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- 1 1. Explain the phenomenology perspectives in Sociology.
- 2 2. What are the basic elements of theory?
- 3 3. Explain the significance of ideal type. 4. What is the evolutionist method? Name some thinkers who have used this method. 5. Elaborate the comparative methods used by Durkheim and Redcliffe-Brown
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- 5 6. Discuss Feminist empiricism. 7. Elaborate the various stages of quantitative research. 8. Discuss ICT impacts in social sciences research. 9. What is survey? 10. Discuss various sources of history.
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IGNOU BSOC 134 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BSOC 134 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer the following Descriptive Category Questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment I.
Answer the following Middle Category Questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment II.
Answer the following Short Category Questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks in Assignment III.
1. Explain the phenomenology perspectives in Sociology.
Phenomenology within sociology (phenomenological sociology) is the study of the formal structures of concrete social existence as made available in and through the analytical description of acts of intentional consciousness. The object of such an analysis is the meaningful lived world of everyday life (German: Lebenswelt or “Lifeworld”). The task of phenomenological sociology is to account for, or describe, the formal structures of the given object of investigation in terms of subjectivity, as an object-constituted-in-and-for-consciousness. What makes such a description different from the “naive” subjective descriptions of the man in the street, or those of the traditional social scientist, both operating in the natural attitude of everyday life, is the utilization of phenomenological methods.
Social phenomenologists talk about the social construction of reality. They view social order as a creation of everyday interaction, often looking at conversations to find the methods that people use to maintain social relations.
The leading exponent of Phenomenological Sociology was Alfred Schütz (1899–1959). Schütz sought to provide a critical philosophical foundation for Max Weber’s interpretive sociology (verstehende Soziologie) by applying methods and insights derived from the phenomenological philosophy of Edmund Husserl (1859–1938) to the study of the social world.[clarification needed] It is the building of this bridge between Husserlian phenomenology and Weberian sociology that serves as the starting point for contemporary phenomenological sociology.
However, the prominence of Weberian themes in the field does not mean that all versions of phenomenological sociology must be based on such. In point of fact, there is some historical evidence that would suggest that elements of Weberian sociology are themselves based on certain phenomenological themes; especially in regard to the theory of the intended meaning of an act, and ideas regarding theory and concept formation. For instance, Weber may have taken influence from Wilhelm Dilthey’s theory of Weltanschauung, who may have also taken from Husserl’s theory of meaning.
While Husserl’s work was directed at establishing the formal structures of intentional consciousness, Schütz was concerned with establishing the formal structures of what he termed the Lebenswelt (“Lifeworld”). Husserl’s work was conducted as a transcendental phenomenology of consciousness. Schütz’s work was conducted as a mundane phenomenology of the social world.[clarification needed] The difference in their respective projects rests at the level of analysis, the objects taken as a topic of study, and the type of phenomenological reduction that is employed for the purposes of analysis.
Ultimately these two distinct phenomenological projects should be seen as complementary, with the structures of the latter dependent on the structures of the former. That is, valid phenomenological descriptions of the formal structures of the life-world should be wholly consistent with the descriptions of the formal structures of intentional consciousness. It is from the latter that the former derives its validity, verifiability, and truth value. This is in keeping with Husserl’s conception of phenomenology as “First Philosophy”, the foundation, or ground, for both philosophy and all of the sciences.
The general thesis of the natural attitude is the ideational foundation for the fact-world of our straightforward, common sense social experience[further explanation needed]. It unites the world of individual objects into a unified world of meaning, which we assume is shared by any and all who share our culture. It forms the underpinning for our thoughts and actions. It is the projected assumption, or belief, in a naturally occurring social world that is both factually objective in its existential status, and unquestioned in its “natural” appearance; social objects (persons, language, institutions, etc.) have the same existential “thing” status as objects occurring in nature (rocks, trees, and animals, etc.).
Although it is often referred to as the “General Thesis of the Natural Attitude”, it is not a thesis in the formal sense of the term, but a non-thematic assumption, or belief, that underlies our sense of the objectivity and facticity of the world, and the objects appearing in this world. The facticity of this world of common sense is both unquestioned and virtually “unquestionable;” it is sanctionable as to its status as that which “is,” and that which “everyone,” or, at least, “any reasonable person,” agrees to be the case with regard to the factual character of the world.
2. What are the basic elements of theory?
The Evaluative Element
The final theoretical element to consider when evaluating a theory is the degree to which the theoretical constructs may be tested. Often a theoretical postulate makes a great deal of intuitive sense and appears consistent with the general logic and structure of the theory. However, it may be very difficult to test the postulate to see if it actually works. In other words, the postulate may be impossible to support. For example, Ann Roe predicted that the nature of parent-child interactions would influence the kind of future occupational choices that children would make. The concepts were consistent with the other postulates in her theory, and seemed to fit the intuitive test – they made a certain amount of sense. However, such a construct was very difficult to operationalize, and even if it were operationalized adequately, it would be very difficult to actually test. In order to provide evidence to support this postulate, a researcher would first need to find a way to describe, and then assess, the nature of parent-child interactions during the early stages of childhood. Then, the researcher would need to follow those children for the next 25 to 30 years in order to determine the occupational choices that they made. To accommodate this problem, some researchers attempted a retrospective analysis: They asked adults for their current occupational titles, and then asked them to describe the nature of their parental involvement with them as children. Not surprisingly, the results were inconclusive. However, it was difficult to tell if the construct was wrong, or if there were just too many problems with the retrospective data. Either way, this particular postulate did not fare too well on the evaluative component of a theoretical critique.
Criteria for Theory Evaluation
A theory’s comprehensiveness is related to the descriptive element and pertains to the range of experience that it is able to describe. Some theories describe certain situations extremely well, but do not address other situations at all. When you are assessing comprehensiveness, ask questions such as these:
For whom would this work or not work?
Does this describe experience as I understand it?
Does it apply to the kinds of people I often work with?
Can I think of people or situations for whom this would NOT be applicable?
A good theory should be able to describe experience and organize it into categories of understanding. The capacity for describing the broadest range of experience in the shortest possible number of explanations is referred to as parsimony. For example, when trying to explain why children misbehave, Dreikurs described four common “mistaken goals” of children. He contended that you could understand a great deal of children’s behaviour by determining which of the four goals (independently or working in concert) the child was demonstrating. By doing so, he reduced the thousands of possible behaviours and interpretations into a parsimonious list of four main things to watch for. Parsimony allows the practitioner to seek understanding of a client issue in a more efficient manner. Conversely, too much parsimony leads to stereotyping, bias, and premature focus on solutions. A counsellor who took the Dreikurs model and used it to exclusively determine a child’s motivation for behaviour might be using stereotypical ways of viewing that child’s behaviour and ignoring other possible explanations.
To operationalize a concept means to find a way to put the concept into action (i.e., into operation). Usually, it refers to a process of making an abstract idea more concrete and often measurable. Concepts are nice, but unless they can be made tangible, they tend to have limited applied value. Like the difficulty associated with operationalizing Anne Roe’s concept of parent-child interaction patterns, it may be difficult to find a concrete way to measure concepts such as id, striving for superiority, Gestalt, or genuineness. All of these terms play integral roles in the description of experience by particular theorists, yet each one is hard – if not impossible – to assess. However, each, taken within the context of its theory, makes sense and has a certain utility. The question then becomes “Where does the construct have utility?” In many cases, constructs taken from a theory have high descriptive value (e.g., they help us to organize information and understand our world), but they may have limited prescriptive value (e.g., we are left not knowing what we should do about them). In fact, it is in the prescriptive element of a theory that concept operationalization becomes the most problematic: If you cannot put a suggestion for action into practice, the suggestion is not particularly helpful!
How do we test the extent to which theoretical descriptions and predictions hold true? As counsellors, we are most interested in determining what supports theoretical propositions. In particular, we must pay attention to the evidence of a theory’s utility. This evidence may be found in a number of ways, and is not restricted to either subjective experience or “hard data.” This focus on assembling evidence to support the efficacy of one’s practice is at the heart of the scientist-practitioner model of counselling. If we want to provide the most ethical service to our clients, we must systematically collect evidence that supports the efficacy of what we do.
In early research, the notion of empirical validity dominated efforts to attest to the verifiability of theoretical constructs. The word empirical comes from the Greek root word empericus, which simply means experience. In practice, empirical evidence typically connotes data that have been subjected to statistical validation. Thus, empirical validity is a term used to describe the process by which evidence is gathered to validate aspects of theory. This may also be referred to as the scientific method. The scientific method involves (a) establishing operational definitions for the constructs or phenomena being studied, (b) organizing phenomena into clear and distinct categories, (c) testing out hypotheses about the phenomena by conducting replicable experiments, and so on. Any useful review or critique of a theory must consider the evidence marshalled in support of or in contradiction to the theory. In other words, it is necessary to review the evidence pertaining to a theory.
3. Explain the significance of ideal type.
4. What is the evolutionist method? Name some thinkers who have used this method.
5. Elaborate the comparative methods used by Durkheim and Redcliffe-Brown
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