IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Free PDF

IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Free PDF : MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022 , MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MPC 002 Assignment 2022-23, MPC 002 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.


1. Discuss cognitive development during middle childhood.

Ans. During middle and late childhood children make strides in several areas of cognitive function including the capacity of working memory, their ability to pay attention, and their use of memory strategies. Both changes in the brain and experience foster these abilities. During middle and late childhood children make strides in several areas of cognitive function including the capacity of working memory, their ability to pay attention, and their use of memory strategies. Both changes in the brain and experience foster these abilities.

Piaget – From Infancy to Middle Childhood

  • Infancy – Sensorimotor – Knowing is sensing and doing, object permanence is lacking
  • Early childhood – Preoperational – Egocentrism, centration, lacking conservation
  • Middle childhood – Concrete operational – More logical, exhibit conservation and understand reversibility

You should recall that during early childhood children are in the preoperational stage. During the preoperational stage we see egocentrism and a lack of conservation. According to Piaget, during early childhood children are learning to think symbolically about the world. Let’s now move on to the next stage in Piaget’s theory.

Concrete Operational Thought

From ages 7 to 11, the school-aged child is in what Piaget referred to as the concrete operational stage of cognitive development. This involves mastering the use of logic in concrete ways. The child can use logic to solve problems tied to their own direct experience but has trouble solving hypothetical problems or considering more abstract problems. The word concrete refers to that which is tangible; that which can be seen or touched or experienced directly. The concrete operational child is able to make use of logical principles in solving problems involving the physical world. For example, the child can understand principles of cause and effect, size, and distance. The child uses inductive reasoning which means thinking that the world reflects one’s own personal experience. For example, a child has one friend who is rude, another friend who is also rude, and the same is true for a third friend. The child may conclude that friends are rude.


As children’s experiences and vocabularies grow, they build schemes or schemas (schemas can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations) and are able to classify objects in many different ways. Look at the word below and write a list of the ways in which it could be classified:


One feature of concrete operational thought is the understanding that objects have an identity or qualities that do not change even if the object is altered in some way. For instance, mass of an object does not change by rearranging it. A piece of chalk is still chalk even when the piece is broken in two. You should recall that this was lacking during the preoperational stage (“lacking conservation”).


The child learns that some things that have been changed can be returned to their original state. Water can be frozen and then thawed to become liquid again. But eggs cannot be unscrambled. Arithmetic operations are reversible as well: 2 + 3 = 5 and 5 – 3 = 2. Many of these cognitive skills are incorporated into the school’s curriculum through mathematical problems and in worksheets about which situations are reversible or irreversible.


Remember the example in our last lesson of children thinking that a tall beaker filled with 8 ounces of water was “more” than a short, wide bowl filled with 8 ounces of water? Concrete operational children can understand the concept of reciprocity which means that changing one quality (in this example, height or water level) can be compensated for by changes in another quality (width). So there is the same amount of water in each container although one is taller and narrower and the other is shorter and wider.


While a preoperational child will think that a tall beaker filled with 8 ounces of water is “more” than a short, wide bowl filled with 8 ounces of water, children in this stage don’t make that error. Concrete operational children can understand the concept of conservation which means that changing one quality (in this example, height or water level) can be compensated for by changes in another quality (width). Consequently, there is the same amount of water in each container, although one is taller and narrower and the other is shorter and wider.


Concrete operational children no longer focus on only one dimension of any object (such as the height of the glass) and instead consider the changes in other dimensions too (such as the width of the glass). The cognitive limitation of centration is no longer interfering with exhibiting conservation.


Arranging items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight, in a methodical way is now demonstrated by the concrete operational child. For example, they can methodically arrange a series of different-sized sticks in order by length, while younger children approach a similar task in a haphazard way.

These new cognitive skills increase the child’s understanding of the physical world, however according to Piaget, they still cannot think in abstract ways. Additionally, they do not think in systematic scientific ways. For example, when asked which variables influence the period that a pendulum takes to complete its arc, and given weights they can attach to strings in order to do experiments, most children younger than 12 perform biased experiments from which no conclusions can be drawn (Inhelder & Piaget, 1958).

Information Processing Theory

Information processing theory is a classic theory of memory that compares the way in which the mind works to computer storing, processing and retrieving information.

There are three levels of memory:

  1. Sensory register: Information first enters our sensory register. Stop reading and look around the room very quickly. (Yes, really. Do it!) Okay. What do you remember? Chances are, not much. Everything you saw and heard entered into your sensory register. And although you might have heard yourself sigh, caught a glimpse of your dog walking across the room, and smelled the soup on the stove, you did not register those sensations. Sensations are continuously coming into our brains, and yet most of these sensations are never really perceived or stored in our minds. They are lost after a few seconds because they were immediately filtered out as irrelevant. If the information is not perceived or stored, it is discarded quickly.
  2. Working memory: (short-term memory): If information is meaningful (either because it reminds us of something else or because we must remember it for something like a history test we will be taking in 5 minutes), it makes its way into our working memory. This consists of information of which we are immediately aware. All of the things on your mind at this moment are part of your working memory. There is a limited amount of information that can be kept in the working memory at any given time. So, if you are given too much information at a time, you may lose some of it. (Have you ever been writing down notes in a class and the instructor speaks too quickly for you to get it all in your notes? You are trying to get it down and out of your working memory to make room for new information and if you cannot “dump” that information onto your paper and out of your mind quickly enough, you lose what has been said.) Information in our working memory must be stored in an effective way in order to be accessible to us for later use. It is stored in our long-term memory or knowledge base.
  3. Knowledge base: (long-term memory): This level of memory has an unlimited capacity and stores information for days, months or years. It consists of things that we know of or can remember if asked. This is where you want information to ultimately be stored. The important thing to remember about storage is that it must be done in a meaningful or effective way. In other words, if you simply try to repeat something several times in order to remember it, you may only be able to remember the sound of the word rather than the meaning of the concept. So if you are asked to explain the meaning of the word or to apply a concept in some way, you will be lost. Studying involves organizing information in a meaningful way for later retrieval. Passively reading a text is usually inadequate and should be thought of as the first step in learning material. Writing key words, thinking of examples to illustrate their meaning, and considering ways that concepts are related are all techniques helpful for organizing information for effective storage and later retrieval.

During middle childhood, children are able to learn and remember due to an improvement in the ways they attend to and store information. As children enter school and learn more about the world, they develop more categories for concepts and learn more efficient strategies for storing and retrieving information. One significant reason is that they continue to have more experiences on which to tie new information. New experiences are similar to old ones or remind the child of something else about which they know. This helps them file away new experiences more easily.

They also have a better understanding of how well they are performing on a task and the level of difficulty of a task. As they become more realistic about their abilities, they can adapt studying strategies to meet those needs. While preschoolers may spend as much time on an unimportant aspect of a problem as they do on the main point, school aged children start to learn to prioritize what is significant and what is not. They develop metacognition (awareness and understanding of one’s own thought processes; knowing about knowing) and the ability to understand the best way to figure out a problem. Metamemory, an element of metacognition, also improves. Metamemory, an awareness and knowledge of memory, is critical to school success.

2. Define life span development. Discuss the characteristics of life span development.

Ans. Development describes the growth of humans throughout the lifespan, from conception to death. It refers to development as patterns of change over time. It does not just involve the biological and physical aspects of growth, but also the cognitive and social aspects associated with development. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This field examines change across a broad range of topics including motor skills and other psycho physiological processes. Cognitive development involves areas such as problem solving, moral understanding, and conceptual understanding; language acquisition; social, personality, and emotional development; and self-concept and identity formation. Growth is defined as an increase in size; development is defined as a progression toward maturity. Life span development includes issues such as the extent to which development occurs through the gradual accumulation of knowledge versus stage like development, or the extent to which children are born with innate mental structures versus learning through experience. Many researchers are interested in the interaction between personal characteristics, the individual’s behaviour, and environmental factors including social context, and their impact on development. The scientific study of development is important not only to psychology, but also to sociology, education, and health care. By better understanding how and why people change and grow, one can then apply this knowledge to helping people live up to their full potential.

Often, developmental stages are defined by milestones. The term milestone refers to the development that has to take place according to the age of the child. For instance, almost all children start standing and walking at the age of 1 year and more, start saying a few words by the time they are one and half to two years etc. That a developmental stage has been successfully passed is indicated by the child mastering the developmental tasks of the particular period of development. Often, special milestones mark children’s accomplishments, such as walking in infancy and entering school in early childhood, and these milestones can help mark children’s movement inside and between developmental stages. Children build new skills and develop new skills on top of old skills and develop progressively from stage to stage; each stage is cumulative. Each stage of development depends on the mastery that had taken place in the previous stage of development and the present stage of development paves the way for mastering tasks in the next stage of development. Thus each stage depends on one another for progress in development. It is the tasks and skills children master that truly identify what stage they are in. Because of this, different children of the same age can be expected to be at different developmental stages. Children’s development progresses at its own rate. Also, children can develop different channels at different rates. For example, a twelve-year-old’s body may have already gone through puberty and may look like adolescence’s body, but that child may not have the cognitive and social abilities of an adolescent quite yet. It will take a little longer for their mind to catch up with the developments in the body. Children reach milestones across a wide range of ages. Sometimes children will appear to even skip an entire developmental stage in some channels as they advance quickly in a short amount of time. Developmental delays can be caused by disease, injury, mental disability, problems developing in the womb, environmental reasons, trauma or unknown factors.

It is generally agreed that there are periods in children’s lives in which they become biologically mature enough to gain certain skills that they could not have easily picked up prior to that maturation. For example, only at the age of 3 years the child may be able to have such muscular coordination that he can learn to write very few alphabets when taught so. In other words there is a certain readiness needed to learn a skill and children develop that readiness only at a particular age. For instance you cannot expect a 3 months old baby to stand on his two legs as it is impossible due to the immaturity of the organs that are needed for standing. Children are ready and open to develop certain things during specific stages but they need proper stimulating environment to develop the concerned abilities. Infants can grow in length and weight if proper and adequate nutrition is made available to them. If however there is a lack of nutrition the child will not grow as expected. This is why it is important for parents to understand how their children are growing and what nutrition to be given at what time etc. There are children who do not develop as expected, and this could be due to not only physical illnesses but also in certain cases due to sheer neglect by the parent and blatant abuse of the child by the parent.

3. Discuss psychosocial challenges in older adults.

Ans. Common psychological issues affecting older patients may include, but are not limited to, anxiety, depression, delirium, dementia, personality disorders, and substance abuse. Common social and emotional issues may involve loss of autonomy, grief, fear, loneliness, financial constraints, and lack of social networks. These psychosocial issues can also have an impact on and contribute to physical health. Psychosocial factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, social isolation, and poor relationships have been associated with an increased risk of hypertension, stroke, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, chronic or debilitating somatic or physical conditions such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular and/or respiratory diseases, and hearing loss are associated with increased rates of loneliness and depression. Paramedics must therefore practice holistic assessment and care of older patients and pay due attention to psychosocial issues as well as somatic conditions.

The complex and multifactorial nature of psychosocial issues can make them difficult to identify. Patients typically present to primary health care practitioners with somatic complaints. The presence of physical ailments can then hinder the identification of psychological difficulties as they are prioritized in the time available. Mental illness, inability to cope, or loneliness can also carry a stigma which prevents some patients from raising such concerns. Health care professionals may not recognize, ask about, or explore these issues with patients. This could be due to time constraints, limitations in their own skills and confidence, or lack of knowledge about available resources.

Paramedics are in a unique position to interact with and assess patients in their own environment. Unlike other health professionals, paramedics are able to observe living conditions which create a more holistic picture of environmental and social determinants of health. Paramedics can witness older patients living with little or no food in the house, or in unkempt and unhygienic living environments due to loss of function and/or lack of support. Such observations attest to a patient’s ability to maintain daily living standards unaided. A general practitioner or emergency department physician, for example, can only ask patients whether they are “coping at home,” with no guarantee of an accurate answer. Patients may deny the true nature of their situation due to fear of being institutionalized, losing independence, being embarrassed, or not having insight into the severity of their situation.

Aging is a physical and psychological journey, and many seniors fear they won’t age gracefully. They can become stressed, disengaged, and unable to handle change, which can lead to some of the issues mentioned below. To address these problems, you should learn more about the psychosocial aspects of aging and how it affects elderly people.

1. Isolation

Memory problems, reduced mobility, and various age-related issues could prevent your senior loved one from accepting invitations to social gatherings. The psychosocial aspects of aging might prevent him or her from maintaining a social life, increasing the risk of isolation. Motivate your loved one to get out into the community to establish new friendships while still maintaining old relationships. Staying connected to friends, family members, and associates could prevent isolation and keep your loved one socially active.

For families living in Barrie, respite care can be a wonderful solution when their aging loved ones need companionship and socialization a few hours a week or just need minor assistance with daily household tasks. At Home Care Assistance, we thrive on helping seniors maintain their independence while living in the comfort of home.

2. Family Issues

Family problems and an inability to handle the anxiety associated with them could prevent your loved one from taking on purposeful tasks in the senior years. Past conflicts that continue to go unresolved could keep your loved one from participating in purposeful activities, especially if family members he or she no longer associates with are in attendance when the events take place. Help your loved one come to terms with family issues, and develop strategies to help him or her handle family-related anxiety.

3. Poor Self-Esteem

Chronic conditions like dementia and Parkinson’s can lead to fear and grief and negatively affect self-esteem. Encouraging your loved one to take on new tasks and work on past goals could boost his or her confidence and quality of life. Your support could also reassure your loved one when it comes to changing treatments or accepting help from family members or professional caregivers.

4. Poor Hygiene

Poor mental health and cognitive impairment could prevent your loved one from maintaining good hygiene. When it comes to your parent’s appearance, help him or her get dressed, and make sure he or she always has clean clothes that fit properly. When seniors look their best, they can boost their mental and emotional health.

A home caregiver can be a wonderful source of support when your loved one needs help maintaining good hygiene. When considering in-home care, families should make sure their senior loved ones have the resources they need to maintain their independence and remain healthy. Trusted in-home care professionals can assist seniors with daily tasks like cooking, bathing, and exercise, and they can also encourage them to focus on healthier lifestyle habits.

5. Substance Abuse

Watching their health decrease, moving out of their homes, and other changes brought about by aging could cause seniors to turn to dangerous substances that affect their mental and physical health. However, helping your parent develop positive strategies for facing challenges could reduce his or her risk of drug and alcohol abuse. For example, turning to mentors or taking up fun hobbies can make your loved one less likely to use alcohol or drugs as ways to handle significant challenges.

6. Financial Anxiety

Older adults can experience a variety of psychosocial problems when aging, including anxiety caused by financial strain. Worries about finances could damage your loved one’s mental and emotional wellbeing. To stave off anxiety and enhance your loved one’s quality of life, look for financial resources he or she might qualify for, such as free meal services, discounted prescriptions, reduced utility expenses, and transportation programs.


4. Define intellectual disability. Explain its identification process in children and effective teaching strategies.

Ans. The term ‘intellectual disability’ refers to a group of conditions caused by various genetic disorders and infections. Intellectual disability is usually identified during childhood, and has an ongoing impact on an individual’s development. Intellectual disability can be defined as a significantly reduced ability to understand new or complex information, learn new skills and to cope independently including social functioning. As with all disability groups, there are many types of intellectual disability with varying degrees of severity.  These include considerable differences in the nature and extent of the intellectual impairments and functional limitations, the causes of the disability, the personal background and social environment of the individual. Some people have genetic disorders that impact severely on their intellectual, social and other functional abilities. Others with mild intellectual impairment may develop adequate living skills and are able to lead relatively independent adult lives.  Approximately 75 per cent of people with intellectual disability are only mildly affected, with 25 per cent moderately, severely or profoundly affected.

Impact of intellectual disability

The characteristics and impact of a person’s intellectual disability will vary depending on the cause.  There are a number of common characteristics that may have a significant impact on an individual’s learning, including:

  • difficulty understanding new information
  • difficulties with communication and social skills
  • slow cognitive processing time
  • difficulty in the sequential processing of information
  • difficulties comprehending abstract concepts.

Austed discussions during 2014 highlighted the challenges that students with an intellectual disability can experience at university level. Students may cope well with  the ‘hands-on’ components of  post-secondary study, but find it difficult to understand complex information.

One strategy known to be successful is to integrate people with an intellectual disability by providing opportunities for auditing classes. Auditing is an approach whereby a person attends lectures in an award course for general interest (i.e. not for the purpose of completing the requirements of the award).  Auditing does not include assessment, online learning material, or  attendance at laboratory or tutorial classes. It can include access to the library and general campus facilities.

Teaching strategies

It is important to know that despite difficulties in a learning environment students with intellectual disability can and do have the capacity to acquire and use new information. There is a range of inclusive teaching strategies that can assist all students to learn but there are some specific strategies that are useful in teaching a group which includes students with intellectual disability:

  • Provide an outline of what will be taught – highlight key concepts and provide opportunities to practise new skills and concepts.
  • Provide reading lists well before the start of a course so that reading can begin early.
  • Consider tailoring reading lists and provide guidance to key texts. Allow work to be completed on an in-depth study of a few texts rather than a broad study of many.
  • Whenever you are introducing procedures or processes or giving directions, for example in a laboratory or computing exercise, ensure that stages or sequences are made clear and are explained in verbal as well as written form.
  • Students may benefit from using assistive technology.

5. Elucidate Marcia’s identity status.

Ans. Marcia’s Identity Statuses. Marcia’s four identity statuses are diffusion, moratorium, foreclosure, and achievement. People experiencing a low level of crisis and a low level of commitment, or don’t know what they want or believe and aren’t trying anything, are in a state of diffusion.

Identity achievement has many implications for social functioning and self-presentation. In contrast with the undue self-consciousness that is associated with identity confusion, Erikson argued that identity achievement confers self-assurance and confidence owing to the integration of a sense of self with purpose to a committed future course. This enables social leadership (rather than conformity alone), flexibility (rather than role fixation), and the intimacy that derives from a secure self-definition that permits personal disclosure. In social situations, identity-achieved adolescents are more likely to be genuine and consistent in their self-presentation to others—that is, to be low in self-monitoring. Self-monitoring describes the individual management of self-presentation, expressive behaviors, and nonverbal displays of affect. Individuals high in self-monitoring regulate their expressive self-presentation to maintain desirable public appearances, and, thus, they focus on the interpersonal appropriateness of social behavior and use the expressions of others in social situations as signals for regulating the self. Individuals low in self-monitoring more typically express what they really think, feel, and believe and have little interest in regulating their expressive self-presentation according to the social climate. Self-monitoring tends to increase through adolescence as individuals develop more sensitive perspective-taking skills, increased social acuity, and a greater capacity to adapt to different communicative contexts. Most researchers have found that males are significantly higher than females in self-monitoring, although some have reported no gender differences. Most of the research on self-monitoring has, however, focused on the correlates of self-monitoring by documenting attitudinal and behavioral differences between high and low self-monitors that include differences in their social behaviors, perceptions, and beliefs about other people. As proposed by Snyder, self-monitoring is related to self-awareness and identity. Individuals high in self-monitoring have a pragmatic conception of self that defines identity in terms of specific social situations and corresponding roles—a flexible “me for this situation”. By contrast, low self-monitors seem to have a more principled conception of self that defines identity in terms of inner characteristics and personal attributes. Their sense of self derives from an enduring, continuing “me for all times and places” that does not vary significantly according to situation or role. 

6. Describe the ageing process in men and women.

Ans. The rate of aging in men was 1.4-fold higher than that in adult women. The rates at which men and women age are relatively slower until 65 years of age. After 65, their rates of aging rapidly advance (0.15 for women and 0.21 for men), following an exponential curve. IN developed nations, women tend to live longer than men and have notably lower death rates than men at all ages. The Japanese have the highest life expectancy at birth (78.6 years for men and 85.6 years for women in 2005) in the world. The sex difference in the average life span of the Japanese is almost 7 years. In addition, the numbers of Japanese centenarians in 2003 were 3159 men and 17,402 women. The number of centenarian women is approximately 5.5 times that of men. These figures suggest that women are biologically superior to men. However, it is also a well-known fact that women suffer from higher levels of morbidity than men.

As to possible reasons for the sex differences in longevity, it is, at present, considered that intrinsic differences based on genes, sex hormones, and reproductive physiology confer differential risks of morbidity. Besides these substantial factors, extrinsic factors such as lifestyle, health habits, exercise, nutrition, and the like may also have a connection with sex difference in biological vigor as potential moderators. At present, there is no single model that accounts adequately for group-level sex differences and for individual variability within each sex group. Manton and colleagues  suggested a need for more detailed biological models to represent the age dependency of human mortality as well as gender differences in that dependence. However, it is still not clear what factors might associate with sex differences in health and longevity.

To clarify this matter, we must have enough information about sex differences in human biological aging. The purpose of this study is to clarify sex differences in human biological aging, in terms of biological age as estimated by statistical means, and also to explore the biological aging superiority of women for health and longevity.

While a growing body of evidence is accumulating on the relevance of biomarkers of aging in human health and mortality, understanding the sex-specific features of these markers is lagging behind. Not only has the effect of sex been largely ignored but is also often considered a confounder rather than a source of biological variation. Treating sex merely as a confounder or a ‘nuisance parameter’ can lead to results that are not biologically relevant to either sex. In the following sections, we discuss the available literature on sex differences in humans, with supportive evidence from animals, for the most commonly studied biological processes and markers of aging and highlight the key lessons learned from these studies so far.

7. Explain Levinson’s seasons of life theory.

Ans. Psychologist Daniel Levinson developed a comprehensive theory of adult development, referred to as the Seasons of Life theory, which identified stages and growth that occur well into the adult years.

His theory is comprised of sequence-like stages. Each stage is shaped by an event or action that leads into the next stage. The stages are:

  1. Early Adult Transition(Age 17-22). This is the stage in which a person leaves adolescence and begins to make choices about adult life. These include choosing to go to college or enter the workforce, choosing to enter a serious relationship, and choosing to leave home.
  2. Entering the Adult World(Age 22-28). This is the stage in which a person makes more concrete decisions regarding their occupation, friendships, values, and lifestyles.
  3. Age 30 Transitions(Age 28-33). In this stage, there are often lifestyle changes that could be mild or more severe. For example, marriage or having children impact one’s lifestyle, and these changes have differing consequences on how a person develops depending on how they embrace the event.
  4. Settling Down(Age 33-40). In this stage, one often begins to establish a routine, makes progress on goals for the future, and begins behaving like an adult. People in this stage are often parents or have more responsibilities.
  5. Mid-Life Transition(Age 40-45). This time period is sometimes one of crisis. A person begins to evaluate his or her life. Values may change, and how society views these people may change also. Some people make drastic life changes, such as divorce or a career change. At this point, people begin thinking about death and begin to think about leaving a legacy.
  6. Entering Middle Adulthood(Age 45-50). In this stage, choices must be made about the future and possibly retirement. People begin to commit to new tasks and continue to think about the legacy they are leaving.
  7. Late Adulthood(Age 60+). In this stage, one begins to reflect on life and the decisions they have made.

Levinson also indicated that each stage consists of two types of periods:

  • The Stable Period, in which a person makes crucial choices in life.
  • The Transitional Period, in which one stage ends and another begins.

Vaillant’s Theory

Psychiatrist George Vaillant spent most of his career researching and charting adult development. His work is based on research of over 800 men and women spanning 60 years.

Vaillant identified six adult life tasks that must be successfully accomplished in order for a person to mature as an adult.

The tasks are:

  1. Developing an Identity. Vaillant explained that an adolescent must establish an identity that allows a separation from parents. This identity is made up of one’s values, passions, and beliefs.
  2. Development of Intimacy. This allows a person to have reciprocal relationships with another person. This task involves expanding one’s sense of self to include another person.
  3. Career Consolidation. In this task, the person finds a career that is valuable to society and to him or herself. According to Vaillant, a job turns into a career once one has contentment, compensation, competence, and commitment. He notes that such a career could be that of a spouse or stay-at-home parent as well.
  4. Generativity. This involves the unselfish will and capacity to give. Generativity means being in a relationship in which one gives up much of the control. For example, serving as a consultant or mentor to others would help establish generativity.
  5. Becoming Keeper of the Meaning. This task involves passing on the traditions of the past to the next generation.
  6. Achieving Integrity. This task involves achieving a sense of peace and unity with respect to one’s life and to the world itself.

Neugarten’s Theory

The psychologist Bernice Neugarten was one of the first to research and teach adult development. She proposed The Social Clock Theory in which there are age-graded expectations for life events. Being on-time or off-time from these major life events, such as beginning a first job, getting married, or retiring, can profoundly affect self-esteem.

8. Describe cognitive changes during middle adulthood.

Ans. Cognitive skills in the aging brain have also been studied extensively in pilots and air-traffic controllers.

As discussed previously, adults tend to think in more practical terms than do adolescents. Although they may be able to use abstract reasoning when they approach a situation and consider possibilities, they are more likely to think practically about what is likely to occur.

Midlife adults in the United States often find themselves in classrooms. Whether they enroll in school to sharpen particular skills, to retool and reenter the workplace, or to pursue interests that have previously been neglected, these students tend to approach learning differently than do younger college students (Knowles, Horton, & Swanson, 1998).

An 18-year-old college student may focus more on rote memorization in studying for tests. They may be able to memorize information more quickly than an older student, but not have as thorough a grasp on the meaning of that information. Older students may take a bit longer to learn material, but are less likely to forget it quickly. Adult learners tend to look for relevance and meaning when learning information. Older adults have the hardest time learning material that is meaningless or unfamiliar. They are more likely to ask themselves, “What does this mean?” or “Why is this important?” when being introduced to information. Older adults are more task-oriented learners and want to organize their activity around problem-solving. They see the instructor as a resource person rather than the “expert” and appreciate having their life experience recognized and incorporated into the material being covered.

Brain Functioning

The brain, at midlife, has been shown to not only maintain many of the abilities of young adults, but also gain new ones. Some individuals in middle age actually have improved cognitive functioning. The brain continues to demonstrate plasticity and rewires itself in middle age based on experiences. Research has demonstrated that older adults use more of their brains than younger adults. In fact, older adults who perform the best on tasks are more likely to demonstrate bilateralization than those who perform worst. Additionally, the amount of white matter in the brain, which is responsible for forming connections among neurons, increases into the 50s before it declines.

As discussed previously, adults tend to think in more practical terms than do adolescents. Although they may be able to use abstract reasoning when they approach a situation and consider possibilities, they are more likely to think practically about what is likely to occur.

Midlife adults in the United States often find themselves in classrooms. Whether they enroll in school to sharpen particular skills, to retool and reenter the workplace, or to pursue interests that have previously been neglected, these students tend to approach learning differently than do younger college students (Knowles, Horton, & Swanson, 1998).

An 18-year-old college student may focus more on rote memorization in studying for tests. They may be able to memorize information more quickly than an older student, but not have as thorough a grasp on the meaning of that information. Older students may take a bit longer to learn material, but are less likely to forget it quickly. Adult learners tend to look for relevance and meaning when learning information. Older adults have the hardest time learning material that is meaningless or unfamiliar. Older adults are more task-oriented learners and want to organize their activity around problem-solving. They see the instructor as a resource person rather than the “expert” and appreciate having their life experience recognized and incorporated into the material being covered.

Brain Functioning

The brain, at midlife, has been shown to not only maintain many of the abilities of young adults, but also gain new ones. Some individuals in middle age actually have improved cognitive functioning. The brain continues to demonstrate plasticity and rewires itself in middle age based on experiences. Research has demonstrated that older adults use more of their brains than younger adults. In fact, older adults who perform the best on tasks are more likely to demonstrate bilateralization than those who perform worst. Additionally, the amount of white matter in the brain, which is responsible for forming connections among neurons, increases into the 50s before it declines.


9. Exceptional children

Ans. “An exceptional child is he who deviates physically, intellectually, emotionally and socially so markedly from what is considered to be normal growth and development”.

School children are normally distributed into below average, average and above average. But there are a few children who may be found to deviate mentally, socially, educationally and physically from the normal children. These deviated children like other children, need security, love, affection and satisfaction of their urges. When they are denied the satisfaction of their social and emotional needs, due to some reason or the other they become emotionally disturbed and suffer from adjustment problems. As a result they fail to pay required attention to their studies and thus become educationally subnormal. Learning becomes futile, they become conscious of their inferiority complex and socially they feel isolated. There by, their achievement seems to be less when compared to normal children. Therefore they need careful attention. Such children distinctly require special educational care in a specialized manner. In addition to their problems specially in relation to the adjustments have to be considered. These deviated children are often designated as exceptional children.

10. Cross-sectional method

Ans. Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case–control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies.

11. Grammar and pragmatics

Ans. The term “pragmatics” is commonly used in two quite different senses. In linguistic discourse, “pragmatics” refers to the strategies (exploitation of shared knowledge, assumptions about communicative intent, etc.), by which language users relate the dictionary/grammar meaning of utterances to their communicative value in context. “Pragmatics” in this sense deals with what is not encoded in language, and applies to all language use. In language teaching, on the other hand, “pragmatics” generally refers to the encoding of particular communicative functions, especially those relevant to interpersonal exchanges, in specific grammatical and lexical elements of a given language. Confusion between the two senses leads to the common and mistaken claim that all the structures of a language encode two levels of meaning, “semantic” and “pragmatic,” both of which must be learnt for communicative competence. A further common claim, that earlier language teaching failed to consider pragmatic aspects of language, is equally unfounded.

12. Signs of negative self-concept in adolescents

Ans. While it can be normal for a teenager to lack confidence at times, people with self-esteem issues normally view themselves differently to how others view them.

Low self-esteem can be particularly hard for young people especially when they’re doing things  like starting high school or work, and forming new friendships and relationships. Keep reading to understand self-esteem issues that may come up for your teenager and ways to help your child feel better about themselves and their capabilities.

  • suspect your child is suffering from low self-esteem
  • want to learn how to build your child’s self-esteem
  • would like to identify the causes of your child’s low self-esteem.

Positive self-esteem for teens is important as it allows them to try new things, take healthy risks and solve problems. In turn, their learning and development will be productive and will set them up for a healthy and positive future. A young person with healthy self-esteem is more likely to display positive behavioural characteristics, such as:

  • acting independent and mature
  • taking pride in their accomplishments/acheivements
  • accepting frustration and dealing with it responsibly
  • trying new things and challenges
  • helping others when possible

When someone has low self-esteem they tend to avoid situations where they think there’s risk of failure, embarrassment or making mistakes. These can involve school work, making friends, and trying new activities, which are all important parts of a healthy teenage life.

If the low self-esteem is not identified and treated, then it can lead to problems such as:

  • relationship troubles or difficulty making friends
  • -negative moods such as feeling sad, anxious, ashamed or angry
  • low motivation
  • poor body image
  • earlier sexual activity
  • drinking alcohol and/or taking drugs to feel better

13. Growth spurt

Ans. Growth spurts are short periods of time when your child experiences quick physical growth in height and weight. Growth spurts are a normal part of your child’s development and occur at different stages of their childhood until they reach physical maturity.

Children (babies through adolescents) experience patterns of growth as they age. Each child is unique and will grow at their own pace before they reach physical maturity between the ages of 15 and 20. Throughout their development, children experience growth spurts. Growth spurts occur when your child reaches new physical growth milestones (height and weight) within a short period of time.

Growth spurts are physical changes that occur quickly as your child ages, including length, height and weight increases.

Developmental milestones are actions and skills that mark your child’s growing maturity at specific stages. Developmental milestones focus on how your child thinks (cognitive and language skills), plays (social and emotional skills) and moves (motor skills).

14. New egocentrism

Ans. Egocentrism refers to someone’s inability to understand that another person’s view or opinion may be different than their own. It represents a cognitive bias, in that someone would assume that others share the same perspective as they do, unable to imagine that other people would have a perception of their own.

Since the term egocentric describes someone who is self-focused and unable to imagine any other perspective than their own, you might wonder if this is the same thing as narcissism. Although there are some parallels, there is a distinct difference between egocentric and narcissistic personalities.

Some of the similarities between egocentric and narcissistic include:

  • Focus on own perception and opinion
  • Lack of empathy
  • Inability to recognize the needs of others
  • Excessive thoughts of how others might view them
  • Decision-making around the needs of self

In addition to these traits, however, narcissistic people also demonstrate:

  • Excessive need for recognition and admiration
  • View self as extraordinarily worthy or important
  • Sense of entitlement
  • Manipulate others to get what they want
  • Arrogant and pretentious behaviors
  • Preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, or beauty

15. Sociometric rejections

Ans. In other words, children who are popular, neglected, or controversial when they are young may or may not hold that status several years later. However, children who are actively rejected at a young age still tend to be rejected several years later. Without intervention, they do not acquire the social skills they need to experience peer acceptance.

Rejected children, especially rejected-aggressive children, are at high risk for negative outcomes such as delinquency, hyperactivity, attention deficit hyper-activity disorder, conduct problems, and substance abuse. In addition, they are at higher risk than are the other groups for feelings of loneliness, depression, and for obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, these children can benefit from interventions. Parents and teachers who coach children on how to deal with conflict and difficult social situations, how to meet and interact with unfamiliar peers, and who also model and reinforce socially competent behavior can assist children in developing their social skills. Ultimately, children who learn about appropriate social behaviors, how to implement them, and how to interpret social feedback from others should become more socially competent and experience better peer relations.

16. Social hazards during early childhood

Ans. Children may have issues with peers like bullying and teasing. There can be many reasons for children becoming bully and few of them becoming their victims. Many a times these bullying incidents are due to caste, creed, physical appearance, obesity, complexion, etc. The victims may not be able to tell their parents about the incidents until late and after that it becomes very difficult to completely erase the memory of those incidents and affect adversely in the long run.

Play Hazards: Play is an important part of childhood. We all remember what games we used to play in our childhood. Even we remember the names of our play partners till today. There can be many hazards related to playground too. There are many incidents in which we see that some children always remain isolated in the playground.

17. Continuity vs discontinuity

Ans. The continuity view says that change is gradual. Children become more skillful in thinking, talking or acting much the same way as they get taller.

The discontinuity view sees development as more abrupt-a succession of changes that produce different behaviors in different age-specific life periods called stages.

There are two effective ways to study nature-nurture.

  1. Twin studies: Identical twins have the same genotype, and fraternal twins have an average of 50% of their genes in common.
  2. Adoption studies: Similarities with the biological family support nature, while similarities with the adoptive family support nurture.

Stability implies personality traits present during infancy endure throughout the lifespan. In contrast, change theorists argue that personalities are modified by interactions with family, experiences at school, and acculturation.

This capacity for change is called plasticity. For example, Rutter (1981) discovered than somber babies living in understaffed orphanages often become cheerful and affectionate when placed in socially stimulating adoptive homes.

18. High-risk behaviours during adolescence

Ans. Risk behaviours in adolescence, such as alcohol intake, substance use, poor diet, physical inactivity and unprotected sex, are common. The frequency of many of these behaviours increases through adolescence and can continue into adulthood with consequent morbidity and premature mortality. While many studies examine the clustering of one or two behaviours, few studies have examined a wide range of behaviours.

Many health behaviours in adults differ by socio-economic status (SES), with lower SES associated with increased numbers of unhealthy behaviours. Yet, in adolescence, such patterning is not always found, with low SES sometimes increasing, decreasing or being unrelated to risk behaviours. Social patterning of behaviour can also change over time, as illustrated by the history of smoking behaviour that started in higher SES groups but the prevalence of which first declined in these groups. Further, different measures of social class may show different relationships with risk behaviours. For example, the knowledge and skills attained through education may increase health literacy and make individuals more receptive to health education messages, and therefore, maternal education may influence the attitudes of offspring regarding the value of health and engagement in risk behaviours.





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