IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022 , BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23, BHIC 110 Assignment 2022-23 , BHIC 110 Assignment, IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

Assignment – I

1. Was the Permanent Settlement successful in attaining its objectives? Discuss.

Ans. The Permanent Settlement, also known as the Permanent Settlement of Bengal, was an agreement between the East India Company and Bengali landlords to fix revenues to be raised from land that had far-reaching consequences for both agricultural methods and productivity in the entire British Empire and the political realities of the Indian countryside. It was concluded in 1793 by the Company administration headed by Charles, Earl Cornwallis. It formed one part of a larger body of legislation, known as the Cornwallis Code. The Cornwallis Code of 1793 divided the East India Company’s service personnel into three branches: revenue, judicial, and commercial. Revenues were collected by zamindars, native Indians who were treated as landowners. This division created an Indian landed class that supported British authority.

The Permanent Settlement was introduced first in Bengal and Bihar and later in the south district of Madras and Varanasi. The system eventually spread all over northern India by a series of regulations dated 1 May 1793. These regulations remained in place until the Charter Act of 1833. The other two systems prevalent in India were the Ryotwari System and the Mahalwari System.

Many argue that the settlement and its outcome had several shortcomings when compared with its initial goals of increasing tax revenue, creating a Western-European style land market in Bengal, and encouraging investment in land and agriculture, thereby creating the conditions for long-term economic growth for both the company and region’s inhabitants. Firstly, the policy (Krishna) of fixing the rate of expected tax revenue for the foreseeable future meant that the income of the Company from taxation actually decreased in the long-term because revenues remained fixed while expenses increased over time. Meanwhile, the condition of the Bengali peasantry became increasingly pitiable, with famines becoming a regular occurrence as landlords (who risked immediate loss of their land if they failed to deliver the expected amount from taxation) sought to guarantee revenue by coercing the local agriculturalists to cultivate cash crops such as cotton, indigo, and jute, while long-term private investment by the zamindars in agricultural infrastructure failed to materialise.

IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Earlier zamindars in Bengal, Bihar and Odisha had been functionaries who held the right to collect revenue on behalf of the Mughal emperor and his representative, the diwan, in Bengal. The diwan supervised the zamindars to ensure they were neither lax nor overly stringent. When the East India Company was awarded the diwani or overlordship of Bengal by the empire following the Battle of Buxar in 1764, it found itself short of trained administrators, especially those familiar with local custom and law. As a result, landholders were unsupervised or reported to corrupt and indolent officials. The result was that revenues were extracted without regard for future income or local welfare.

Following the devastating famine of 1770, which was partially caused by this shortsightedness, Company officials in Calcutta better understood the importance of oversight of revenue officials. Warren Hastings, then governor-general, introduced a system of five-yearly inspections and temporary tax farmers. They did not want to take direct control of local administration in villages for several reasons, one being that the Company did not want to upset those who had traditionally enjoyed power and prestige in rural Bengal.

The Company failed to consider the question of incentivisation. Many appointed tax farmers absconded with as much revenue as they could during the time period between inspections. The British Parliament took note of the disastrous consequences of the system, and in 1784, British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger directed the Calcutta administration to alter it immediately. In 1786 Charles Cornwallis was sent out to India to reform the company’s practices.

In 1786, the East India Company Court of Directors first proposed a permanent settlement for Bengal, changing the policy then being followed by Calcutta, which was attempting to increase taxation of zamindars. Between 1786 and 1790, the new Governor-General Lord Cornwallis and Sir John Shore (later Governor-General) entered a heated debate over whether or not to introduce a permanent settlement with the zamindars. Shore argued that the native zamindars would not trust the permanent settlement to be permanent and that it would take time before they realised it was genuine.

The main aim of the Permanent Settlement was to resolve the problem of agrarian crisis and distress that had resulted in lower agricultural output. The British officials thought that investment in agriculture, trade, and the resources of the revenue of the State could be increased by agriculture. To permanently fix the revenue and secure property rights, the system which came to be known as the ‘Permanent Settlement’ was adopted. The British thought that once the revenue demands of the State were permanently set, there would be a regular flow of tax income. Furthermore, landholders would invest in their agricultural land as the producer can keep surpluses in excess of the fixed tax. The British officials thought that such a process would lead to the emergence of yeomen class of farmers and rich landowners who would invest their capital to generate further surpluses. This new emergent class would be loyal to the British, who were still gaining a foothold in the Indian subcontinent. While the policy was well-intentioned, it failed to identify individuals who were willing to contract to pay fixed revenue perpetually and to invest in the improvement of agriculture. After much discussion and disagreement between the officials, the Permanent Settlement was made with the existing Rajas and Taluqdars of Bengal who were now classified as Zamindars. They had to pay fixed revenue in perpetuity. Thus, zamindars were not the landowners but rather revenue collector agents of the State. Cornwallis believed that they would immediately accept it and so begin investing in improving their land. In 1790, the Court of Directors issued a ten-year (decennial) settlement to the zamindars, which was made permanent in 1793.

By the Permanent Settlement Act of 1793, their right to keep armed forces was removed. They remained just the tax collectors of the land. There were considerably weakened as they were now banned from holding any court, as it was brought under the supervision of a collector appointed by the company. British officials believed that investing in the land would improve the economy.

IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23

The system failed in the long run due to operational difficulty as well as because the Permanent Settlement did not take account of the seasonal and precarious nature of Bengali agriculture. The Company also did not understand the structural issues as well as the society.

Permanent Settlement, The was a grand contract signed in 1793 between the government of the East India Company in Bengal and individual landholders of Bengal- zamindars and talukdars. Under the contract, the zamindars were admitted into the colonial state system as the absolute proprietors of landed property in Bengal. The government revenue payable to government was fixed permanently. The rules of the permanent settlement made every individual zamindar and talukdar the permanent and absolute proprietors of the land under their control. As absolute proprietors of land, zamindars and talukdars were required to pay revenue to government at a rate fixed permanently. But the cultivating raiyats were denied to such a privilege. The landholders were free to change the rent rate of their tenants. They even could evict their tenants if they wanted to. But if they defaulted, their lands proportionate to their default would be realised through public sale of their land. This strong law was called the Sun-set Law.

Furthermore, the zamindars were unhappy because all taluks who hitherto paid government revenue through zamindars were separated from their control and made independent landholders. This provision of the permanent settlement made many zamindars paupers because their estates were consisted of mostly taluks. The revenue sale law, what came to be known as sunset law, frightened the zamindars most. Under this law, land of the zamindars was liable to be sold if they failed to pay government revenue punctually. Under the operation of the Sun-set Law greater part of the zamindari lands of Bengal were sold through auction sales and their lands were transferred to new hands.

IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Hundreds of zamindaris were put to auction sales every month; government’s revenue collection became uncertain; the administrative cost rose; revenue income declined; law and order in the country deteriorated. The dismembered zamindars, shorn of their zamindaris and princely image, more often than not put up quite effective resistance to new zamindars who came to take possession of their lots purchased at auctions. Wellesley resolved to conciliate the zamindar class by bringing some amendments to the basic rules of the permanent settlement. The result was the enactment of Regulation VII of 1799, commonly known as haftam or seventh, which armed the zamindars with despotic powers over their defaulting raiyats. The zamindars could now distraint their crops, cattle and other properties and sell them, in the name of recovering rents. Zamindars, as absolute proprietors, could summon the defaulting raiyats to their katcharis and keep them confined in fetters until the arrears were paid. They could impose community fines on the whole village if any of the defaulting raiyats ran away to safety with his family and property. They could enhance rent without any regard to pargana customs and usages. In short, the haftam had negated all customary rights that the raiyats had been enjoying traditionally and reduced them to mere tenants-at-will.

The next change in the original law of permanent settlement was the Regulation V of 1812 (popularly know as panjam or fifth) under which the zamindars got the right to lease out their land for any period. Originally, the lease period was kept limited to a maximum period of ten years. However, the amendment, which had fundamentally changed the character of permanent settlement was the Regulation VIII of 1819, which came down in the Bengal agrarian history as the pattani law. Under it, a zamindar could lease out his land permanently and at a permanent rent. It was, in fact, another permanent settlement between the zamindar and the pattanidar. The Raiyats were now required to maintain two classes upon them zamindar and pattanidar.

The conclusion of the permanent settlement with zamindars had some immediate objectives in view. These may be classified as: (a) placing revenue paying on a definite footing and making revenue collection sure and certain; (b) ensuring a minimum revenue; (c) relieving officials of revenue matter and engaging them to other spheres of administration; and finally, (d) forging an alliance between the zamindar class and the colonial rulers. Though not entirely but largely, government succeeded in achieving these short-term goals. The revenue paying agency was put on a definite footing in the person of zamindar. The government now knew how much was to be its annual inflow from land and the zamindars also knew for certain their contractual obligation to government. Formerly, neither the government nor the revenue payers knew exactly where did they stand as regards revenue collection and payment.

The revenue law worked as a successful mechanism for maintaining a minimum revenue collection which was hard to imagine in the earlier period. Forging an alliance with the zamindar for political purpose was not achieved immediately, because the original terms of the settlement did not satisfy them, but over time, when zamindari powers were made unlimited and when government revenue demand became lighter through rise in prices and inflation, the landlord class did cooperate with the government. Their solidarity with the government during the sepoy revolt and Swadeshi and militant nationalist movements in the early twentieth century vindicates it.

IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23

But the permanent settlement had nobler long-term objects, which were made plain in the various council minutes and correspondence on the eve of its enactment. Its authors anticipated that the operation of the new system, which was thought to have been devised with some in-built mechanism for social and economic transformation, would first bring about capitalist changes in agriculture and agrarian relations, and eventually trigger off an industrial revolution in the country. It was expected that the proprietary right in land and fixity of government revenue demand for all time to come would induce zamindars to turn themselves into progressive landlords like their counterparts in Britain. The profit motive would drive them to invest their surplus capital in various sectors of agriculture, such as abad or reclamation of land under forest, irrigation, drainage, communication, agricultural credit, improved seed, hats and bazaars, fisheries, livestock, and so on. The expectation was that changes in agriculture would, in turn, lead to transformation in trade, commerce and industries and the cumulative changes would lead to ever increasing income for the government in the form of tariff and taxes. Such a development, it was thought, would well compensate for the loss that the government had deliberately incurred in the long term by fixing the government revenue on zamindars in perpetuity.

2. How did the Utilitarians intervene in the Indian society? Comment.

IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – II

3. Explain the nature of the Ryotwari system.

4. Discuss the debate on the spread of English education during the early colonial period.

5. Were the British able to implement the rule of law in India? Discuss.

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IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – III

6. Santal rebellion

7. Mahalwari Settlement

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8. Orientalists

9. Famines under the British rule  

IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23

10. Colonial expansion in Mysore

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IGNOU Instructions for the BHIC 110 HISTORY OF INDIA-1757-1857  

IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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BHIC 110 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. IGNOU BHIC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920

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