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IGNOU BPCE 142 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCE 142 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks in Assignment two.
1. Explain the nature and scope of forensic psychology and describe its sub-specialities.
Forensic psychology is a field that combines the practice of psychology and the law. Those who work in this field utilize psychological expertise as it applies to the justice system. The word ‘forensic’ originates from the Latin word ‘forensis,’ which means “the forum,” or the court system of Ancient Rome.
The American Board of Forensic Psychology describes this field as the application of psychology to issues that involve the law and legal system. Interest in forensic psychology has grown significantly in recent years. Increasing numbers of graduate programs offer dual degrees in psychology and law, while others provide specialization in forensic psychology.
Some psychologists hold a specialist degree in forensic psychology, but most are licensed psychologists who hold either a Ph.D. or Psy.D. These professionals may work in both criminal and civil law areas.
While forensic psychology is considered a rather new specialty area within psychology, the field dates back to the earliest days in psychology’s history. Philosophers and scientists have long sought to understand what makes people commit crimes, behave aggressively, or engage in antisocial behaviors.
Forensic psychology is a relatively new specialty area. In fact, forensic psychology was just officially recognized as a specialty area by the American Psychological Association in 2001.2 Despite this, the field of forensic psychology has roots that date back to Wilhelm Wundt’s first psychology lab in Leipzig, German.
Today, forensic psychologists are not only interested in understanding why such behaviors occur, but also in helping minimize and prevent such actions.
The field has experienced dramatic growth in recent years as more and more students become interested in this applied branch of psychology.2 Popular movies, television programs, and books have helped popularize the field, often depicting brilliant heroes who solve vicious crimes or track down killers using psychology.
While depictions of forensic psychology in popular media are certainly dramatic and attention-grabbing, these portrayals are not necessarily accurate. That said, forensic psychologists do play an important role in the criminal justice system. It can be an exciting career for students interested in applying psychological principles to the legal system.
What Do They Do?
If you enjoy learning about the science of human behavior and the law, then forensic psychology will probably interest you quite a bit. The field has witnessed dramatic growth in recent years, as more and more students become interested in this applied branch of psychology. However, forensic psychology is about much more than the glamorized views portrayed in television shows, movies, and books.
Some of the functions typically performed within forensic psychology include:3
- Competency evaluations
- Sentencing recommendations
- Evaluations of the risk of reoffending
- Testimony as an expert witness
- Child custody evaluations
- Academic research on criminality
- Consult with law enforcement
- Treatment of criminal offenders
- Provide psychological services to inmates and offenders
- Trial consultants who help with jury selection, witness preparation, or legal strategies
- Design correctional programs
Forensic psychology is defined as the intersection of psychology and the law, but forensic psychologists can perform many roles, so this definition can vary.
In many cases, people working in forensic psychology are not necessarily “forensic psychologists.” These individuals might be clinical psychologists, school psychologists, neurologists, or counselors who lend their psychological expertise to provide testimony, analysis, or recommendations in legal or criminal cases.
For example, a clinical psychologist might provide mental health services such as assessment, diagnosis, and treatment to individuals who have come into contact with the criminal justice system. Clinicians might be asked to determine if a suspected criminal has a mental illness, or they may be asked to provide treatment to individuals who have substance abuse and addiction issues.
Another example is that of a school psychologist. While people in this profession typically work with children in school settings, a school psychologist working in forensic psychology might evaluate children in suspected abuse cases, help prepare children to give testimony in court, or offer testimony in child custody disputes.
2. Describe the psychological theories applied to criminal psychology.
The three major criminal theories have emerged after decades of research on the criminal mind. The psychodynamic theory centers on a person’s early childhood experience and how it influences the likelihood for committing crime. Behavioral theory focuses on how perception of the world influences behavior. And cognitive theory focuses on how people manifest their perceptions can lead to a life of crime.
This theory largely comes to us from the mind of noted psychologist Sigmund Freud. He argued that everyone has instinctual drives (called the “id”) that demand gratification. Moral and ethical codes (called the “superego”) regulate these drives, and adults later develop a rational personality (called the “ego”) that mediates between the id and superego. Based on this idea, criminal behavior is seen primarily as a failure of the superego.
More generally, psychodynamic theory sees criminal behavior as a conflict between the id, ego and superego. This conflict can lead to people developing problematic behavior and delinquency. The challenge with this theory is it is difficult to test.
This theory revolves around the idea that human behavior develops through experience. Specifically, behavioral theory focuses on the idea that people develop their behavior based on the reaction their behavior gets from those around them. This is a form of conditioning, where behavior is learned and reinforced by rewards or punishment.
So, if a person is in the company of those who condone and even reward criminal behavior – especially a figure of authority – then they will continue to engage in that behavior. For example, social learning theorist Albert Bandura maintains individuals are not born with an innate ability to act violently. He instead suggests people learn violent behavior through observing others. Typically, this comes from three sources: family, environmental experiences and the mass media.
Cognitive theory focuses on how people perceive the world and how this perception governs their actions, thoughts and emotions. Most cognitive theorists break down the process into three levels of what is called “moral development.”
- Pre-conventional level. This involves children and how they learn the external consequences of their actions.
- Conventional level. This involves teens and young adults, who begin to base behavior on society’s views and expectations.
- Post-conventional level. In those over the age of 20, the focus is more on judging the moral worth of societal values and rules and how they relate to values of liberty, human welfare and human rights
In the area of crime, cognitive theorists argue that criminals do not develop moral judgment beyond a pre-conventional level.
All three of these criminology theories undergo constant scrutiny and revision, but they provide the foundations upon which current ideas are based. These theories are one of the most interesting aspects of criminology learned by those who enter a criminal justice degree program.
3. Describe personality testing in forensic psychology.
4. Elucidate police psychology.
5. Describe polygraph test as a tool in eyewitness assessment.
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6. Crime analysis
7. Juvenile delinquency
8. Types of interrogation
9. Types of homicides
10. Amicus Curiae Briefs
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IGNOU BPCE 142 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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