IGNOU MPA 017 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : MPA 017 E-GOVERNANCE Solved Assignment 2023 , MPA 17 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MPA 17 Assignment 2022-23 , MPA 17 Assignment, IGNOU MPA 017 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MPA Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.
IGNOU MPA 017 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free
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Important Note – IGNOU MPA 017 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
This assignment consists of Sections I and II. There are five questions in each section. You have to answer a total of five questions in about 500 words each. It is necessary to attempt at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 20 marks
SECTION – A
1) Define e-governance and the legal and policy framework of ICT and e-governance in India.
What is e-Governance?
Electronic governance or e-governance is adopted by countries across the world. In a fast-growing and demanding economy like India, e-governance has become essential. The rapid growth of digitalisation has led to many governments across the globe to introduce and incorporate technology into governmental processes. Electronic governance or e-governance can be defined as the usage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by the government to provide and facilitate government services, exchange of information, communication transactions and integration of various standalone systems and services.
In other words, it is the use of technology to perform government activities and achieve the objectives of governance. Through e-governance, government services are made available to citizens and businesses in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. Examples of e-governance include Digital India initiative, National Portal of India, Prime Minister of India portal, Aadhaar, filing and payment of taxes online, digital land management systems, Common Entrance Test etc.
Types of interactions in e-Governance
e-Governance can take place in four major types of interactions, apart from the processes and interactions in the back-office, within the government framework:
Government to Government (G2G)
Information is exchanged within the government i.e., either, between the central government, state government and local governments or between different branches of the same government.
Government to Citizen (G2C)
The citizens have a platform through which they can interact with the government and get access to the variety of public services offered by the Government.
Government to Businesses (G2B)
The businesses are able to interact with the government seamlessly with respect to the services of the government offered to businesses
Government to Employees (G2E)
The interaction between the government and its employees occurs in an efficient and speedy manner.
Objectives of e-Governance
The objectives of e-governance can be listed down as given below:
- To support and simplify governance for government, citizens, and businesses.
- To make government administration more transparent and accountable while addressing the society’s needs and expectations through efficient public services and effective interaction between the people, businesses, and government.
- To reduce corruption in the government.
- To ensure speedy administration of services and information.
- To reduce difficulties for business, provide immediate information and enable digital communication by e-business.
While e-governance provides the advantages of convenience, efficiency and transparency, it also has problems associated with it. They are as follows:
- Lack of computer literacy: India is still a developing country and a vast majority of the citizens lack computer literacy which hinders the effectiveness of e-governance.
- Lack of accessibility to the internet or even computers in some parts of the country is a disadvantage to e-governance.
- e-Governance results in a loss of human interaction. As the system becomes more mechanised, lesser interaction takes place among people.
- It gives rise to the risk of personal data theft and leakage.
- e-Governance leads to a lax administration. The service provider can easily provide excuses for not providing the service on technical grounds such as “server is down” or “internet is not working”, etc.
e-Governance in the Indian context
e-Governance in India is a recently developed concept. The launch of National Satellite-Based Computer Network (NICENET) in 1987 and subsequent launch of the District Information System of the National Informatics Centre (DISNIC) programme to computerise all district offices in the country for which free hardware and software was offered to the State Governments provided the requisite impetus for e-governance.
e-Governance thereafter developed with the growth of technology. Today, there are a large number of e-Governance initiatives, both at the Union and State levels. In 2006, the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) was formulated by the Department of Electronics and Information Technology and Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances that aims at making all government services accessible to the common man, ensure efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs to realise the basic needs of the common man.
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2) Explain the various components of ICT, namely computer hardware,
computer software, Local Area Network, Wide Area Network, and satellite.
Webopaedia defines ‘information’ as a word, which has many different meanings in everyday usage and in specialised contexts, but as a rule, it is a concept that is closely related to data, instruction, knowledge, meaning, communication, representation and mental stimulus. Information is knowledge derived from data/ data placed within a context. It is a message, something to be communicated from the sender to the receiver. Information in an organisation is the collection of expertise, experience and database that individuals and workgroups use for discharging their responsibilities. It is produced and stored by individual minds, or implicitly encoded and documented in organisational processes, services and systems. It is required for better planning and control. Shannon and Weaver define information as the amount of uncertainty that is reduced when a message is received.
‘Communication,’ on the other hand, is the process of information, usually via a common system of symbols. Communication can be interactive, transactive, intentional or unintentional; it can also be verbal or nonverbal.
TECHNOLOGIES FOR INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
Various technologies have been developed over the years in terms of information and communication. Some of them had many versions as well. However, the feasibility of technology is to the extent it is cost effective to its users and it survives till it is taken over by an alternative far more superior and cost effective technology. Some of the important and useful technologies used for information and communication are discussed as below:
Telephone is a telecommunications device, which is used in transmitting and receiving sound across distance. In this device, electric signals are transmitted over a complex telephone network, which allows the user to communicate with the other user. Usually, there are four ways to connect to a telephone network:
• a traditional fixed phone that is the ‘landline,’ which uses dedicated physical wire connections connected to a single location;
• wireless and radio telephones, which use either analogue or digital radio signals;
• satellite telephones, where communication is through telecommunications satellites; and
• Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephones, which use broadband internet connections.
Now-a-days, fibre optic cable, point-to-point microwave or satellite relay, carry
transmissions across a network. This has increased the usage of cordless and mobile
phones considerably in recent times.
Radio owes its development to two other inventions: the telegraph and the telephone. These three technologies are closely related. Mostly radio broadcasts are sent over telephone wires. However, a few radio broadcasts travel through the air exclusively. Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, sent and received his first radio signal in Italy in 1895. By 1899, he was able to flash the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later in 1902, received the letter ‘S’, telegraphed from England to Newfoundland. This was the first successful transatlantic radiotelegraph message. Wireless signals proved effective in communication for rescue works when sea disasters occurred. A number of ocean liners installed wireless equipment. In 1915, speech was first transmitted across the continent from New York City to San Francisco and across the Atlantic Ocean from Naval radio station at Arlington, Virginia to the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Military radiotelephony was also experimented between ground and aircraft in the First World War.
Television is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance. Baird transmitted live, moving, and half-tone (grayscale) images in 1925, and gave the world’s first public demonstration of a working television system to members of the Royal Institution on 26 January 1926 at his laboratory in London. These were vertically scanned images, using a scanning disc embedded with a double spiral of lenses, having only 30 lines, just enough to reproduce a recognisable human face. By 1934, all electromechanical television systems were outmoded, although electromechanical broadcasts continued on some stations until 1939. On 25 August 1934, at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Farnsworth gave the world’s first public demonstration of a working, all-electronic television system with 220 lines per picture, 30 pictures per second. The first field test broadcast of colour television was by NBC, USA on 20 February 1941. The post-war development of colour television was dominated by three systems namely:
• the field sequential system, which was incompatible with existing black and white sets without an adaptor;
• dot sequential system, which in 1949 became compatible with existing black and white sets; and
• Colour Television Inc.’s system (also incompatible with existing black and white sets), which used three camera lenses, behind which were colour filters that produced red, green, and blue images side by side on a single scanning tube, and a receiver set that used lenses in front of the picture tube (which had sectors treated with different phosphorescent compounds to glow in red, green, or blue) to project these three side by side images into one combined picture on the viewing screen.
Programmes are broadcast on television stations, also called channels. At first, terrestrial broadcasting was the only way television could be distributed because bandwidth was limited. Development of cable and satellite means of distribution in the seventies pushed businessmen to target channels towards a certain audience and enabled the rise of subscription-based television channels. Today, television has grown up all over the world and has become a major source of disseminating information.
There are many means of distributing television broadcasts, including both analogue and digital versions:
• Terrestrial Television
Terrestrial television is the traditional method of television broadcast where signal delivery is by radio waves transmitted through open space. The signals are usually unencrypted and the system is described as “free-to-air”
• Stratovision (From aircraft flying in a loop)
Stratovision is an airborne television transmission relay system from aircraft flying at high altitudes. This system was used for domestic broadcasting in the USA and by US military in Vietnam and other countries.
• Satellite Television
Satellite television is delivered by way of communication satellites,as compared to the conventional terrestrial television. In many countries, satellite television services supplement older terrestrial signals, providing a wider range of channels and services, including subscription-only services also.
• Cable Television
Cable television is a system of providing television, FM (frequency mode) radio programming and other services to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted directly to people’s televisions through fixed optical fibres or coaxial cables as opposed to the over-the-air method used in traditional television broadcasting (via radio waves) in which a television antenna is required. Modern cable TV systems employ digital cable technology, which uses compressed digital signals, allowing them to provide many more channels than
they could with analogue alone.
• Other Cable-Based Services
Coaxial cables are capable of bi-directional carriage of signals as well as transmission of large amount of data. Cable television signals use only a portion of bandwidth available over coaxial lines. This leaves plenty of space available for other digital services such as broadband internet and cable telephony.
IGNOU MPA 017 Assignment 2022-23 , Get IGNOU All Assignment , MPA Assignment PDF
Fiscal decentralization refers to a series of policies designed to increase the financial autonomy of sub-national governments (Falleti, 2004:4). If local governments and private organizations are to carry out decentralized functions effectively, they must have adequate revenues transferred from the central government as well as the authority to make expenditure decisions (Rondinelli, 1999: 3). Fiscal decentralization can be carried out under the conditions stated below (worldbank.org, 2013):
• Self-financing or cost recovery through user charges,
• Co-financing or coproduction, in which users participate in providing services and infrastructure through monetary or labor contributions,
• Expansion of local revenues through property or sales taxes or indirect charges,
• Intergovernmental transfers of general revenues from taxes collected by the central government to local governments for general or specific uses,
• Authorization of municipal borrowing and mobilization of national or local government
resources through loan guarantees.
3) Examine the role of ICT in administration.
4) ‘Administrative culture has to be e-governance compatible.’ Discuss.
5) Elucidate the role played by ICT in the modernization of agricultural sector and in women empowerment.
6) Describe the need and importance of ICT intervention in local governance. Also, mention in detail the application areas of ICT in PRIs.
7) Write a note on the concept and significance of e-learning.
8) Elaborate upon the benefits and limitations of e-commerce. Also, describe electronic payments.
9) Write a note on ICT applications in Indian Railways.
10) Detail out the various services offered through e-seva project.
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IGNOU Instructions for the MPA 17 SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
IGNOU MPA 017 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
- Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
- Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
- Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
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GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23
MPA 17 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
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