IGNOU MPY 001 Indian Philosophy Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPY 001 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MPY 001 Indian Philosophy Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MPY 001 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MPY 001 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

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IGNOU MPY 001 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field. IGNOU MPY 001 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPY 001 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

Q1. What do you understand with the statement, “world as mind independent reality”? How does Nyaya prove its realism? Mention some of the possible objections against Nyaya’s realism.

The statement “world as a mind-independent reality” means that the physical world exists independently of human perception or consciousness. This view is often associated with philosophical realism, which holds that the external world exists objectively and independently of human thought or experience.

Nyaya is a school of Indian philosophy that is commonly associated with realism. According to Nyaya, the external world is real and independent of human thought or experience. They argue that the objects we perceive are distinct from the sensory faculties that allow us to perceive them, and that the existence of these objects is confirmed through inference and testimony.

Nyaya uses a system of logical analysis to support its claims about the reality of the external world. They argue that knowledge is acquired through a process of inference, which involves drawing conclusions based on evidence or premises. Nyaya identifies several types of inference, including perceptual inference, which involves drawing conclusions based on sensory experience, and inferential inference, which involves drawing conclusions based on reasoning and logical analysis.

Some possible objections to Nyaya’s realism include the argument that our sensory experience is inherently subjective and that we can never have direct access to the external world. This view is often associated with philosophical skepticism, which holds that knowledge of the external world is inherently uncertain or even impossible.

Another objection to Nyaya’s realism is the argument that our knowledge of the world is always mediated by language and culture. This view is often associated with postmodernism, which holds that our understanding of the world is always shaped by social and historical factors, and that there is no objective or universal reality beyond these factors.

Overall, Nyaya’s realism is a complex and sophisticated philosophical position that has been the subject of much debate and discussion throughout history. While there are certainly objections to their view, many philosophers continue to find their arguments and evidence compelling, and the debate over the nature of reality is likely to continue for many years to come.

2. Write a note on Pratityasamutpada.

Compare these,

a) Causation theory of Sankar’s Advaita vedanta and Samkhya philosophy

Sankara’s Advaita Vedanta and Samkhya philosophy have different views on causation theory. In Sankara’s Advaita Vedanta, causation is seen as an illusion, or Maya. According to Sankara, there is only one ultimate reality, Brahman, and everything else is an illusion, including the concepts of cause and effect. Sankara argues that the world of appearances is only a projection of the mind, and that ultimate reality is beyond the realm of causation.

On the other hand, Samkhya philosophy sees causation as a fundamental aspect of reality. According to Samkhya, the world is made up of two primary elements, Purusha (consciousness) and Prakriti (matter), and the interaction between these two gives rise to causation. Samkhya posits a theory of causation known as Satkaryavada, which states that the effect is pre-existent in the cause, and that the cause only brings out the effect that is already inherent in it.

In summary, Sankara’s Advaita Vedanta rejects causation as an illusion, while Samkhya philosophy sees causation as a fundamental aspect of reality.

b) Concept of Liberation of Ramanuja and Madhva

Ramanuja and Madhva were prominent Indian philosophers and theologians who lived in the 11th and 13th centuries respectively. Both Ramanuja and Madhva were proponents of the Bhakti movement, which emphasized devotion to a personal deity as the path to spiritual liberation.

The concept of liberation, or moksha, is central to the teachings of both Ramanuja and Madhva. They believed that the ultimate goal of human life is to achieve moksha, which is the release from the cycle of birth and death and the attainment of eternal bliss.

Ramanuja’s concept of liberation, called “qualified nondualism,” asserts that while the individual soul is distinct from the supreme soul, it can attain union with the supreme soul through devotion and service. Ramanuja believed that liberation is not just a matter of individual salvation, but also of social justice and harmony.

Madhva’s concept of liberation, called “dualistic realism,” emphasizes the eternal difference between the individual soul and the supreme soul. Madhva believed that liberation is attainable only through the grace of the supreme soul, and that the path to liberation involves devotion, knowledge, and good works.

In both Ramanuja and Madhva’s teachings, liberation is not simply a matter of intellectual understanding or philosophical speculation, but also requires a deep and abiding devotion to a personal deity, as well as the cultivation of virtues such as compassion, humility, and selflessness.

3. Answer any two questions in about 250 words each.

a) What are the main arguments given by Samkhya in the favour of the
Prakritiparinamavada? Give some possible objections against it.

Samkhya is a philosophical system of Hinduism that advocates for the Prakritiparinamavada doctrine, which states that the manifest world is a transformation of unmanifest nature (prakriti). The main arguments given by Samkhya in favor of this doctrine are:

  • Prakriti is the source of all matter and energy: According to Samkhya, prakriti is the source of all matter and energy in the universe. It is the root cause of the entire physical world, and all phenomena are a result of its transformations. This view is supported by observation and inference, as we can see that all physical objects and phenomena are made up of material substances.
  • The transformation of prakriti is constant and continuous: Samkhya argues that the transformation of prakriti is constant and continuous, which is supported by the fact that we observe change and transformation all around us. This is seen in the growth and decay of living organisms, the movement of celestial bodies, and the evolution of the universe itself.
  • Prakriti has inherent qualities that determine its transformations: Samkhya argues that prakriti has inherent qualities (gunas) that determine its transformations. These gunas are sattva (purity, clarity), rajas (activity, passion), and tamas (inertia, darkness), and they are present in varying degrees in all material objects and phenomena.

Some possible objections to the Prakritiparinamavada doctrine are:

  • The problem of causation: The doctrine of prakriti’s transformation raises questions about causation. If prakriti is the cause of all transformations, then what caused prakriti to transform in the first place? This creates an infinite regress problem.
  • The problem of consciousness: Samkhya’s doctrine does not account for the existence of consciousness, which is an essential aspect of human experience. It is difficult to explain how consciousness arises from the material transformations of prakriti.
  • The problem of determinism: The doctrine of prakriti’s transformations suggests a deterministic view of the universe, in which all events are predetermined by the qualities of prakriti. This raises questions about free will and moral responsibility.

b) Discuss Pararthanumana in Nyaya Philosophy.

In Nyaya philosophy, Pararthanumana refers to inference for the sake of another (parartha), which means that the purpose of inference is to establish something else that is different from the inference itself. Pararthanumana is one of the means of valid knowledge (pramana) in Nyaya, along with perception (pratyaksha), verbal testimony (shabda), comparison (upamana), presumption (arthapatti), and non-apprehension (anupalabdhi).

The process of Pararthanumana involves three steps:

  • Pratijna (proposition) – This is the statement that needs to be proven, for example, “The pot is hot.”
  • Hetu (reason) – This is the reason that supports the proposition, for example, “Because it is made of clay.”
  • Udaharana (example) – This is the example that illustrates the reason, for example, “Just as all pots made of clay are hot.”

The process of Pararthanumana is considered to be valid when it meets certain conditions or rules, which include:

  • Svarupanvayaviruddhopalabdhi rule: This rule states that the relationship between the reason and the proposition must be such that the presence of the reason necessarily implies the presence of the proposition, and the absence of the reason necessarily implies the absence of the proposition.
  • Vyapti (invariable concomitance) rule: This rule states that there must be an invariable concomitance between the reason and the proposition. In other words, wherever the reason is present, the proposition must also be present, and wherever the reason is absent, the proposition must also be absent.
  • Asiddha-hetu-nirasa (elimination of the unproven reason) rule: This rule states that if there are multiple reasons that can support the proposition, but some of them are unproven, then those unproven reasons must be eliminated.
  • Anyonya-asraya (mutual dependence) rule: This rule states that the reason and the proposition must be mutually dependent on each other, and not on any other entity.

In conclusion, Pararthanumana is an important means of valid knowledge in Nyaya philosophy, and it involves a process of inference that establishes a proposition by means of a reason and an example. The validity of the inference depends on the adherence to certain rules or conditions, such as the invariable concomitance between the reason and the proposition, the elimination of unproven reasons, and the mutual dependence between the reason and the proposition.

c) Discuss the idea of Dravya, Guna and Paryaya in Jainism.

Dravya, Guna, and Paryaya are important concepts in Jainism, a religion and philosophy that originated in ancient India. These concepts form the basis of the Jain worldview, which emphasizes the importance of non-violence, self-control, and spiritual purity.

Dravya refers to substance or matter. According to Jainism, the universe is made up of six substances, which are also called realities or entities. These six substances are Jiva (soul or consciousness), Ajiva (non-soul or matter), Dharma (righteousness), Adharma (unrighteousness), Akasha (space), and Kala (time). Jiva is considered the most important substance because it has the potential to achieve spiritual liberation.

Guna refers to the attributes or qualities of a substance. Jainism recognizes nine Gunas: touch, taste, smell, color, sound, dimension, number, motion, and rest. These Gunas are inherent to matter and cannot be separated from it.

Paryaya refers to the modes or changes that a substance undergoes. Every substance undergoes continuous changes or modifications. There are seven Paryayas: birth, existence, growth, decay, change, permanence, and destruction. These Paryayas are universal and apply to all substances, including Jiva and Ajiva.

In Jainism, these three concepts are interrelated and together they form the basis of the Jain understanding of the universe. Jainism teaches that all substances are eternal, and they exist in various combinations of Dravya, Guna, and Paryaya. The ultimate goal of Jainism is to achieve spiritual purity by practicing non-violence, self-control, and compassion towards all living beings.

d) Write a note on the categories in Vaishesika Philosophy.

Vaishesika Philosophy is one of the six classical schools of Indian Philosophy. The Vaishesika system developed by Kanada focuses on the nature of the physical world and the nature of the individual self. The Vaishesika philosophy categorizes everything in the universe into various categories, which are known as Padarthas.

There are seven categories or Padarthas in the Vaishesika philosophy:

  • Dravya – Substance: Dravya is a basic building block of the universe, which is characterized by its existence, form, and qualities. There are nine types of Dravya according to Vaishesika, which includes earth, water, air, fire, ether, time, space, mind, and soul.
  • Guna – Quality: Guna refers to the qualities that are inherent in a substance. Vaishesika recognizes 24 gunas or qualities, such as color, taste, smell, touch, and sound.
  • Karma – Action: Karma refers to the action or motion of a substance. Every substance has inherent motion or Karma.
  • Samanya – Generality: Samanya refers to the general qualities that are common to all objects of the same category. For example, the samanya of a cow is that it is an animal.
  • Vishesha – Particularity: Vishesha refers to the specific qualities that distinguish one object from another of the same category. For example, the vishesha of a particular cow is its color, size, and shape.
  • Samavaya – Inherence: Samavaya refers to the inseparable connection between a substance and its qualities. A quality cannot exist without the substance.
  • Abhava – Non-existence: Abhava refers to the absence of a substance or a quality. There are two types of Abhava, namely, Pragabhava (prior non-existence) and Anyonyabhava (mutual non-existence).

In conclusion, the Vaishesika philosophy categorizes everything in the universe into seven Padarthas or categories. These categories help to understand the nature of the physical world and the individual self.

4. Answer any four questions in about 150 words each.

a) Mention some features of Tivalluvara’s moral philosophy.
b) Write a short note on the concept of sat and asat found in the Veda.
c) Briefly explain Gandhi’s idea of Svaraj.
d) Write a short note on upmana in Nyaya philosophy.
e) What arguments Samkhya give for the existence of Purusha?
f) Write a short note on the idea of integral Yoga.

5. Write short notes on any five in about 100 words each.

a) Upanishad
b) Sankara’s idea of avidya
c) Relation between god and soul in Vishishtadvaita
d) Vivekananda’s concept of Universal Religion
e) Concept of Democracy in Ambedkar’s Philosophy
f) Kashmir Shaivism
g) Rasa-anumiti-vada
h) vishesh

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