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IGNOU MPCE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU MPCE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).
SECTION – A
1. Explain behavior change strategies based on operant conditioning.
Ans. Operant conditioning can also be used to decrease a behavior via the removal of a desirable outcome or the application of a negative outcome. For example, a child may be told they will lose recess privileges if they talk out of turn in class. This potential for punishment may lead to a decrease in disruptive behaviors.
While behaviorism may have lost much of the dominance it held during the early part of the 20th century, operant conditioning remains an important and often used tool in the learning and behavior modification process. Sometimes natural consequences lead to changes in our behavior. In other instances, rewards and punishments may be consciously doled out in order to create a change.
Operant conditioning is something you may immediately recognize in your own life, whether it is in your approach to teaching your children good behavior or in training the family dog. Remember that any type of learning takes time. Consider the type of reinforcement or punishment that may work best for your unique situation and assess which type of reinforcement schedule might lead to the best results.
Reinforcement is not necessarily a straightforward process, and there are a number of factors that can influence how quickly and how well new things are learned. Skinner found that when and how often behaviors were reinforced played a role in the speed and strength of acquisition. In other words, the timing and frequency of reinforcement influenced how new behaviors were learned and how old behaviors were modified.
Skinner identified several different schedules of reinforcement that impact the operant conditioning process:
Continuous reinforcement involves delivering a reinforcement every time a response occurs. Learning tends to occur relatively quickly, yet the response rate is quite low. Extinction also occurs very quickly once reinforcement is halted.
Fixed-ratio schedules are a type of partial reinforcement. Responses are reinforced only after a specific number of responses have occurred. This typically leads to a fairly steady response rate.
Fixed-interval schedules are another form of partial reinforcement. Reinforcement occurs only after a certain interval of time has elapsed. Response rates remain fairly steady and start to increase as the reinforcement time draws near, but slow immediately after the reinforcement has been delivered.
Variable-ratio schedules are also a type of partial reinforcement that involve reinforcing behavior after a varied number of responses. This leads to both a high response rate and slow extinction rates.
Variable-interval schedules are the final form of partial reinforcement Skinner described. This schedule involves delivering reinforcement after a variable amount of time has elapsed. This also tends to lead to a fast response rate and slow extinction rate.
Punishment in Operant Conditioning
Punishment is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of punishment. In both of these cases, the behavior decreases.
Positive punishment, sometimes referred to as punishment by application, presents an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows. Spanking for misbehavior is an example of punishment by application.
Negative punishment, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when a favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs. Taking away a child’s video game following misbehavior is an example of negative punishment.
Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of reinforcers. In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases.
Positive reinforcers are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In positive reinforcement situations, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of praise or a direct reward. If you do a good job at work and your manager gives you a bonus, that bonus is a positive reinforcer.
Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant. For example, if your child starts to scream in the middle of a restaurant, but stops once you hand them a treat, your action led to the removal of the unpleasant condition, negatively reinforcing your behavior (not your child’s).
Types of Behaviors
Skinner distinguished between two different types of behaviors
Respondent behaviors are those that occur automatically and reflexively, such as pulling your hand back from a hot stove or jerking your leg when the doctor taps on your knee. You don’t have to learn these behaviors. They simply occur automatically and involuntarily.
Operant behaviors, on the other hand, are those under our conscious control. Some may occur spontaneously and others purposely, but it is the consequences of these actions that then influence whether or not they occur again in the future. Our actions on the environment and the consequences of that action make up an important part of the learning process.
While classical conditioning could account for respondent behaviors, Skinner realized that it could not account for a great deal of learning. Instead, Skinner suggested that operant conditioning held far greater importance.
Skinner invented different devices during his boyhood and he put these skills to work during his studies on operant conditioning. He created a device known as an operant conditioning chamber, often referred to today as a Skinner box. The chamber could hold a small animal, such as a rat or pigeon. The box also contained a bar or key that the animal could press in order to receive a reward.
In order to track responses, Skinner also developed a device known as a cumulative recorder. The device recorded responses as an upward movement of a line so that response rates could be read by looking at the slope of the line.
2. Describe the use of various psychotherapy with older adults.
Ans. Before turning to psychological interventions, which are the main focus of this resource guide, it should be noted that psychological assessment with older adults is more specialized than are interventions. The higher prevalence of the dementias in late life make some level of neuropsychological screening essential. The higher prevalence of medical disorders makes attention to physical causes of symptoms and to iatrogenic effects of medications as causes of symptoms highly important as well. For more on geropsychological assessment see Lichtenberg (1999).
Gatz et al. (1998) reported that behavioral and environmental interventions for older adults with dementia met the standards proposed at that time for well-established empirically supported therapy. Probably efficacious therapies for the older adult included cognitive behavioral treatment of sleep disorders and psychodynamic, cognitive, and behavioral treatments for clinical depression. For nonsyndromal problems of aging, memory retraining and cognitive training are probably efficacious in slowing cognitive decline. Life review and reminiscence are probably efficacious in improvement of depressive symptoms or in producing higher life satisfaction.
Drawing upon life span developmental psychology, social gerontology, and clinical experience I have developed a transtheoretical framework for thinking about what changes are needed in psychological interventions with older adults: the contextual, cohort-based, maturity, specific challenge model (CCMSC; Knight, 1996). CCMSC is not a specific therapy system but a framework for thinking about the adaptation of any therapy system to work with older adults. In the model, context means that changes in therapy are often related to the social-environmental context of older adults both in the community and more especially within hospital and nursing home settings, rather than to their developmental stage. Cohort differences are based on maturing in a specific historical time period, leading to a focus on generational groups such as Depression-era generation, GI Generation, Baby Boomers, rather than on age groups. Developmental maturation leads to relatively minor changes, such as slowing down and the use of simpler language, but also to greater emotional complexity and a wealth of life experience upon which to draw. Specific challenges means that due to the high prevalence of chronic medical problems and neurological disorders, a higher percentage of psychological assessment and therapy is related to medical problems these problems. There is also a higher frequency of grief work and of attention to caregiving issues.
In short, the answer to the question of whether psychotherapy needs to be adapted for work with older adults is, Yes, but (mostly) NOT because they are older. That is, the major reasons for changing therapy when working with an older client are not due to developmental differences but to context effects, cohort effects, and specific challenges common in later life. Context effects require changes for older clients living in age specific contexts such as retirement communities and long term care settings as well as for clients who are seen in de facto age contexts such as hospitals and outpatient medical settings. Cohort effects require modifications because earlier born cohorts have different skills, different values, and different life experiences than later born cohorts. The specific challenges of later life require specific knowledge and therapeutic skills because of the problems they pose for clients, not because of the client’s age.
How specialized does a therapist need to be to work with older adults? It will likely depend on the number and type of older adults seen in the practice. Therapists who see a small percentage of older adults, who see older adults who are physically healthy and not likely to have dementia, and whose older clients have problems similar to those of their younger clients, are not likely to need specialized training or education to work with older clients.
Adapting to work with members of other cohorts is similar in difficulty and in the type of changes required to working with clients of a different gender, ethnicity, class background, or occupation-based lifestyle. It does require sensitivity to the possibility of the difference. It also requires some knowledge of history before one was born or at least the willingness to learn that history from clients.
In terms of context effects, if the work with older adults is primarily in long term care settings or in acute medical settings, the work will be specialized compared to work with healthy younger adults living and working in the community. The differences are due to the specialized environmental context rather than to the age of the clients. It is likely to be somewhat similar to working with younger adults in medical care settings and rehabilitations settings. Learning these settings is likely to require some supervised experience working in them.
While somewhat less different and therefore less specialized than the institutional settings, seeing clients who are living a post-retirement lifestyle, especially if some of their lives are spent in age-segregated environments, requires learning the social rules of those environments. Like cohort differences, these can be learned from older clients, but the therapist must be aware of the need to attend to these differences. Otherwise, judgments will be made based on the norms and folkways of young and middle-aged adults whose lives are shaped by school, work, and young families rather than by leisure time, senior community centers or meal sites, and the dispersed networks of older families.
In terms of specific challenges, if the older clients are physically ill, this will pose new issues in both assessment and also in intervention with them. Sorting out physical and psychological influences on symptoms and problems is an ongoing assessment issue. Specific knowledge about the effects of different chronic illnesses as well as both the skill and emotional readiness to work with physically disabled clients become essential. Consultation and supervised experience with psychologists who have such experience is likely to needed in addition to didactic instruction.
When working with clients with death and dying issues, the therapist needs to have basic skills in death counseling and in grief work. The primary problem I have observed over the years is therapists failing to recognize that clients need to talk about the death of loved ones sometimes even when this is the client’s stated presenting problem. Learning to work effectively with death, dying, and grief is likely to require supervision as well as didactic instruction.
Working with caregivers requires some basic understanding of the stress and coping process as it affects caregivers for frail older adults. Therapy with caregivers will usually include some need to explore relationship issues and family issues as well. This work often includes a dual focus on emotional issues for the caregiver and problem solving in order to reduce the real stress and strain of long term caregiving for a seriously disabled family member.
The more of these factors that are present, the more specialized working with older adults becomes. Other things being equal, the larger the proportion of older adults in one’s caseload, the more likely it is that these factors will be present, whether the therapist is immediately aware of them or not. As noted above, assessment practice with older adults requires some degree of specialized training and work in long term care or other medical settings with older adults will require specialization in learning to work effectively in that setting.
3. Explain the process of counseling in Roger’s client centred therapy.
SECTION – B
4. Explain dysfunctional thinking.
5. Describe the different types of groups.
6. Discuss therapeutical approaches in case of terminal illness
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7. Explain the features of psychodynamic technique.
8. Explain integrative psychotherapy with examples.
IGNOU MPCE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-23
SECTION – C
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