IGNOU MPS 002 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPS 002 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THEORY AND PROBLEMS Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MPS 002 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MPS 002 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

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IGNOU MPS 002 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field. IGNOU MPS 002 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPS 002 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

Q1. Explain the role of UN in the current world order.

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization established on October 24, 1945, with the aim of promoting international cooperation and resolving conflicts peacefully. The UN plays a critical role in the current world order, serving as a platform for member states to address global issues collectively.

The UN has four main purposes: to maintain international peace and security, to promote sustainable development, to protect human rights, and to provide humanitarian aid in times of crisis. The UN achieves these purposes through a variety of mechanisms, including the General Assembly, the Security Council, the International Court of Justice, and various specialized agencies.

One of the most significant roles played by the UN in the current world order is maintaining international peace and security. The UN Security Council, which has the primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security, can take a range of measures to prevent or resolve conflicts, including the use of force if necessary. The UN has been involved in numerous peacekeeping missions around the world, and its efforts have helped to resolve many conflicts.

The UN also plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable development. The organization works to address issues related to poverty, hunger, health, education, and environmental sustainability through various programs and initiatives. The UN’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all, addressing some of the world’s most pressing challenges.

Another critical role played by the UN is protecting human rights. The organization promotes and protects human rights through various mechanisms, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Human Rights Council. The UN also works to prevent and respond to human rights violations, including through peacekeeping missions and other interventions.

Lastly, the UN provides humanitarian aid in times of crisis, including natural disasters, conflict, and displacement. The UN’s humanitarian efforts aim to provide immediate relief and support to those affected by crises and help rebuild communities in the aftermath.

In summary, the UN plays a crucial role in the current world order, promoting international cooperation, resolving conflicts peacefully, addressing global issues, and protecting human rights. While the organization faces numerous challenges, its continued efforts are critical to creating a better and more just world for all.

Q2. Define international terrorism. How does patriotism become the epicenter of

International terrorism refers to acts of violence committed by non-state actors, such as individuals or groups, that are directed against civilians or other non-combatants in order to achieve political or ideological goals across national borders. The goal of these acts is to spread fear and intimidate governments or populations in order to achieve their objectives, which can range from religious or ideological aims to separatist or nationalist aspirations.

Patriotism, or a deep devotion to one’s country, can become the epicenter of terrorism when individuals or groups believe that their government is not representing their interests or is actively oppressing them. In such cases, these individuals or groups may feel that they must take violent action in order to defend their nation or people against perceived threats. This can lead to the justification of terrorist acts as a means of protecting their country or advancing their political agenda.

However, it is important to note that not all acts of violence committed in the name of patriotism can be classified as terrorism. It is the intentional targeting of civilians and non-combatants that defines terrorism, not simply the use of violence for political purposes. Many nationalist or separatist movements have used violent means to achieve their goals without necessarily resorting to terrorism.

Q3. Do you think the world is unipolar, bipolar or multipolar? Explain with example.

The question of whether the world is unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar is a matter of debate among scholars of international relations. However, it can be argued that the current global order is best described as multipolar.

A multipolar world is one in which power is distributed among several major states or regions, with no one country or region dominating. In such a system, power is dispersed, and no one state can dictate the international agenda or impose its will on others.

The current global order can be described as multipolar because power is dispersed among several major players, including the United States, China, Russia, the European Union, India, and Japan, among others. Each of these actors has significant economic, military, and political clout, and they interact with each other in a complex web of relationships and alliances.

For example, the United States remains the world’s largest economy and the preeminent military power, but China is rapidly closing the gap on both fronts. Russia has regained some of its influence in international affairs, particularly in its near-abroad, while the European Union, with its large market and soft power, has become a significant player in international affairs. India, with its growing economy and large population, is also emerging as a major player in the international arena.

Thus, while the United States remains the most powerful country in the world, it is no longer the only major player. The world is more complex and fragmented, with several actors vying for power and influence. This multipolar system poses challenges for global governance, as well as opportunities for cooperation and collaboration among states with different interests and perspectives.

Q4. What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.

Ethnicity refers to a shared sense of cultural identity among a group of people who share common traditions, customs, beliefs, and language. Ethnic identity can be influenced by a variety of factors, including ancestry, geography, religion, and history.

Ethnic wars occur when different ethnic groups engage in armed conflict over issues such as territorial control, political power, or access to resources. There are several reasons why ethnic wars can occur:

  • Historical grievances: Ethnic conflicts can be driven by long-standing grievances, such as past injustices or land disputes, that have not been addressed or resolved.
  • Political competition: Ethnic groups may engage in violence as a way to gain political power or influence in a particular region or country.
  • Economic competition: Ethnic groups may be in competition for limited resources, such as land, water, or mineral resources, leading to violent conflict.
  • Ethnic nationalism: Ethnic wars can be fueled by the belief that one’s ethnic group is superior or more deserving of power and resources than other groups.
  • External influences: Ethnic conflicts can also be fueled by external actors, such as neighboring countries, who may have their own interests in the region.

In summary, ethnic conflicts can be complex and multifaceted, involving a range of historical, political, economic, and cultural factors. Resolving such conflicts often requires addressing underlying grievances, promoting dialogue and reconciliation between different groups, and creating inclusive political and economic systems that recognize the rights and aspirations of all ethnic groups.

Q5. Migration has become an international issue. Explain the reasons of refugee issues in the world.

There are several reasons for the refugee issues that exist in the world today. Some of the main factors that contribute to this issue include:

  • War and Conflict: One of the most common reasons for refugees is war and conflict in their home country. This can include civil wars, interstate wars, and other types of violent conflicts that force people to flee their homes in search of safety.
  • Persecution and Discrimination: In many cases, refugees are forced to flee their homes due to persecution or discrimination based on their race, ethnicity, religion, political beliefs, or other factors.
  • Environmental Disasters: Environmental disasters such as droughts, floods, and hurricanes can also lead to refugee situations as people are forced to leave their homes due to the destruction caused by these events.
  • Economic Hardship: Economic hardship and poverty can also be a factor in refugee situations. People may leave their homes in search of better economic opportunities and a higher standard of living.
  • Lack of Basic Services: In some cases, refugees may leave their homes due to a lack of basic services such as healthcare, education, and access to clean water.
  • Political Instability: Political instability and upheaval in a country can also lead to refugees as people flee the turmoil and uncertainty in their home country.

Overall, the reasons for refugee issues in the world are complex and multifaceted, and often involve a combination of different factors. Addressing these issues requires a comprehensive approach that involves addressing the root causes of refugee situations, providing humanitarian aid and assistance to those in need, and working towards lasting solutions to conflict and instability around the world.


6. a) Realist Theory

Realist theory, also known as realism, is a perspective in international relations that emphasizes the role of power and self-interest in shaping world politics. Realists believe that the international system is anarchic, meaning that there is no central authority to regulate interactions between states, and that this leads to a state of perpetual competition and conflict.

According to realists, states are the primary actors in international relations, and their behavior is driven by a desire to maximize their own power and security. Realists argue that states must be prepared to use force to protect their interests, and that military strength is a key component of national power.

Realists also tend to be skeptical of the idea of international cooperation and the effectiveness of international institutions, arguing that such efforts are often undermined by the self-interest of individual states. Instead, realists emphasize the importance of diplomacy and the use of alliances to secure national interests.

Realism has been a dominant perspective in international relations since the mid-20th century, and has influenced the foreign policy of many countries, including the United States. However, it has also been criticized for neglecting the role of non-state actors, such as international organizations and civil society groups, and for overly emphasizing the role of power and self-interest in shaping world politics.

b) Democratic peace theory

Democratic peace theory is the idea that democracies are less likely to go to war with one another. The theory suggests that because democracies are based on the principles of popular sovereignty, political equality, and human rights, they tend to have more peaceful and stable relations with each other. According to this theory, democracies are less likely to engage in aggressive behavior toward one another because they share similar values and have mechanisms for resolving disputes peacefully.

Proponents of democratic peace theory point to historical evidence showing that democratic countries have rarely gone to war with one another. For example, since the end of World War II, there has not been a single conflict between two established democracies. This suggests that the presence of democratic institutions and norms can help to prevent conflicts from escalating into violence.

Critics of democratic peace theory argue that it is based on an overly simplistic view of the relationship between democracy and peace. They point out that democratic countries have engaged in wars with non-democratic countries, and that democracies have been involved in numerous conflicts throughout history. Additionally, some argue that the theory overlooks the potential for democratic countries to engage in economic, cultural, or ideological conflicts with one another.

Despite these criticisms, democratic peace theory remains a widely debated topic among scholars of international relations and political science.

7. a) The role of International Monetary Fund (IMF)

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that promotes international monetary cooperation, facilitates international trade, and promotes economic growth and stability. The IMF was established in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference and has 190 member countries.

The primary role of the IMF is to ensure the stability of the international monetary system—the system of exchange rates and international payments that enables countries to transact with each other. The IMF provides member countries with policy advice, financial assistance, and technical assistance to help them address economic problems and implement economic policies that promote growth and stability.

The IMF also provides a forum for member countries to discuss and coordinate economic policies. It monitors economic developments in member countries, provides analysis and advice on economic policies, and provides technical assistance to help countries strengthen their economic institutions.

In addition to its role in promoting economic stability and growth, the IMF also plays a role in providing financial assistance to member countries facing balance of payments difficulties. The IMF provides loans to countries that are unable to meet their international obligations, on the condition that they implement economic reforms aimed at restoring economic stability and growth.

Overall, the IMF plays an important role in promoting international economic cooperation and stability, and in providing support to member countries facing economic challenges.

b) Issues of Human Rights

Human rights are basic rights and freedoms that are entitled to every human being, regardless of their nationality, race, gender, religion, or any other status. These rights are essential for human dignity, and their violation can lead to social injustice and inequalities. The following are some of the most critical human rights issues:

  • Right to Life: The most fundamental human right is the right to life. Every human being has the right to live and not be subjected to arbitrary killings or executions. Unfortunately, many people worldwide suffer from conflicts, civil wars, and terrorism that lead to the loss of innocent lives.
  • Freedom of Expression: Freedom of expression is essential for democracy and human development. Individuals must be allowed to express their opinions without fear of retribution. Unfortunately, many countries suppress freedom of expression by arresting journalists, writers, and other individuals who criticize the government.
  • Gender Equality: Gender inequality is a pervasive problem worldwide. Women and girls are often discriminated against and denied opportunities that men have. Women and girls are also subject to sexual and gender-based violence, including rape, domestic violence, and forced marriage.
  • Racism: Racism is a systemic issue that manifests in various forms, including discrimination, exclusion, and hate crimes. Racism denies people of color their human rights and perpetuates a cycle of poverty, injustice, and inequality.
  • Access to Education: Education is a basic human right that is essential for human development and progress. However, many children worldwide, especially girls, are denied access to education due to poverty, cultural practices, and conflicts.
  • Access to Healthcare: Access to healthcare is a basic human right that is essential for maintaining good health and wellbeing. Unfortunately, many people worldwide do not have access to adequate healthcare due to poverty, inequality, and poor healthcare systems.
  • Refugees and Migrants: Refugees and migrants face numerous human rights violations, including discrimination, exploitation, and arbitrary detention. They are often forced to flee their homes due to conflict, persecution, or poverty and face significant challenges in accessing basic human rights.
  • Child Labour: Child labor is a severe violation of human rights. Millions of children worldwide are forced to work in hazardous conditions, denying them their childhood and right to education.

In conclusion, human rights are essential for human dignity, equality, and social justice. Governments, international organizations, civil society, and individuals must work together to promote and protect human rights and ensure that all people can live in dignity and freedom.

8. a) Nuclear threats

Nuclear threats are a serious concern for global security. The use of nuclear weapons could result in catastrophic consequences, including widespread destruction, loss of life, and long-term environmental damage. There are several sources of nuclear threats, including:

  • Nuclear weapons: Countries possessing nuclear weapons, such as the United States, Russia, China, and others, are capable of launching devastating attacks. There is also concern about non-state actors, such as terrorist groups, acquiring nuclear weapons.
  • Nuclear power plants: Although nuclear power plants are designed to be safe, accidents and natural disasters can cause radiation leaks, which can have serious consequences for public health and the environment.
  • Nuclear waste: The storage and disposal of nuclear waste is a major challenge. If not handled properly, it can pose a risk to public health and the environment.
  • Cyber attacks: As more critical infrastructure becomes connected to the internet, there is concern about the potential for cyber attacks on nuclear facilities and systems.

To address these threats, international efforts have focused on non-proliferation, disarmament, and strengthening safeguards to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Additionally, efforts have been made to increase safety and security measures at nuclear facilities and to promote the safe and responsible use of nuclear energy.

b) East –West divide

The term “East-West divide” refers to the division of the world into two main parts, namely the Western Hemisphere (North and South America, Europe, and Australia) and the Eastern Hemisphere (Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe). This division is primarily based on geographical and cultural differences, with the East often associated with traditional societies, collectivism, and authoritarianism, while the West is associated with modernization, individualism, and democracy.

The East-West divide has played a significant role in international relations, especially during the Cold War when the world was divided into two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The division was also evident in economic development, with the West being characterized by high levels of industrialization and the East by agricultural economies.

Today, the East-West divide continues to shape global politics and culture, with issues such as trade, migration, and human rights often pitting the interests and values of the two regions against each other. However, globalization has also brought the two regions closer together, and many countries in the East are rapidly modernizing and adopting Western-style political and economic systems.

Q9. a) Marxist approach to International Relations

Marxism is a theory that focuses on the role of social and economic classes in shaping human history, and this approach extends to international relations as well. In a Marxist approach to international relations, the world is viewed as a system in which the dominant economic powers (capitalist states) exploit weaker states for their own gain.

According to Marxism, the root of international conflict lies in the competition for resources and wealth between nations. Capitalist states, driven by the need to expand their markets and increase their profits, seek to dominate weaker states through economic, political, and military means. This leads to a cycle of imperialism, in which the dominant powers extract resources and labor from weaker states to fuel their own growth and development.

Marxist theory also emphasizes the role of class struggle within and between nations. In a capitalist world, the ruling classes within each nation collaborate with one another to maintain their power and control over the working class. This creates a situation where the working classes in different countries have more in common with one another than they do with the ruling classes in their own countries.

Therefore, Marxist theory advocates for the overthrow of capitalist systems and the establishment of socialist or communist societies that prioritize the needs of the working class over the interests of the ruling class. In an international context, this would mean building solidarity between working classes across borders to challenge capitalist domination and imperialism.

Overall, the Marxist approach to international relations emphasizes the role of class struggle and economic inequality in shaping the dynamics between nations. It views the world as a site of conflict and exploitation, and advocates for the establishment of a more equitable and just global system.

b) Neo-liberal theory of IR

The neo-liberal theory of International Relations (IR) is a theoretical framework that emerged in the 1980s as a response to the dominant realist theory of IR. Neo-liberals believe that international cooperation and institutional arrangements can help reduce conflict and promote stability in the international system.

According to neo-liberal theory, states are rational actors that seek to maximize their own self-interest. However, unlike realists who believe that states are inherently aggressive and seek to dominate others, neo-liberals argue that cooperation and interdependence can create incentives for states to cooperate and avoid conflict.

Neo-liberals also believe that international institutions, such as the United Nations, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, can facilitate cooperation and help resolve conflicts between states. They argue that these institutions provide a forum for states to negotiate and reach agreements on issues such as trade, security, and human rights.

Moreover, neo-liberals argue that economic interdependence can promote peace and stability in the international system. By engaging in trade and investment, states become more economically interdependent, which creates incentives to avoid conflict and resolve disputes peacefully.

In summary, neo-liberal theory of IR emphasizes the importance of international cooperation, institutions, and economic interdependence in promoting peace and stability in the international system. It differs from realist theory by emphasizing the potential for cooperation and the importance of institutions, rather than the inevitability of conflict and the importance of military power.

Q10. a) Define basic features of South Asia

South Asia is a subregion of Asia, comprising the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The region is characterized by a diverse range of cultures, religions, languages, and ethnicities. Some of the basic features of South Asia include:

  • Geographical diversity: South Asia is home to a wide range of landscapes, including mountains, forests, deserts, and plains. The region is also marked by several large rivers such as the Ganges, Indus, and Brahmaputra.
  • Religious diversity: South Asia is known for its religious diversity, with Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Christianity all having significant followers in the region. The religious practices and beliefs vary greatly across different regions and communities.
  • Cultural richness: South Asia has a rich and diverse cultural heritage, with unique traditions, customs, and cuisines. The region is also known for its traditional art forms, such as music, dance, and handicrafts.
  • Population: South Asia is the most densely populated region in the world, with a population of over 1.8 billion people. India is the largest country in the region, with a population of over 1.3 billion.
  • Economic diversity: South Asia is a mix of both developed and developing countries, with a wide range of economic disparities. India and Pakistan are the largest economies in the region, while Nepal, Bhutan, and Maldives are among the smallest.
  • Linguistic diversity: South Asia is home to a wide range of languages, with over 1,600 languages spoken in the region. Some of the major languages include Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, and Punjabi.
  • Political instability: South Asia has been marked by political instability and conflicts in the past, with several countries facing internal and external challenges. The region has also been affected by terrorism and extremist violence.

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