IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022 , BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23, BHIC 109 Assignment 2022-23 , BHIC 109 Assignment, IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

Assignment – I

1. Critically examine the nature of the Mughal state.

Ans. The Mughal Empire was a centralized disposition based on military power. It rested on two pillars: the absolute authority of the emperor and the strength of the army. The emperor was the supreme commander of the armed forces, and all other commanders were appointed and – if neces­sary-removed by him.

He determined the rank of every mansabdar and allotted jagirs for the maintenance of the mansabdar. He was the foun­tain of justice as also the supreme judge. He made laws and issued administrative ordinances which had the force of laws, although the principles of the shariat (Islamic law) were generally adhered to.

Yet the Mughal system of centralization was universally effective under Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb.

Like other medieval states, the Mughal empire followed “the policy of the individualistic mini­mum of interference” i.e. it contented itself with discharging only the police duties and the collec­tion of revenue.

The Mughal administration presented a com­bination of Indian and extra-Indian elements, or more correctly, it was the “Perso-Arabic system in Indian setting”. The bifurcation of authority in the provinces – the division of power between the sub- ahdar and the diwan – was based on the system prevailing under the Arab rulers in Egypt.

The revenue system was a resultant of two forces-the time-honoured Hindu practice, and the abstract Arabian theory. The mansabdari system was of Central Asian origin.

In the days of Babur and Humayun there was a prime minister, known as vakil, who was entrusted with large powers in civil and military affairs. During the early years of Akbar’s reign, Bairam Khan, as vakil, virtually served as regent for the minor sovereign.

After Bairam Khan’s fall the office of vakil was not abolished, it was gradually shorn of all powers because it was not considered prudent to allow concentration of authority in a single person. At the end of Akbar’s reign the office became ‘more or less honorific’ and continued till the reign of Shah Jahan.

The all-important department of finance, taken away from the vakil, was placed in charge of the wazir (or diwan). After the virtual disappearance of the vakil, the wazir became the emperor’s ‘minister par excellence’ i.e. prime minister. He was the intermediary between the emperor and the rest of the official world. Among the wazirs who have left their impress on the Mughal history are Raja Todarmal, Raja Raghunath, Sadullah Khan and Jalar Khan.

The emperor was the commander-in-chief of the entire army. The minister who looked after the administration of the army was called mir bakshi. He was in charge of recruitment, equipment and discipline of the troops. The salary bill of all mansabdars had to be calculated and passed by his office.

Towards the end of Aurangzeb’s reign the expansion of the empire necessitated the appointment of four bakhshis: the chief or first bakhsi, and the second, third and fourth bakhshis.

IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

The khan-i-saman held independent charge of the household department and the karkhanas.

The sadr-us-sudur had three important functions. He acted as the emperor’s chief adviser in ecclesiastical matters. He was in charge of the disbursement of imperial grants for religious educational and charitable purposes. He was the chief justice of the empire, and his judicial authority was subordinate to that of the emperor only.

The muhatasib (censor of public morals) was primarily an ecclesiastical officer whose duty it was to regulate the lives of the people. He also performed certain secular duties, such as the ex­amination of weights and measures, enforcement of fair prices in the market, recovery of debts and restoration of fugitive slaves to their owners.

There was a diwan of the khalisa in-charge of the crown lands. The diwan-i-tan looked after matters relating to the jagirs.

Apart from military and judicial officers, men­tion should be made of the mustaufi or the auditor-general, the daroga-i dak chauki who was in charge of the imperial post, the mir-i-arz who was in charge of petitions, the mir-i-mal or the officer in charge of the Privy Purse and the mir tuzuk or the master of ceremonies.

The central government kept itself informed of the occurrences in all parts of the country by means of public news-reporters and secret spies. There were four classes of such agents: waqianavis (news-writer), swanith-nigar (news-writers), khufia-navis (secret letter-writer), harkarah (spy and courier).

The nature of Mughal administration was a combination of Indian, Persian and Arabic systems. Military power was the foundation and the emperor was the centralised authority. Many emperors (like Babur and Humuyun) appointed an advisor or prime minister called vakil to advise them in matters of significance. Bairam Khan was vakil to the throne when Akbar was a minor.

IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Before Akbar, the empire had a different outlook and divided into many Jagirs headed by the mansabdars. The system of mansabdars belongs to the Central Asian empires of that time. Many important officials and nomenclature can be divided as Mir Baksh (the main military administrator), Sadr-esaaman (Chief Justice) Muhataib (ecclesiastical officer who regulated the lives of the people). Diwan-e-tan (minister who looked after jagirs and mansabdars), Mirtuzuk (minister of ceremonies in the court), and Mir-e-mal (chief of treasures in the palace) Akbar, who was the real founder of the Mughal Empire improved the organisation of the government immensely The autocracy, or absolute power of the Badshah. was maintained but power was related to the wazir (similar to vakil) and between the heads of the departments. He created different departments with written regulations within which the officials functioned, independent of the central government. The emperor also chose to transfer or dismiss his officials without respect for rank, race or creed Every considerable official exercised general administrative and judicial powers, especially in criminal cases. Civil disputes ordinarily were left to the qazis, to be settled under Quranic laws. Akbar divided his empire into 20 provinces called sttbahs 14 in North India. 1 in Afghanistan and 6 in South India. The number of subahs were later increased to 21. when the Bijapur and Golkonda kingdoms were added to the empire. The administration was framed on military lines. The subedar maintained a court modelled on that of his sovereign, and possessed full powers as long he maintained his office. Later, in 1596. Akbar bifurcated the governing authority and the office of provincial diwans was introduced in the system. The permanent regular army was very small. The greater part of the imperial forces consisted of contingents furnished by the rajas and mansabdars, each under its own chief. Faujdars (chief assistant fa subadar), kotwal (the police officer), bakshi (paymaster to the army, and government officials) and bayutal (the keeper of government property in each subah)ywere the other important officials in his set-up. Within his administrative system, the warrior aristocracy (naansabdars) held ranks i mansabs) expressed in the number of troops and indicating pay, armed contingents and obligations. The warrior aristocracy was generally, paid, front, the revenue of nonhereditary and transferrable jagirs (revenue villages).

The most important source of revenue was Farm land. But significant revenue was also received from custom duties, inland transit duties, tributes and gifts from the feudal rajas. There was a strict vigil and duty system prevalent on ports under the Shah Bandars (the head of sea ports or bandargahs’). Cash transactions were the mainstay of the financial system but payments were also made in kind. The coinage system was advanced. Gold and silver coins represented high denominations and copper coins for lower ones.

IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

2. Discuss briefly the village structure and nature of land rights in medieval South India. 

IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – II

3. Discuss in brief the problems faced by Humayun and how did he overcome it? 

4. Critically examine Akbar’s policy towards autonomous chieftains. 

5. Write a note on the Mughal jagir system.

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IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – III

6. History writing in Persian during the sixteenth century

7. Sur administration

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8. Town and port administration of the Mughals 

9. Allison Busch on medieval Indic literary tradition

IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

10. Akbar’s attitude towards religion

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IGNOU Instructions for the BHIC 109 HISTORY OF INDIA-V (c. 1550-1605)  

IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

IGNOU Assignment Front Page

The top of the first page of your response sheet should look like this: Get IGNOU Assignment Front page through. And Attach on front page of your assignment. Students need to compulsory attach the front page in at the beginning of their handwritten assignment.

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BHIC 109 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. IGNOU BHIC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920

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