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- 1 IGNOU MPA 016 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free
- 1.1 1) Discuss the importance of decentralisation and suggest necessary measures for strengthening decentralised development in India.
- 1.2 2) Describe the administrative decentralisation in contemporary scenario.
- 1.3 Get IGNOU MPA 016 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Now here from this website.
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- 1.5 MPA 16 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23
IGNOU MPA 016 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free
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Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
This assignment consists of Sections I and II. There are five questions in each section. You have to answer a total of five questions in about 500 words each. It is necessary to attempt at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 20 marks
SECTION – A
1) Discuss the importance of decentralisation and suggest necessary measures for strengthening decentralised development in India.
Decentralisation — the transfer of political, administrative and financial powers to local government bodies — has received attention all over the world, in recent years. It has been considered as one of the most important elements in development strategy and has become a major element in the administrative organisation of governmental services as a result of enormous increase in the variety, number and complexity of functions of the modern state. It is a way of mobilizing support for national development priorities by interacting with people at the local level and taking their feedback. Decentralisation is advocated as an important component of policies to improve governance in developing countries and is often regarded as a necessary precondition for socioeconomic and political development. There are two main dimensions of decentralization viz., socio-economic and politico-administrative. These dimensions reflect, in general terms, increasing and often sequential stages of progress in achieving the objectives of decentralization (Jain, S.P; 2003:588). As such it becomes important to study in detail these dimensions of decentralization.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC COMPONENT OF DECENTRALISATION
Decentralization cannot be successful until and unless the weaker sections participate in the decision-making process. Keeping this in mind, the 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts, provided for reservation to the weaker sections, which has been hailed as a radical and welcome step. This constitutional guarantee has given adequate opportunity to the women, SCs/STs and OBCs to fight elections and be represented on the rural and urban bodies. The access of weaker sections to rural and urban power structure has been ensured legally thereby enlarging the social base of the system. Prior to the constitutional guarantee, the members of the weaker sections hardly made any dent into the power structure. However, the policy of reservation in Panchayat and urban bodies has empowered them and given an opportunity to air their grievances and get them cleared through participatory decision-making process. (Chandrashekar, B.K; 2000:10). It has provided institutional means for the explicit recognition and representation of the oppressed groups – of women and weaker sections (Buch, Nirmala; 2005:346). The working of decentralisation reveals both negative and positive trends. The negative trends were visible initially, especially where panchayats were headed by SC/ST persons and women. This was because of the fact that most of the members belonging to these groups were found to be illiterate, less articulate and especially inexperienced. In case of SCs/STs, initially only those were elected from the reserved constituency who had the patronage of the dominant sections of the society and therefore functioned like the mouth piece of those affluent sections in the formal meetings of the PRIs/ULBs (Mishra, S. and Mishra, Sweta; 2002:30).
Similarly, after getting elected, women worked under the command and guidance of the males, as proxies, signing or stamping on the dotted lines. In some cases, it was observed that women representatives belonged to the family of the male Panchayat leaders. In some others, it was observed that the males fielded their wives, daughtersin-law, daughters, nieces, etc. to fulfill their own political ambitions.
POLITICO-ADMINISTRATIVE COMPONENT OF DECENTRALISATION
Like the socio-economic component, the politico-administrative component of decentralised
development too is important. The two components, viz., socio-economic and politicoadministrative, go hand in hand. To realise the dreams of Mahatma Gandhi and to make decentralised development successful, it becomes important and necessary on the part of the State Governments to sincerely implement the politico-administrative provisions of the 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts. Prior to these Acts, in most states, due to the excessive government control and direction, the PRIs and ULBs were not effective for long. But now the scenario has changed. The Acts have placed greater responsibility on the PRIs
and the ULBs for overall development of the villages and cities. The politico-administrative component includes a number of issues vital to the process of decentralisation. These issues are discussed in the succeeding pages.
Accountability is a key element for instilling the confidence in people about the local institutions. It is a precondition for creating trust in the minds of people so that the abuse of power and misuse of public resources is prevented. The PRIs and the ULBs can be successful provided proper system of accountability is provided for, as the citizens expect their representatives to be responsive to their needs, wishes, and preferences. Accordingly, the PRIs and the ULBs must remain accountable for being responsive to the needs of the citizens they serve. This accountability should be on a day-to-day basis and not just once in five years when they go to seek votes (Ghosh, Buddhadeb; 2005:261). The Kerala Panchayat Act has clearly recognized this principle. The Act allows the citizens to demand answers from the Panchayats for their actions. However, the citizens have not utilized this opportunity extensively and effectively (Ibid.). Keeping the accountability principle in view, all the states have made provisions for the financial audit. Most of the states except Haryana, Punjab, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh, have made necessary provisions also with regard to social audit.
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2) Describe the administrative decentralisation in contemporary scenario.
The concept of decentralization refers to decentralized, directed from center to periphery, organized around and such. This concept, expressed as the transfer of authority from the center to subordinate ends, is important both for more effective and productive management of the areas outside the center organization in public administration and for strengthening these areas in terms of democracy conception. Because of the increasing interest all over the world in issues such as ensuring service–need compliance, the importance of decisions made by the closest unit to the public and the reduction of bureaucratization have made implementation of decentralized systems a necessity in local regions. In this study, conceptual definitions regarding decentralization and information about its aspects as well as the effects of political and administrative decentralization on unitary structures will be presented.
Decentralization can be defined as the transfer of authority and responsibility for public functions from the central government to subordinate or quasi-independent government organizations or the private sector (Rondinelli, 1999: 2). In the classical sense, this concept, which refers to the transfer of authority, responsibility and resources from central government to local governments, has a decisive role in central governmentlocal government relations (Eryılmaz, 2011: 103). Several definitions have been offered for decentralization. One of the most general defines it as the transfer of responsibilities and authority from higher to lower levels of government. Decentralization seeks to create relationships of accountability among citizens, service providers, and subnational governments and between the local and central governments.
Political decentralization aims to give more authority to citizens and their elected representatives in decision making and public administration. This concept is usually associated with pluralist democracy and representative governance. Political decentralization has also tended to support democratization by providing more opportunity for citizens and their elected representatives to affect the creation and implementation of policies. Political decentralization, in this sense, implies that the selection of representatives from local electoral jurisdictions allows citizens to better know their political representatives and allows elected officials to better know the needs and desires of their constituents. However, political decentralization also requires constitutional or statutory reforms, development of pluralistic political parties, strengthening of legislatures, creation of local political units, and encouragement of effective public interest groups (Rondinelli, 1999:2).
Administrative decentralization seeks to redistribute authority, responsibility, and financial resources for providing public services between different levels of government. It is the transfer of responsibility for planning, financing, and managing certain public functions from the central government to subordinate units or levels of government, semi-autonomous public authorities or corporations, or area-wide, regional, or functional authorities(Rondinelli, 1999: 2). Administrative decentralization has three major forms—deconcentration, delegation, and devolution—each with different characteristics.
Deconcentration, refers to a central government that distributes the responsibility to provincial organization within the scope of a particular policy. This transfer function affects the geographical distribution of authority, but does not significantly change the autonomy of the entity that receives the authority. The central government retains authority over the field office, and exercises that authority through the hierarchical channels of the central government bureaucracy. Under deconcentration arrangements, deconcentration allows only moderately more autonomy than centralized systems (Schneider, 2003: 38).
Delegation s a more extensive form of decentralization. It transfers political responsibility to local governments or to semi-autonomous organizations that are not controlled by the central government but are accountable to it (Schneider, 2003: 38). Through delegation central governments transfer responsibility for decision making and administration of public functions to semi-autonomous organizations accountable to it. Governments delegate
responsibilities when they create public enterprises or corporations, housing authorities, transportation authorities, special service districts, semiautonomous school districts, regional development corporations, or special project implementation units. These organizations usually have wide discretion in decision making.
Devolution is the transfer of authority for decision making, finance, and management to quasi-autonomous units of local government with corporate status. Devolution usually transfers responsibilities for services to municipalities that elect their own mayors and councils, raise their own revenues, and have independent authority to make investment decisions. In this system, local governments have clear and legally recognized geographical boundaries over which they exercise authority and within which they perform public functions. It is this type of administrative decentralization that underlies political decentralization (Rondinelli, 1999:3). When compared with the other two types of administrative decentralization, devolution provides the greatest degree of autonomy for the
local unit. The local unit is only accountable to the central government insofar as the central government can impose its will by threatening to withhold resources or responsibility from the local unit. Local units are only accountable to the central government as long as the central government to impose its will (Schneider, 2003: 38). However, devolution enhances the power of local governments in that central government cannot be in direct relation.
Privatizing is described as the transfer of a certain degree of the control of public functions by retaining voluntary organizations and private profit or non-profit organizations (Tatar, 1993: 141). It requires the state’s control and supervision functions to be undertaken by the private sector.
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Fiscal decentralization refers to a series of policies designed to increase the financial autonomy of sub-national governments (Falleti, 2004:4). If local governments and private organizations are to carry out decentralized functions effectively, they must have adequate revenues transferred from the central government as well as the authority to make expenditure decisions (Rondinelli, 1999: 3). Fiscal decentralization can be carried out under the conditions stated below (worldbank.org, 2013):
• Self-financing or cost recovery through user charges,
• Co-financing or coproduction, in which users participate in providing services and infrastructure through monetary or labor contributions,
• Expansion of local revenues through property or sales taxes or indirect charges,
• Intergovernmental transfers of general revenues from taxes collected by the central government to local governments for general or specific uses,
• Authorization of municipal borrowing and mobilization of national or local government
resources through loan guarantees.
3) “The Bhagidari programme of Delhi Government has promoted the Government- Citizens partnership”. Comment.
4) Examine the partnership among local authorities and special purpose agencies in
5) Explain the concept of empowerment and highlight the problems and constraints in
6) “Owing to the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992, the PRIs are functioning as effective institutions of local self-governance at the grassroots level”. Examine.
7) Explain the organisational structure of Urban Local Government.
8) Describe the resources of local bodies.
9) “Municipalities in urban areas are functioning as an effective institution of local- self government”. Comment.
10) Define sustainable development and enumerate its major challenges to sustainable development and environment.
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