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IGNOU BSOC 131 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BSOC 131 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer the following Descriptive Category Questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment I.
Answer the following Middle Category Questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment II.
Answer the following Short Category Questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks in Assignment III.
1. Discuss the similarities and dissimilarities between sociology and political science.
What are the elements of culture? Discuss.
What is Sociology
Sociology is the academic discipline which focuses on the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society. It, therefore, analyses the social associations and interactions that influence forming a stable society, overcoming the extreme impacts on its members.
9Hence, sociology is a social science that emphasizes the study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture of human life. Subjects such as anthropology, communication studies, and, culture studies go hand in hand with sociology.
Some major theoretical approaches in sociology are functionalism, conflict theory, structuralism, and, utilitarianism. Likewise, the subject scope of sociology ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure.
pSome of the pioneering personalities who contributed to the development of the subject of sociology are Max Weber, Émile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Franklin Frazier, Albion Small, Adolphe Quetelet, and, Herbert Spencer to modern day sociologists such as Anthony Giddens, and, Harrison White.
Sociology is the best choice for someone who is interested in researching how human societies develop and finding ways to develop and organize societies from its root level. Some careers such as social researchers, caseworkers, paralegals, public relations workers, administrators, community organizers, public policy researchers, and data analysts are related to sociology. Hence, the career options for sociology spans varied sectors including the research sector, administrative sector, public and welfare sector, the business sector as well as the education sector.
What is Political Science
By definition, political science is the academic discipline that studies the state and systems of government; the scientific analysis of political activity and behaviour. In brief, political science focuses on the theory and practice of government and politics at the local, state, national, and international levels.
Consequently, it involves the systematic study of governance by political means through the application of observations and experiences and generally scientific methods of analysis.
Some major approaches utilized in political science are positivism, interpretivism, rational choice theory, behaviouralism, structuralism, realism, and, institutionalism.
Similarly, in addition to its analysis of power and its operation in the political arena, political science also analyses problems that occur as a result of political instabilities such as security issues, economic crisis, globalization, international trade, etc. Hence, it allows understanding of how governments operate and interact, the impact of government policies on economic stability and growth, and how laws affect social and political change.
Moreover, the contemporary discipline of political science encompasses studies of all political, societal, cultural factors that influence the operation of power in the government as well as the international level. Hence, subjects such as international relations and business studies go hand in hand with political science.
Some well-known career options for political science include politician, lobbyist, political consultant, policy analyst, paralegals, legal assistant, legal analyst, public relations specialist, marketing research analyst, etc.
Similarities Between Sociology and Political Science
- These academic disciplines study human society and the manner in which human interactions with social institutions and politics impact the overall function of the society.
- Also, both fall under the category of social sciences and utilize some social science theories that overlap.
Difference Between Sociology and Political Science
Sociology is the academic discipline that studies the development, structure, and functioning of human society while political science is the academic discipline that studies the state and systems of government or the scientific analysis of political activity and behaviour. Thus, this is the main difference between sociology and political science.
Also, the focus area is one other important difference between sociology and political science. The main focus area of sociology is the human society and its development; hence, it focuses on the study of the structure, its function and eventually the development for the proper function of human society. In contrast, the main focus area of political science is the use of political power. Thus, it focuses on the practice of government and politics at the local, state, national, and international levels.
Furthermore, the subject scope is another difference between sociology and political science. Sociology includes the study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture of everyday life whereas political science includes the manner in which governments operate and interact, the impact of government policies on economic stability and growth, and how laws affect social and political change.
Some career options for sociology include social researchers, caseworkers, public relations workers, administrators, community organizers, public policy researchers, and data analysts while some career options for political science include politician, lobbyist, political consultant, policy analyst, legal assistant, legal analyst, public relations specialist, and, marketing research analyst. Hence, this is another difference between sociology and political science.
Sociology and political science have a slight inter-related nature since both concern the human society and its development. However, these two diverge on their focus areas. While sociology focuses on the development, structure, and functioning of human society, political science focuses on the state and systems of government; the scientific analysis of political activity and behaviour. Thus, this is the difference between sociology and political science. Eventually, how these political changes can affect society as a whole.
2. Does Psychology use sociological concepts and methods? Discuss.
Explain the concept of role with suitable examples.
The Coexistence of Psychology and Sociology
An individual’s identity is determined by how they identify themselves and their social identity. Identity is a crucial aspect of an individual’s life as it creates a sense of being aware of oneself as well as establishing belongingness and status in society. The two common factors influencing identity are psychological factors and social factors. Sociology and Psychology determine the existence of humanity. While psychology caters to an individual’s mind and how they express themselves through personality and behaviour, sociology looks at the communities the individual is part of and the influence of the communal identity on the individual. Psychology and sociology may be different fields, wherein psychology focuses on studying humans as individuals, while sociology examines humans as collective members of their culture and society. While the two fields focus on different notions of understanding human behaviour, there are overlaps within the two fields in areas such as social psychology which looks at behaviour individual in culture and society. To develop a further understanding and distinction between the two areas of study, it is crucial to create a basic knowledge of the fields by looking at objectives and core elements. The following article aims to develop an understanding of a basic overview of the two areas Psychology and Sociology and examine similarities and differences, which helps understand the coexistence and codependence of the two fields in the field of social sciences.
The term “psychology” is derived from Greek roots which are psyche, the soul and logia, the study of or the branch of a concept. Psychology, by definition, is the scientific study of mind and behaviour. Psychology was built based on four primary goals which are:
- Describe: Describing the behaviour of humans help understand the notion of normal and abnormal behaviour by comparing an individuals behaviour with other members of the individual’s culture. This helps understand abnormality when a deviation to the norms and expectations of an individual.
- Explain: Explaining behaviour creates an understanding of why a particular behaviour occurs. The observations and descriptions of behaviour help develop theories as a means of explanation. Explanation through theories helps create a definitive reason behind behaviour which can be generalised to the general population.
- Predict: Once the theories are developed through explanation, the theories can be used as a reference to the expected behaviour from an individual which can predict future behaviour based on the theoretical data.
- Control: Controlling behaviour ensures stability. It can also be a means of changing behaviour by using the knowledge derived from previous research. In cases of mental illnesses, this aspect plays a crucial role as it focuses on changing and controlling the illness in order to restore normality in an individual.
Psychology is divided into subfields in order to classify and study behaviour associated with the broad classifications such as personality psychology, clinical psychology, social psychology developmental psychology and several others. Each of the sub-classifications for theory and research which makes understanding and application of the findings of the research and theories more organised. Studying psychology helps individuals in various areas, such as counselling and developing programs. Psychology also creates an understanding of the mind where the conscious and unconscious help gage knowledge of common factors such as memory, instincts and appropriate behaviour.
Sociology is defined as a discipline dealing with the interpretation and explanation of social action. It deals with human interaction and understanding factors determining these. Sociology aims to understand the creation and maintenance of organisations influencing social structures. The field looks at society as a space created for the human need for belonging, and aspects in the society such as social stratification, social movements and social change.
Sociology aims to look at societal organisations and institutions that influence human behaviour. Sociology began as a study after the french Philosopher Aguste Comte, who wanted the creation of a systematic science to study society. The society which is mentioned has several aspects to it, such as politics, economy. Society is the collective set of people that share a similar culture and physical location. Sociology views physical commodities and anything that is not created by the individual are products of society. This is the link between sociology and economics, where the economy is dependent on societal consumption while society is dependant on the economy to buy commodities. Sociology also looks at an individual and exposure to environments, individuals and objects that influence an individual’s social identity. Social identity is the individual’s knowledge about themselves in respect to the ingroups they belong to in society such as class, caste, and ethnicity. The need for a social identity is driven by the need to belong in a group for safety, self-esteem, socialisation. Formation of groups creates a comparison which boosts and influences the self-esteem of an individual when their group is superior. This is also the reason for the development of prejudices which are created by string negative attitudes towards another group.
Outlining Similarities between Psychology and Sociology
While sociology and psychology are different areas of study, they have overlapping features that create similarities between the two. When looking at sociology and psychology, a key feature common to them is studying patterns of recurring behaviour characteristics. The study of patterns promotes better understanding and fixed criteria. Sociology acknowledges the individual’s choices and behaviour as a role in society which is determined by the individual’s ability to make decisions which are influenced by psychology. The society of the individual influences the individual choices as the psychological theory states that individuals have the instinct to belong. In order to study these similarities, the field of social psychology looks at an individual and influence of the society on the individual. Social psychology is the scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, beliefs, intentions and goals are constructed within a social context by the actual or imagined interactions with others. Social psychology looks at attributes such as prejudice, attitudes, aggression, which are psychological concepts that play a role in determining the grouping and social acceptance of an individual.
3. Discuss Weber’s view on organization.
Compare and contrast roles in simple and complex societies.
5. Describe the premises of functionalism.
Discuss Mead’s theory of the development of self.
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