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SECTION – A
1. Discuss the structure and functions of language.
Ans. As an ELL teacher, Stella cares tremendously about her students’ capacity to use language to meet their own communication needs.
One thing she has been thinking about lately is the ways that the structures, or components of language, relate to language functions, or the underlying goals of language.
Stella understands that the relationship between structure and function is important: it will help her teach her students the specific components they need in the English language so that they can communicate what they want to say.
She begins thinking about what structure really means and how it can make a difference in linguistic function.
language, a system of conventional spoken, manual, or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, express themselves. The functions of language include communication, the expression of identity, play, imaginative expression, and emotional release.
Many definitions of language have been proposed. Henry Sweet, an English phonetician and language scholar, stated: “Language is the expression of ideas by means of speech-sounds combined into words. Words are combined into sentences, this combination answering to that of ideas into thoughts.” The American linguists Bernard Bloch and George L. Trager formulated the following definition: “A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group cooperates.” Any succinct definition of language makes a number of presuppositions and begs a number of questions. The first, for example, puts excessive weight on “thought,” and the second uses “arbitrary” in a specialized, though legitimate, way.
A number of considerations (marked in italics below) enter into a proper understanding of language as a subject:
Every physiologically and mentally typical person acquires in childhood the ability to make use, as both sender and receiver, of a system of communication that comprises a circumscribed set of symbols (e.g., sounds, gestures, or written or typed characters). In spoken language, this symbol set consists of noises resulting from movements of certain organs within the throat and mouth. In signed languages, these symbols may be hand or body movements, gestures, or facial expressions. By means of these symbols, people are able to impart information, to express feelings and emotions, to influence the activities of others, and to comport themselves with varying degrees of friendliness or hostility toward persons who make use of substantially the same set of symbols.
Different systems of communication constitute different languages; the degree of difference needed to establish a different language cannot be stated exactly. No two people speak exactly alike; hence, one is able to recognize the voices of friends over the telephone and to keep distinct a number of unseen speakers in a radio broadcast. Yet, clearly, no one would say that they speak different languages. Generally, systems of communication are recognized as different languages if they cannot be understood without specific learning by both parties, though the precise limits of mutual intelligibility are hard to draw and belong on a scale rather than on either side of a definite dividing line. Substantially different systems of communication that may impede but do not prevent mutual comprehension are called dialects of a language. In order to describe in detail the actual different language patterns of individuals, the term idiolect, meaning the habits of expression of a single person, has been coined.
2. Critically discuss Das, Naglieri and Kirby’s PASS theory.
Ans. The PASS (Planning, Attention-arousal, and Simultaneous-successive )THEORY of intelligence has been developed by J.P Das, Jack Naglieri, and Kirby (1994).They proposed that three functional units of brain determine the intellectual activity of an individual. These three units are responsible for planning, arousal/attention and simultaneous/Successive processing These PASS processes are interactive in nature yet each has its own distinctive functions.
Attention-Arousal: This process is basic to any behavior and it is processed by 1st functional unit of brain that involves the ability to selectively attend to stimuli while ignoring other distractions. Arousal keeps people awake ana alert .The arousal functions are generally associated with the brain stem and thalamus. Individuals with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) have impairments in this area. An optimal level of arousal focuses our attention to the relevant portion of a problem.
Simultaneous Processing: This involves the ability to integrate separate stimuli/information to our knowledge system as a interrelated whole. The occipital and parietal lobes are thought to be important for these functions. For example, in Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) Test, a design is given and one of its part has been removed. We are required to choose one of the six options which completes the design. Simultaneous processing helps us in finding relationship between the given abstract figures. Simultaneous processing is broadly with occipital and parietal lobes.
Successive Processing: This involves the ability to integrate stimuli/information into a sequential order. Learning of digits, alphabets, multiplication tables, etc. are examples of successive processing. This type of processing is related to temporal lobe.
Planning: This is the ability of an individual to make decisions about how to solve problems and how to carry out the task. It involves setting goals, courses of action to reach the goal and anticipating their consequences. Planning is associated with the frontal lobes of the brain.
The Planning, Attention-Arousal, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) theory of intelligence, first proposed in 1975 Das, Kirby, and Jarman (1975), and later elaborated by Das, Naglieri & Kirby (1994) and Das, Kar & Parrila, (1996) challenges g-theory on the grounds that the brain is made up of interdependent, but separate, functional systems. Neuroimaging studies and clinical studies of individuals with brain lesions make it clear that the brain is modularized; for example, damage to a very specific area of the left temporal lobe will impair the production (but not the comprehension) of spoken and written language. Damage to an adjacent area will have the opposite impact, preserving the individual’s ability to produce, but not understand speech and text.
The PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive cognitive processing) theory of intelligence identifies three operational units that are important to understand mental functioning: attention, simultaneous and successive processing, and planning. The PASS theory of intelligence is based on the neuropsychological work of A.R.Luria. The PASS model is an alternative approach to measuring and studying intelligence.
Based on A. R. Luria’s (1966) work on modularization of brain function, and supported by decades of neuroimaging research, the PASS Theory of Intelligence proposes that cognition is organized in three systems and four processes. The first process is Planning, which involves executive functions responsible for controlling and organizing behavior, selecting and constructing strategies, and monitoring performance. The second is the Attention process, responsible for maintaining arousal levels and alertness, and ensuring focus on relevant stimuli. The two processes, Simultaneous Processing and Successive Processing encode, transform, and retain information. Simultaneous processing is engaged for determination of the relationship between items integration into whole units of information is required. Examples of this include recognizing figures, such as a triangle within a circle vs. a circle within a triangle. Successive processing is required for organizing separate items in a sequence such as remembering a sequence of words or actions exactly in the order in which they had just been presented. These four processes are hypothesized to functions of four areas of the brain. Planning is broadly located in the front part of our brains, the frontal lobe. Attention and arousal are combined functions of the frontal lobe and the lower parts of the cortex, although the parietal lobes are also involved in attention as well. Simultaneous processing and Successive processing occur in the posterior region or the back of the brain. Simultaneous processing is broadly associated with the occipital and the parietal lobes while Successive processing is broadly associated with the frontal-temporal lobes. The PASS (Planning/Attention/Simultaneous/Successive) theory is heavily indebted to both Luria (1966, 1973), and studies in cognitive psychology involved in promoting a different look at intelligence.
3. Explain the barriers to problem solving.
Ans. Barriers To Problem-Solving
Contrary to popular belief, problem-solving takes time and patience. This is something we tend to overlook because quick solutions are often rewarded at the workplace where everyone is busy and pressed for time.
When you stop for a moment to think about what went wrong, you’re more likely to come up with a lasting solution. Here are the most common barriers to problem-solving and decision-making in the workplace:
Common barriers to problem-solving include an incorrect diagnosis of the problem. This could be due to preconceived ideas, biases, or judgments. Defining a problem is the hardest step in the process of problem-solving because this is the foundation on which your entire strategy is built. If you’re not careful, you may end up spending all your time, resources and effort on the wrong problem and, eventually, the wrong solution.
Thinking that you know better than anyone else or miscommunicating the problem is another one of the barriers to problem-solving. Everyone defines or understands the problem differently. It’s important to communicate with your teammates so that everyone’s on the same page. If you’re unclear about something, acknowledge your limited understanding of the problem. This will save you both time and energy.
Another common challenge is a solution bias or thinking that one solution is universal and can be applied to multiple problems. If you catch yourself thinking about a problem that you solved in a particular way, you’re already going in the wrong direction. It’s more important for you to focus on the problem at hand than to force-fit a solution from the past that, in all probability, won’t work.
Barriers to problem solving psychology often involve a cognitive bias or the tendency to jump to conclusions. To find a solution as quickly as possible, you might end up with a solution that’s irrelevant to the situation. You have to learn to listen before making a judgment. If you miss a step, for instance, there’s a chance that you’ll end up in an even bigger mess.
Lack Of Empathy
Every problem is in one way or another associated with human emotions, abilities or feelings. If you’re not able to recognize the people who are affected by the problem, you won’t be able to come up with a solution that serves everyone.
- How To Circumvent Barriers To Problem-Solving
- Some of the ways in which you can tackle common barriers to problem-solving are:
- Be Open To Suggestions And Different Points Of View
- Accept That You May Not Know Everything
- Be Patient And Take Your Time Before Coming To A Conclusion
- Approach The Owner Of The Problem And Ask The Right Questions
- Avoid Shortcuts And ‘Cut And Dry’ Formulas
Navigating your way through the complexities of work-life can be daunting, but it’s not impossible. Harappa’s Defining Problems course equips you with the tools you need to recognize a problem for what it is. Learn more about barriers to effective problem-solving and how to identify or define problems to become a skilled problem-solver. With frameworks such as the Problem Definition Framework, you’ll be able to define problems effectively and find constructive solutions.
Confirmation Bias: The tendency to only search for or interpret information that confirms a person’s existing ideas. People misinterpret or disregard data that doesn’t align with their beliefs.
Mental Set: People’s inclination to solve problems using the same tactics they have used to solve problems in the past. While this can sometimes be a useful strategy (see Analogical Thinking in a later section), it often limits inventiveness and creativity.
Functional Fixedness: This is another form of narrow thinking, where people become “stuck” thinking in a certain way and are unable to be flexible or change perspective.
Unnecessary Constraints: When people are overwhelmed with a problem, they can invent and impose additional limits on solution avenues. To avoid doing this, maintain a structured, level-headed approach to evaluating causes, effects, and potential solutions.
Groupthink: Be wary of the tendency for group members to agree with each other — this might be out of conflict avoidance, path of least resistance, or fear of speaking up. While this agreeableness might make meetings run smoothly, it can actually stunt creativity and idea generation, therefore limiting the success of your chosen solution.
Irrelevant Information: The tendency to pile on multiple problems and factors that may not even be related to the challenge at hand. This can cloud the team’s ability to find direct, targeted solutions.
Paradigm Blindness: This is found in people who are unwilling to adapt or change their worldview, outlook on a particular problem, or typical way of processing information. This can erode the effectiveness of problem solving techniques because they are not aware of the narrowness of their thinking, and therefore cannot think or act outside of their comfort zone.
According to Jaffa, the primary barrier of effective problem solving is rigidity. “The most common things people say are, ‘We’ve never done it before,’ or ‘We’ve always done it this way.’” While these feelings are natural, Jaffa explains that this rigid thinking actually precludes teams from identifying creative, inventive solutions that result in the greatest benefit. “The biggest barrier to creative problem solving is a lack of awareness – and commitment to – training employees in state-of-the-art creative problem-solving techniques,” Mattimore explains. “We teach our clients how to use ideation techniques (as many as two-dozen different creative thinking techniques) to help them generate more and better ideas. Ideation techniques use specific and customized stimuli, or ‘thought triggers’ to inspire new thinking and new ideas.” MacLeod adds that ineffective or rushed leadership is another common culprit. “We’re always in a rush to fix quickly,” she says. “Sometimes leaders just solve problems themselves, making unilateral decisions to save time. But the investment is well worth it — leaders will have less on their plates if they can teach and eventually trust the team to resolve. Teams feel empowered and engagement and investment increases.”
SECTION – B
4. Describe the levels of processing model by Craik and Lockhart.
Ans. The levels of processing model (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory, and predicts the deeper information is processed, the longer a memory trace will last.
Unlike the multi-store model it is a non-structured approach. The basic idea is that memory is really just what happens as a result of processing information.
Memory is just a by-product of the depth of processing of information, and there is no clear distinction between short term and long term memory.
Therefore, instead of concentrating on the stores/structures involved (i.e. short term memory & long term memory), this theory concentrates on the processes involved in memory.
– This takes two forms
1. Structural processing(appearance) which is when we encode only the physical qualities of something. E.g. the typeface of a word or how the letters look.
2. Phonemic processing– which is when we encode its sound.
Shallow processing only involves maintenance rehearsal (repetition to help us hold something in the STM) and leads to fairly short-term retention of information.
This is the only type of rehearsal to take place within the multi-store model.
– This takes two forms
3. Semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning.
Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (e.g. images, thinking, associations etc.) of information and leads to better recall.
For example, giving words a meaning or linking them with previous knowledge.
Levels of processing: The idea that the way information is encoded affects how well it is remembered. The deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to recall.
The theory is an improvement on Atkinson & Shiffrin’s account of transfer from STM to LTM. For example, elaboration rehearsal leads to recall of information than just maintenance rehearsal.
The levels of processing model changed the direction of memory research. It showed that encoding was not a simple, straightforward process. This widened the focus from seeing long-term memory as a simple storage unit to seeing it as a complex processing system.
Craik and Lockhart’s ideas led to hundreds of experiments, most of which confirmed the superiourity of ‘deep’ semantic processing for remembering information. It explains why we remember some things much better and for much longer than others.
This explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration, which requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory.
However, recent studies have clarified this point – it appears that deeper coding produces better retention because it is more elaborate. Elaborative encoding enriches the memory representation of an item by activating many aspects of its meaning and linking it into the pre-existing network of semantic associations.
Later research indicated that processing is more complex and varied than the levels of processing theory suggests. In other words, there is more to processing than depth and elaboration.
For example, research by Bransford at all. (1979) indicated that a sentence such as, ‘A mosquito is like a doctor because both draw blood’ is more likely to be recalled than the more elaborated sentence, ‘A mosquito is like a racoon because they both have head, legs and jaws’. It appears that it is the distinctiveness of the first sentence which makes it easier to remember – it’s unusual to compare a doctor to a mosquito. As a result, the sentence stands out and is more easily recalled.
5. Explain the factors affecting problem solving.
Ans. Attributes like patience, communication, team skills and cognitive skills can all affect an individual’s likelihood of solving a problem. Different individuals will take different approaches to solving problems and experience varying degrees of success. For this reason, as a manager, it is important to select team members for a project whose skills align with the problem at hand.
Many factors affect the problem solving process and hence it can become complicated and drawn out when they are unaccounted for. Acknowledging the factors that affect the process and taking them into account when forming a solution gives teams the best chance of solving the problem effectively. Below we have outlined the key factors affecting the problem solving process.
The most important factor in solving a problem is to first fully understand it. This includes understanding the bigger picture it sits within, the factors and stakeholders involved, the causes of the problem and any potential solutions. Effective solutions are unlikely to be discovered if the exact problem is not fully understood.
Individual’s skills will also affect the problem solving process. For example, a straight-forward technical issue may appear very complicated to an individual from a non-technical background. Skill levels are most commonly determined by experience and training and for this reason it is important to expose newer team members to a wide variety of problems, as well as providing training.
Although many individuals believe they have the capabilities to solve a certain problem, the resources available to them can often slow-down the process. These resources may be in the form of technology, human capital or finance. For example, a team may come up with a solution for an inefficient transport system by suggesting new vehicles are purchased. Despite the solution solving the problem entirely, it may not fit within the budget. This is why only realistic solutions should be pursued and resources should not be wasted on other projects.
External factors should also always be taken into account when solving a problem, as factors that may not seem to directly affect the problem can often play a part. Examples include competitor actions, fluctuations in the economy, government restrictions and environmental issues.
6. Discuss Guilford’s model of intelligence.
Ans. Guilford’s Structure of Intellect (SOI) theory states that a person’s success in general intelligence may be traced all the way back to fundamental mental talents or intellectual elements. He used up to 150 different mental capacities and arranged them into three categories in his SOI model: operations, content, and products. With the expectation that a person could be exceptionally gifted in some of these talents while lacking in others, he set out to create tests for every possible scenario of ability on these three dimensions.
Guilford studied and produced a wide range of neuropsychological tests to assess the talents anticipated by the SI principle. The numerous qualities of Guilford’s theory of intelligence are operationalised through these tests. Factor analysis was utilised to see which assessments reflected similar or slightly dissimilar competencies.
- P. Guilford was a psychologist connected to the development of tests to choose individuals for flight testing during World War II. As he broadened his study interests to include evaluating a variety of other specialised reasoning skills, he constructed a model to direct his research and organise his thoughts about all of the other talents he was examining at the same time. Guilford is widely regarded as the person who inspired the discipline of psychology to begin investigating the phenomenon of creativity.
During his 1950 presidential address to the American Psychological Association, he emphasised the critical importance of creativity as a study issue, while highlighting the shortage of documented research on the subject. In his opinion, most people believe that creativity is a natural by-product of intellect, as indicated by IQ. As a result, they have not started to investigate the topic of creative thinking. Guilford declared his plan to employ a factor analytic technique to begin extracting the many aspects of thinking to distinguish creativity and other qualities from the factors evaluated by IQ.
Guilford’s “Structure of Intellect” approach categorises and organises the varied talents into three categories: content, product, and process, respectively. Each dimension is briefly described in the next section.
The structure of intellect consists of six operations or general intellectual processes:
Cognition – Cognition includes aspects like understanding, comprehending, discovering, and becoming aware of the information.
Memory recording – Memory recording is the proficiency to integrate and encode information.
Memory retention – Memory retention is the ability to recollect facts or information.
Divergent production – Divergent production describes the ability to develop different ways to solve problems; it also refers to the ability to be creative.
Convergent production – Convergent production is the capacity to derive singular answers to problems from a set of rules; it is also known as rule-following or problem-solving.
Evaluation – Evaluation is the ability to determine whether a piece of particular information is correct, reliable, or trustworthy.
7. Define creativity. Describe the stages of creativity.
Ans. The creative process involves critical thinking and problem-solving skills. From songwriters to television producers, creative individuals generally go through five steps to bring their ideas to fruition—preparation, incubation, illumination, evaluation, and verification. These stages were first articulated by Graham Wallas, a social psychologist and co-founder of the London School of Economics who outlined the primary stages of the creative process in his 1926 book on creativity called The Art of Thought.
While all creative people apply unique methods and thought processes to their work, there are five stages that most creators subconsciously follow while pursuing their creative endeavors. The five stages of the creative process each flow logically into the next phase of the process. As you embark on your own creative process, unleash your mind and let your ideas grow through the five stages of creativity.
- Preparation stage: As you begin the creative journey, the first stage involves prep work and idea generation. This is when you gather materials and conduct research that could spark an interesting idea. Brainstorm and let your mind wander, or write in a journal to foster divergent thinking; this will help you consider all possible approaches to building out your idea. In this first part of the process, your brain is using its memory bank to draw on knowledge and past experiences to generate original ideas.
- Incubation stage: When you have finished actively thinking about your idea, the second stage is where you let it go. Part of creative thinking is taking a step away from your idea before you sit down to flesh it out. You might work on another project or take a break from the creative process altogether—regardless, you are not consciously trying to work on your idea. Walking away from your idea might seem counterproductive, but it’s an important stage of the process. During this time, your story or song or problem is incubating in the back of your mind.
- Illumination stage: Sometimes called the insight stage, illumination is when the “aha” moment happens. The light bulb clicks on as spontaneous new connections are formed and all of that material you’ve gathered comes together to present the solution to your problem. In this third stage, the answer to your creative quest strikes you. For example, you overcome writer’s block by figuring out the ending to your story. It can take you by surprise but after the incubation stage, an idea has emerged.
- Evaluation stage: During this stage, you consider the validity of your idea and weigh it against alternatives. This is also a time of reflection when you look back at your initial concept or problem to see if your solution aligns with your initial vision. Business professionals might do market research to test the viability of the idea. During this phase, you might go back to the drawing board or you might forge on, confident in what you’ve come up with.
- Verification stage: This is the final stage of the creative process. It’s when the hard work happens. Your creative product might be a physical object, an advertising campaign, a song, a novel, an architectural design—any item or object that you set out to create, propelled by that initial idea that popped into your head. Now, you finalize your design, bring your idea to life, and share it with the world.
8. Explain the key issues in the study of cognitive psychology.
Ans. Cognitive Psychology promotes the study of attention, memory, language processing, perception, problem-solving, and reasoning. The study of mental processes such as perception, memory, and logic is known as cognitive psychology.
What motivates psychologists to investigate mental processes, People have been curious about the working of the mind from the beginning of recorded history, mainly because they believed that behaviour is the consequence of mental processes.
For example, reading is comprehended by referring to the unique mental processes involved in text perception and comprehension.
Cognitive psychology is the study of how humans perceive, learn, remember, and comprehend information. A cognitive psychologist investigates how individuals see different forms, why certain information is retained while others are forgotten, or how individuals learn a language.
Consider the following instances of ordinary events that are theoretically interesting to cognitive psychologists:
How many times have you meticulously examined written work only to be humiliated afterwards by an obvious error you missed? Sometimes, what we perceive is dictated by the context in which it occurs as it is by what is there, which is a pattern recognition issue.
Have you ever noticed how tough it is to take notes in class while also absorbing a lecture? This type of difficulty is explained in the subject of attention.
Why do you have to repeat the number till you call it when you ring the telephone directory to help for a phone number and don’t have a pen to write it down?
And why do you have to call twice to inquire about the number if someone speaks to you before you dial it? These are issues related to short-term memory.
Do you recall a time when you were working on a problem or a riddle that you couldn’t solve, but after taking a break from it, you were able to solve it? This process, known as the incubation effect, is a component of problem resolution, as are other regularly seen phenomena.
Why do objects appear to be far distant on foggy days than they are? This misalignment of perspective can be hazardous, sometimes leading to accidents. These are only a handful of the numerous instances of everyday experiences examined and studied by cognitive psychology experiments and theory.
As we seek an understanding of cognitive psychology, two aspects regarding these examples should be noted.
1) They all indicate instances of mental process difficulties or failure.
We seldom consider them Cognitive Psychology unless they fail to work.
Failure of mental processes is promptly observed since it may be annoying, embarrassing, and even hazardous, and such shortcomings become excellent instruments for the psychological investigation of mental events.
2) Cognitive psychology is concerned with what is usually known as mental phenomena.
In this sense, the examples provided thus far are compatible with the dictionary definition of cognitive psychology: “the scientific study of the mind.
As the line between cognitive psychology and cognitive science might be a little unclear, people must grasp the key differences between these two research disciplines.
Cognitive science, which has a much higher domain of concentration, is predominantly concerned with acquiring data via study for application in various fields such as philosophy, anthropology, sociology, neurology, linguistics, and even artificial intelligence.
Because cognitive scientists do much of their study on non-human species to dive into regions of the brain, cognitive science frequently offers the database of knowledge that supports cognitive psychology theory.
On the other hand, cognitive psychologists are often involved in conducting practical psychological studies using human subjects to collect data about how the mind takes in, processes, and acts on diverse stimuli from the outside world.
SECTION – C
9. Seven primary factors given by Thurstone
Ans. The seven primary mental abilities in Thurstone’s model were verbal comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed and reasoning. Joy Paul Guilford continued Thurstone’s work and expanded the model of seven primary mental abilities to 150 different skills.
A new approach emerged with the development of cognitive psychology. The basic idea was to understand what intelligence is in terms of the cognitive processes that operate when we engage in intellectual activities. The information-processing approach strives to explain what mental processes are involved in the various tests of intelligence, how rapidly and accurately are these processes carried out and what types of mental representations of information do these processes act upon. In other words, intelligence was not explained in terms of factors but rather by identifying what are the mental processes that underlie intelligent behaviour. Individuals use different processes in different tasks, and the speed and accuracy of these processes vary. According to the cognitive approach the administrator of the intelligence test must use information-processing model to identify appropriate measures of the processes used in performing the task.
10. Aspects of creativity
Ans. In his 1961 report titled “An Analysis of Creativity,” psychologist Mel Rhodes outlines the Four Ps of aspects of creativity: Process, Product, Person, and Place.
Each of these Four Ps can influence our ability to think creatively, and each of us will respond differently to various stimulation related to any of them. Some we can control, others are innate.
Process means the systematic way we generate ideas, or ruminate. Whether through convergent or divergent thinking, through a clear-cut workflow, through intentional incubation, or through more exploratory methods.
Product is the central point of our attention for ideation; the problem context or the source from which ideas can spread.
Person refers to our innate or habitual habits: our openness to new experiences, our ability to be self-sufficient, our levels of curiosity.
Place is self explanatory: the environment in which we are and how close we are to resources for either evolving ideas or sparking them.
The foundation of the Four Ps are later evolved by Steven Johnson in his 2010 book Where Good Ideas Come From, where Johnson outlines the influencers of creativity as: the adjacent possible, liquid networks, slow hunches, serendipity, errors, exaptation, and platforms.
Ans. Heuristics are mental shortcuts that allows people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently. These rule-of-thumb strategies shorten decision-making time and allow people to function without constantly stopping to think about their next course of action.
However, there are both benefits and drawbacks of heuristics. While heuristics are helpful in many situations, they can also lead to cognitive biases.
Being aware of how heuristics work as well as the potential biases they introduce might help you make better and more accurate decisions.
Nobel-prize winning economist and cognitive psychologist Herbert Simon originally introduced the concept of heuristics in the 1950s. He suggested that while people strive to make rational choices, human judgment is subject to cognitive limitations. Purely rational decisions would involve weighing all the potential costs and possible benefits of every alternative.1
But people are limited by the amount of time they have to make a choice as well as the amount of information they have at their disposal. Other factors such as overall intelligence and accuracy of perceptions also influence the decision-making process.
12. Long term memory
Ans. Long-term memory refers to the memory process in the brain that takes information from the short-term memory store and creates long lasting memories. These memories can be from an hour ago or several decades ago.
Long-term memory can hold an unlimited amount of information for an indefinite period of time. Short-term memories become long-term memories in a region of the brain called the hippocampus. Another part of the brain called the cortex stores these long-term memories.
There are two types of long-term memory: procedural and declarative.
Procedural long-term memories are information related to activities learned through practice and repetition, such as driving a car.
Declarative long-term memories are information about facts, rules, events, definitions, and experiences that someone can recall when necessary.
13. Role of hippocampus in memory
Ans. The hippocampus helps humans process and retrieve two types of memory, declarative memories and spatial relationships.
Declarative memories are those related to facts and events. Examples can include learning how to memorize speeches or lines in a play.
Spatial relationship memories involve pathways or routes. For example, when a cab driver learns a route through a city, they use spatial memory. Spatial relationship memories appear to be stored in the right hippocampus.
If one or both parts of the hippocampus are damaged by illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease, or if they are hurt in an accident, the person can experience Trusted Source a loss of memory and a loss of the ability to make new, long-term memories.
They may be unable to remember some things that happened shortly before the damage, but they may still remember things that happened long ago. This is because the long-term memories are stored in another part of the brain once they become long-term.
Transient global amnesia is a specific form of memory loss that develops suddenly, seemingly on its own, and then goes away fairly quickly.
Most people with transient global amnesia eventually regain their memories, but the reasons why the problem occurs and why it resolves are unclear. It may be that damage to the hippocampus plays a role.
Damage to the hippocampus can make it hard to remember how to get from one place to another. The person may be able to draw a map of the neighborhood they lived in as a child but find that going to a store in a new area can be difficult.
14. Four principles of information processing
Ans. According to Huitt (2003), there are a few basic principles that most cognitive psychologists agree with:
- The mental system has limited capacities, i.e. bottlenecks in the flow and processing of information, occur at very specific points
- A control mechanism is required to oversee the encoding, transformation, processing, storage, retrieval and utilization of information. This control mechanism requires itself processing power and that varies in function of the difficulty of the task.
- There is a two-way flow of information. Sensory input is combined with information stored in memory in order to construct meaning.
- The human organism has been genetically prepared to process and organize information in specific ways.
Cognitive theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML)
According to Moreno and Duran, CTML consists of the following main ideas:
- dual coding – in which the representation and processing of information concerning verbal and nonverbal materials are handled cognitively by separate subsystems (Clark & Paivio, 1991; Paivio, 1986)
- dual processing – in which working memory includes independent auditory and visual working memories (Baddeley, 1992)
- limited capacity – in which the processing capacities of learners are severely limited (Chandler & Sweller, 1991). See cognitive load.
- active learning – in which meaningful learning occurs when learners select, organize, and build coherent connections of new information with prior knowledge (Mayer, 2001; Mayer & Moreno, 2003; Mayer & Wittrock, 1996).
One of the most widespread theories of multimedia learning is described by Mayer . The model is based on well known cognitive sciences theories: The limited capacity of short term memory, described with the three stages of human memory .
15. Neuroscience and cognitive psychology
Ans. Neuroscience focuses on the brain’s structure and the regions that are activated when people engage in various tasks. Cognitive Psychology, on the other hand, focuses on the mind and behavior.
Cognitive psychology assumes that our thinking is responsible for our behaviour. In the previous psychological theory, behaviourism, human behaviour (the response) is always understood in terms of the situation that evokes this response (stimulus) – there´s nothing in between. We feel happy because we are celebrating our birthday. However, cognitive psychology defends the idea that the stimulus itself is not enough to explain human behaviour. In other words, to understand humans, we need to study their minds. Cognitive psychology, hence, is the study of how people perceive, learn, remember, and think about information.
16. Problem space hypothesis
Ans. The Problem Space Hypothesis is the idea that every possible state of affairs within a problem corresponds to a node in mental graph. Each node corresponds to a certain state of affairs at some point during the problem-solving process. It begins with an “initial state” and ends with a “goal state” when the problem has been solved. The Problem Space Hypothesis basically shows each step while solving a specific problem. Good problem solvers use an efficient path that has the shortest amount of steps between the initial state and the goal state. A study by Burns and Vollmeyer looked at the idea of searching through a problem space to generate solutions. Participants in the study were asked to control inputs (lime, carbon, and salt) and observe what happened to the outputs (temperature, CI concentration, and oxygenation) to achieve a certain goal. Their results showed that nonspecific goal participants (who were not told what the goal was until after an exploration period) scored higher than specific goal participants (who were given the specific goal at the beginning of the task, but was told that they did not have to achieve it until after the exploration period). According to Newell and Simon, these results show that having a specific goal can cut down on the amount of effort devoted to searching the problem space.
17. Means-ends analysis
Ans. Means–ends analysis (MEA) is a problem solving technique used commonly in artificial intelligence (AI) for limiting search in AI programs.
It is also a technique used at least since the 1950s as a creativity tool, most frequently mentioned in engineering books on design methods. MEA is also related to means–ends chain approach used commonly in consumer behavior analysis. It is also a way to clarify one’s thoughts when embarking on a mathematical proof.
Problem-solving as search
An important aspect of intelligent behavior as studied in AI is goal-based problem solving, a framework in which the solution to a problem can be described by finding a sequence of actions that lead to a desirable goal. A goal-seeking system is supposed to be connected to its outside environment by sensory channels through which it receives information about the environment and motor channels through which it acts on the environment. (The term “afferent” is used to describe “inward” sensory flows, and “efferent” is used to describe “outward” motor commands.) In addition, the system has some means of storing in a memory information about the state of the environment (afferent information) and information about actions (efferent information). Ability to attain goals depends on building up associations, simple or complex, between particular changes in states and particular actions that will bring these changes about. Search is the process of discovery and assembly of sequences of actions that will lead from a given state to a desired state. While this strategy may be appropriate for machine learning and problem solving, it is not always suggested for humans (e.g. cognitive load theory and its implications).
18. Types of problems
Ans. The 4 types of problems we encounter daily
- The simple problem.
- The complicated problem. The complex problem. …
- The chaotic problem.
- The simple problem
The first type of problem in Snowden’s framework is simple and obvious. It has already been solved, and there actually is a best practice that works all the time.
Once you can determine that a problem is simple, you can apply a known recipe from your bag of tricks. If you’re playing poker, never draw to an inside straight. A bank shouldn’t make loans to people with X level of debt load.
With simple problems, the relationship between cause and effect is not only clear but obvious.
- The complicated problem
This is the kind of problem where you have a known unknown. Take a giant oil company, for example: When geologists run a seismic survey to learn where they could drill for oil, they know they don’t know the answer, but they know how to find it.
This is the domain of the expert. Once you have ascertained that the problem is solvable, you can work out a solution, even if it turns out to be tricky. If you’re knowledgeable enough, you can figure out cause and effect.
- The complex problem
The third type of problem is complex, where you can only figure out afterward why what happened happened. Here you have to take some sort of action to see what happens before you act again.
Most of us wrestle with complex problems. All the time. The answers aren’t known, and all the forces aren’t known. But we have to do something. And what happens will surprise us.
- The chaotic problem
The final type of problem in the Cynefin framework is chaotic. This is essentially a crisis.
Let’s say there’s a tsunami, or an oil rig blows up, or an uprising turns into a revolution, or there’s a stock market crash. The first thing to do is to take action quickly, and begin to take steps to encapsulate the problem, to define its limits, to bring it out of the chaotic and into the realm of the merely complex.
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