of Athens. He had great love for his motherland and he wanted to make Athens an ideal state.
What was problem in Athens according to Plato?
According to him Athens was not a single city. There were two cities, the city of rich and the city of poor. Ruling class was extremely rich whereas majority was poor. Hence despite patriotism, the morale of the people was down. Hence it became vulnerable to the external threats.
What was the reason behind the bad state of governance in Athens?
According to Plato, the real factor behind such a state in Athens was ‘the ignorance’ of the ruling class. They were ignorant about their responsibilities. They were ignorant of the fact that ‘public offices are not for private ends’ (corruption). Thus the lack of good governance is because of corruption and corruption is because of ignorance.
Ruling class in Athens was running after money and power. It is because of their ignorance they were thinking that money and power is an ultimate source of happiness. Since ruling class was running after money and power others also followed them. Hence the entire society was corrupt. It made Athens internally weak and so externally vulnerable!
What are the problems in running after money and power?
Money and power are limited in nature, hence bound to create conflict. According to Plato we should run after the things which are unlimited and which are of permanent nature e.g. Knowledge, Character, Beauty.
Hence Plato’s prescription is the institution of ‘Philosopher King.’
3. Write a note on Aristotle’s methodology.
Aristotle’s method, in ethics as in all other fields, was critical and empirical. In the study of any subject he began by collecting, analyzing, and grouping all relevant facts in order to determine their meaning and relations with each other, and this gave him a systematic and factually correct basis from which to generalize about underlying rules or principles. In generalizing, he used either the inductive approach, reasoning from many observed single instances to a universal proposition, or the syllogism, a means of deductive reasoning which he invented, and defined as “certain things being stated, something else follows of necessity without need of further testimony,” i.e., proceeding from previously established general rules or facts down to particular instances.
Aristotle’s chief contribution to political science is to bring the subject matter of politics within the scope of the methods, which he was already using to investigate other aspects of nature. Aristotle the biologist looks at the developments in political life in much the same way that he looks at the developing life of other natural phenomena.” Abraham Edel identifies features of scientific in Aristotle.
Some such features are: “His (Aristotle’s) conception of systematic knowledge is rationalistic”; according to him: “Basic concepts and relations in each field are grasped directly on outcomes – of an inductive process”; “Data are furnished by accumulated observation, common opinion and traditional generalisation”; “Theoretical principles emerge from analytic sifting of alternative explanation”; “The world is a plurality of what we would today call homeostatic systems, whose ground plan may be discovered and rationally formulated”; “Matter and form are relative analytic concepts. Dynamically, matter is centred as potentiality and form as culminating actuality”; “Man is distinctively rational”.
Major characteristic features of Aristotle’s methodology can be briefly explained as under:
i. Inductive and Deductive:
Plato’s method of investigation is more deductive than inductive where Aristotle’s methodology is inductive than deductive. The deductive features of Aristotle’s methodology are quite visible; though shades of Plato are reasoning remain in the margins. Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics does contain ideals of normative thinking and ethical life.
Same is true about his Politics as well. Like Plato, Aristotle does conceive ‘a good life’ (his deductive thinking) but he builds, ‘good’ and ‘honourable life’ on the inductive approach about the state as a union of families and villages which came into existence for satisfying the material needs of man. His inductive style compels him to classify states as he observes them but he never loses sight of the best state that he imagines.
ii. Historical and Comparative:
Aristotle can claim to be the father of historical and comparative methods of studying political phenomena. Considering history as a key to all the secrets, Aristotle takes recourse in the past to understand the present. The fact is that all his studies are based on his historical analysis: the nature of the causes and description of revolution, which Aristotle takes up in the Politics, have been dealt with historically.
Aristotle also follows the comparative method of study both intensively and extensively. His classification of states together with the consequent cycle of change is based on his intensive study of 158 constitutions of his times. Through comparative analysis he speaks about the ‘pure’ and ‘perverted’ forms of states.
iii. Teleological and Analogical:
Aristotle pursued teleological and analogical methods of analysing and investigating political phenomena. His approach was teleological using the model of craftsmanship. Aristotle insisted that nature Works, like an artist and in the process it seeks to attain the object for which, it exists.
Nature, Aristotle used to say, did nothing without a purpose man lives in society to attain his development; state helps man to achieve his end. Following his teacher Plato, Aristotle found much in common between a ruler and an artist, between a statesman and a physician.
iv. Analytical and Observational:
Aristotle’s methodology was both analytical as well as observational. In his whole thought-process, he observed more than he thought; all his studies were based on data and facts, which came under his keen observation. Through study, experiments and observation, Aristotle analysed things and, therefore, reached conclusions.
Regarding state as something of a whole, for example, Aristotle went on to explain its constituents – families, and villages. He declares man, a social animal by nature, considers family as the extension of man’s nature, village as the extension of family’s nature, and state as the extension of village’s nature.
At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Plato’s Academy. He probably experienced the Eleusinian Mysteries as he wrote when describing the sights one viewed at the Eleusinian Mysteries, “to experience is to learn” [παθείν μαθεĩν]. Aristotle remained in Athens for nearly twenty years before leaving in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy’s direction after control passed to Plato’s nephew Speusippus, although it is possible that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens at that time and left before Plato died. Aristotle then accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. After the death of Hermias, Aristotle travelled with his pupil Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island and its sheltered lagoon. While in Lesbos, Aristotle married Pythias, either Hermias’s adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they also named Pythias. In 343 BC, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander.
4. What has been St. Augustine’s influence on western political thought? Examine.
5. Elaborate upon Machiavelli’s classification of governments.
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IGNOU MPSE 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23
GET IGNOU Handwritten Hardcopy , WhatsApp – 8130208920
Write a short note on each part of the following questions in about 250 words.
7. a) Rousseau’s theory of General Will
b) Critique of Edmund Burke
8. a) Immanuel Kant’s transcendental–idealist view of human nature
b) Alexis de Tocqueville on religion
9. a) J. S. Mill on representative government
b) Hegel’s theory of state
10. a) Marx’s Historical Materialism
b) Marx’s views on communist society
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