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IGNOU BPAG 172 Solved Assignment 2022-2023
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Important Note – IGNOU BPAG 172 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.
1. Explain the concept of civil society and analyse the relationship between globalisation and civil society.
Patterns of globalisation have challenged the exclusivity of states as actors in international affairs. Globalisation links distant communities and opens up spaces for new social actors. Among the non-state actors benefiting from this change are public-interest-orientated non-governmental actors, often known as civil society groups. Alongside the state, profit-orientated corporate actors and international governmental organisations, these civil society groups complete the mosaic of actors on the international stage.
The standard definition of civil society identifies it as the space outside of government, family and market. A place in which individuals and collective organisations advance allegedly common interests. Civil society organisations can include community groups, non-governmental organisations, social movements, labour unions, indigenous groups, charitable organisations, faith-based organisations, media operators, academia, diaspora groups, lobby and consultancy groups, think tanks and research centres, professional associations, and foundations. Political parties and private companies can also be counted as borderline cases. The presence of civil society organisations in international affairs has become increasingly relevant. They have played a role in agenda setting, international law-making and diplomacy. Further, they have been involved in the implementation and monitoring of a number of crucial global issues. These range from trade to development and poverty reduction, from democratic governance to human rights, from peace to the environment, and from security to the information society. Because of these reasons, international relations cannot be fully captured without taking into account the actions of civil society organisations.
Different theoretical perspectives can be used to interpret global civil society. Liberals may understand it as the actor that provides a bottom-up contribution to the effectiveness and legitimacy of the international system as a whole. In essence, it is democracy in action as power is being held to account by the populace. Realists, however, may interpret global civil society as a tool used by the most powerful states to advance their ultimate interests abroad, often promoting and popularising ideas that are key to the national interest. Marxists may see global civil society as political vanguards that can spread a different world view that challenges the dominant order. Finally, some even argue that the concept of civil society as a sphere distinct from the family, state and market remains a Western concept that does not apply easily to societies where the boundaries between these spheres are more blurred. It is useful to keep these various perspectives in mind as you read through the chapter.
The activism of global civil society groups has been facilitated by a number of specific conditions. First, a number of international organisations have supported the inclusion of civil society actors within international decision-making. For example, the 1992 UN Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro provided a means for previously scattered groups to meet and create common platforms and networks. The European Union has followed a similar approach by integrating different types of civil society organisations within its governance mechanisms. Second, the state’s priorities for the allocation of resources changed in the 1980s and 1990s due to a trend towards the privatisation of industries. In that climate, it was common to see state-owned enterprises (such as utilities) being sold off to private companies. For that reason, in many Western nations, the state’s overall role in public affairs was reduced. In this context, civil society organisations were able to subcontract many functions from the state and take up new roles as service providers. Third, the globalisation process has generated a sense of common purpose among civil society actors. This has been a trigger for internal unification – increasing the sense of solidarity among civil society organisations. It has also united the groups that want to highlight the negative sides of globalisation. Finally, through the internet, groups from different parts of the world have been able to familiarise themselves with other political realities, like-minded organisations, and alternative forms of action. In this way, they have been able to increase their political know-how and their ability to join forces in addressing common targets.
The wider international system itself has offered an environment conducive to the development of these kinds of activities. By forming transnational networks, civil society organisations have used their leverage at the international level to achieve notable results. A transnational network can be defined as a permanent co-ordination between different civil society organisations (and sometimes individuals), located in several countries, collectively focused on a specific global issue. Major past examples are the Jubilee 2000 campaign, which worked through the 1990s to induce creditor governments and the International Monetary Fund to take steps toward debt relief for highly indebted poor countries. Another is the campaign to ban landmines, which led to the intergovernmental conference in Ottawa where the Mine Ban Treaty was signed in 1997. Ongoing campaigns, to mention a few, include mobilisation on environmental justice, gender recognition, LGBT rights and food security.
Global civil society as a response to transnational exclusion
In today’s complex world, traditional institutions have struggled to provide effective and legitimate responses to global issues such as climate change, financial instability, disease epidemics, intercultural violence and global inequalities. As a response to these shortcomings, forms of so-called multi-level, stakeholder governance have been established that involve a combination of public and private actors. Civil society action at the international level is predominantly focused on building political frameworks with embedded democratic accountability. At present, most global governance bodies suffer from accountability deficits – that is, they lack the traditional formal mechanisms of democratic accountability that are found in states, such as popularly elected leaders, parliamentary oversight, and non-partisan courts. Instead, the executive councils of global regulatory bodies are mainly composed of bureaucrats who are far removed from the situations that are directly affected by the decisions they take. People in peripheral geographical areas and in marginalised sections of society are especially deprived of recognition, voice and influence in most contexts of global governance as it is currently practised. An apt depiction of such an international system is to describe it as characterised by ‘transnational exclusion’.
2. Make an appraisal of functioning of panchayati raj institutions in India.
Panchayati Raj was not a new concept to India. Indian villages had Panchayats (council of five persons) from very ancient time, which were having both executive and judicial powers and used to handle various issues (land distribution, tax collection etc.) or disputes arising in the village area.Gandhiji also held the opinion of empowerment of Panchayats for the development of rural areas. Thus, recognizing their importance our Constitution makers included a provision for Panchayats in part IV of our constitution (directive principles of state policy).Art. 40 confers the responsibility upon State to take steps to organise Village Panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government. But it does not give guidelines for organising village panchayats.Thus, its formal organisation and structure was firstly recommended by Balwant Rai committee,1957 (Committee to examine the Community Development Programme,1952).The Committee, in its report in November 1957, recommended the establishment of the scheme of ‘democratic decentralisation’, which ultimately came to be known as Panchayati Raj. It recommended for a three tier system at village, block and district level and it also recommended for direct election of village level panchayat. Rajasthan was the first state to establish Panchayati Raj at it started from Nagaur district on October 2, 1959.After this, Ashok Mehta Committee on Panchayati Raj was appointed in December 1977 and in August 1978 submitted its report with various recommendations to revive and strengthen the declining Panchayati Raj system in the country.Its major recommendation were two tier system of panchayat, regular social audit, representation of political parties at all level of panchayat elections, provisions for regular election, reservation to SCs/STs in panchayats and a minister for panchayati raj in state council of ministers.Further, G V K Rao Committee appointed in 1985 again recommended some measures to strengthen Panchayati Raj institutions.LM Singhvi Committee appointed in 1986 first time recommended for the constitutional status of Panchayati Raj institutions and it also suggested for constitutional provisions to ensure regular, free and fair elections to the Panchayati Raj Bodies.In response to the recommendations of LM Singhvi committee, a bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha by Rajiv Gandhi’s government in July 1989 to constitutionalize Panchayati Raj Institutions, but the bill was not passed in Rajya Sabha.The V P Singh government also brought a bill, but fall of the government resulted in lapse of the bill. After this P V Narashima Rao’s government introduced a bill for this purpose in Lok Sabha in September, 1991 and the bill finally emerged as the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 and came into force on 24th April, 1993.Features of 73rd Amendment Act 1992
The 73rd Amendment to the Constitution enacted in 1992 added a new part-IX to the Constitution. It also added a new XI schedule containing list of 29 functional items for Panchyats and made statutory provisions for the establishment, empowerment and functioning of Panchayati Raj institutions. Some provisions of this amendment are binding on the States, while others have been left to be decided by respective State Legislatures at their discretion. The salient features of this amendment are as follows:
- Organization of Gram Sabhas;
- Creation of a three-tier Panchayati Raj Structure at the District (Zila), Block and Village levels;
- Almost all posts, at all levels to be filled by direct elections;
- Minimum age for contesting elections to the Panchayati Raj institutions be twenty one years;
- The post of Chairman at the District and Block levels should be filled by indirect election;
- There should be reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes in Panchayats, in proportion to their population, and for women in Panchayats up to one-third seats;
- State Election Commission to be set up in each State to conduct elections to Panchayati Raj institutions;
- The tenure of Panchayati Raj institutions is five years, if dissolved earlier, fresh elections to be held within six months; and
- a State Finance Commission is to be set up in each State every five years.
Some of the provisions, which are not binding on the States, but are only guidelines:
- Giving representation to the members of the Central and State legislatures in these bodies;
- Providing reservation for backward classes; and
- The Panchayati Raj institutions should be given financial powers in relation to taxes, levy fees etc. and efforts shall be made to make Panchayats autonomous bodies.
Composition of Panchayats
The Panchayati Raj system, as established in accordance with the 73rd Amendment, is a three- tier structure based on direct elections at all the three tiers: village, intermediate and district.Exemption from the intermediate tier is given to the small States having less than 20Exemption from the intermediate tier is given to the small States having less than 20 lakhs population. It means that they have freedom not to have the middle level of panchayat.All members in a panchayat are directly elected. However, if a State so decides, members of the State Legislature and Parliament may also be represented in a district and middle-level panchayats.The middle-level panchayats are generally known as Panchayat Samitis. Provisions have been made for the inclusion of the chairpersons of the village panchayats in the block and district level panchayats.The provision regarding reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes has already been mentioned earlier. However it should also be noted here that one-third of total seats are reserved for women, and one-third for women out of the Quota fixed for Scheduled Castes/Tribes.Reservation is also provided for offices of Chairpersons. The reserved seats are allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a panchayat area. State Legislatures can provide for further reservation for other backward classes (OBC) in panchayats.Term of a PanchayatThe Amendment provides for the continuous existence of Panchayats. The normal term of a Panchayat is five years. If a Panchayat is dissolved earlier, elections are held within six months. There is a provision for State Election Commission, for superintendence, direction, and control of the preparation of electoral rolls and conduct of elections to Panchayats.
3. Discuss governance indicators across six dimensions.
4.Examine the factors responsible for changing role of bureaucracy.
5.Write a note in brief on the theories of development.
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IGNOU BPAC 172 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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