IGNOU BSOC 113 SOCIOLOGICAL THINKERS -II Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BSOC 113 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU BSOC 113 SOCIOLOGICAL THINKERS -II Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU BSOC 113 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU BSOC 113 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

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IGNOU BSOC 113 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field. IGNOU BSOC 113 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BSOC 113 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment A

Q1. Write a note on Radcliffe-Brown’s understanding of structure

A. R. Radcliffe-Brown was a British social anthropologist who made significant contributions to the study of social structures in human societies. According to Radcliffe-Brown, social structures are the patterns of relationships between individuals and groups within a society. These relationships are based on social norms, values, and customs, which determine the way people interact with each other.

Radcliffe-Brown’s understanding of structure is based on the concept of “structural functionalism,” which argues that social structures serve a specific function within a society. In other words, social structures are not random or arbitrary but have a purpose and function that contributes to the overall stability of the society.

Radcliffe-Brown believed that social structures are not visible but can be inferred from the patterns of behavior and relationships within a society. He argued that social structures are composed of rules and norms that govern the behavior of individuals and groups within a society. These rules and norms are not necessarily explicit but are often implicit and understood by members of the society.

According to Radcliffe-Brown, social structures are not fixed but can change over time. However, any changes in social structures must maintain the overall stability of the society. Radcliffe-Brown believed that social structures are essential for the functioning of a society and that they provide a sense of order and stability.

In summary, Radcliffe-Brown’s understanding of structure is based on the concept of structural functionalism, which sees social structures as patterns of relationships between individuals and groups that serve a specific function within a society. These structures are composed of rules and norms that govern behavior and provide stability to the society.

Q2. Discuss the dramaturgical approach of Erving Goffman

Erving Goffman was a Canadian-American sociologist who is known for his contribution to the field of sociology, particularly in the area of symbolic interactionism. One of his major contributions is the dramaturgical approach, which views social interaction as a theatrical performance, with individuals playing specific roles and using various strategies to maintain and present a desired image of themselves to others.

According to Goffman, individuals in social situations are like actors on a stage, who perform different roles, such as parent, teacher, friend, boss, and so on. Just as actors put on a performance for an audience, individuals in social situations perform their roles for those around them. They use various cues, such as clothing, language, and gestures, to convey their intended impression to others. These cues are often called “sign vehicles.”

Goffman also introduced the concept of “face,” which refers to the social identity that an individual presents to others. An individual’s face is the image that they want to project to others and is often tied to their self-esteem. Individuals use various strategies to protect their face, such as avoiding embarrassing situations or trying to save face when they do occur.

In addition, Goffman introduced the concept of “impression management,” which refers to the strategies that individuals use to control the impression that others have of them. Individuals use impression management techniques to maintain their desired image and to avoid embarrassment or negative evaluations from others.

Overall, Goffman’s dramaturgical approach provides a valuable perspective on social interaction by emphasizing the importance of social roles, impression management, and the presentation of self in social situations. It has influenced a range of fields, including sociology, communication studies, and psychology, and remains a popular framework for analyzing social behavior.

Assignment B

Q3. How does Levi-Strauss view human culture?

Claude Levi-Strauss, a prominent anthropologist and structuralist thinker, viewed human culture as a system of symbols that provide meaning to the world. He argued that all cultures are based on a shared set of basic structures, which he called “elementary structures of kinship.”

Levi-Strauss believed that culture is a product of the human mind and its capacity to create and manipulate symbols. He saw human cultures as diverse expressions of a universal human cognitive structure, and he argued that the study of culture should focus on the underlying patterns and structures that are common to all human societies.

According to Levi-Strauss, the basic structures of kinship provide a framework for organizing human relationships and social institutions. He argued that these structures are not arbitrary but are based on fundamental aspects of human nature, such as the need to reproduce and care for offspring.

Overall, Levi-Strauss viewed human culture as a complex and dynamic system that reflects the universal human capacity for symbolic thought and communication. He believed that by understanding the underlying structures and patterns of culture, anthropologists can gain insights into the human mind and the nature of human social life.

Q4. What do Berger and Luckman mean by externalisation?

Berger and Luckman, in their seminal work “The Social Construction of Reality,” use the term “externalization” to refer to the process by which individuals and society create and define the world around them. They argue that externalization is a fundamental aspect of human culture and socialization.

Externalization refers to the process of creating an external reality that is separate from the individual or individuals who create it. For example, the creation of language, symbols, and cultural artifacts like art and music are all forms of externalization. By externalizing their thoughts, ideas, and emotions, individuals can communicate with one another and create shared meanings and understanding.

Berger and Luckman emphasize that externalization is a socially constructed process. In other words, the meanings and values attached to external objects and symbols are not inherent in them but are created and reinforced through social interaction and cultural norms. Externalization, therefore, is not a passive process but an active one that requires ongoing participation and negotiation among individuals and society.

Q5. Explain the concept of ‘habitus’

Habitus is a term that was first introduced by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, and it refers to the set of dispositions, attitudes, and behaviors that individuals acquire through socialization and that shape their perceptions, preferences, and actions.

According to Bourdieu, habitus is formed through the internalization of cultural norms and values that are prevalent in the social environment in which individuals grow up. These cultural norms and values are transmitted through social institutions such as family, schools, religion, and media, and they influence individuals’ ways of thinking, feeling, and acting in the world.

Habitus is not a fixed or deterministic structure, but rather a dynamic and adaptable one that can change over time and through social interactions. However, because habitus is deeply ingrained in individuals’ dispositions, it tends to reproduce social inequalities and patterns of behavior that are characteristic of a particular social class or cultural group.

In sum, the concept of habitus helps us understand how individuals’ social backgrounds and experiences shape their worldviews and actions, and how cultural norms and values are transmitted across generations and social groups.

Assignment C

Q6. Binary opposites

Binary opposites are pairs of concepts that are diametrically opposed to each other, such as good vs. evil, light vs. dark, or male vs. female. These pairs are often used to create a sense of contrast or tension in literature, art, or other forms of communication. Binary opposites can be seen as a way to simplify complex ideas or to create a clear sense of order in a world that may be otherwise ambiguous or chaotic. However, it is important to note that the use of binary opposites can also reinforce cultural or societal norms and reinforce stereotypes or biases.

Q7. Bio-politics

Biopolitics is a concept that was first introduced by French philosopher Michel Foucault in the 1970s. It refers to the ways in which power is exercised over populations, particularly in relation to their biological or physical bodies.

Biopolitics is concerned with the management and regulation of human life and the human body, including issues such as birth and death, health and illness, reproduction, genetics, and population control. It involves the use of political power to manage and regulate these aspects of human life, often through the implementation of policies and practices by governments and other institutions.

In biopolitical theory, power is not just exercised through coercion or force, but also through the creation of norms, rules, and regulations that shape people’s behavior and attitudes. This power is often exercised through institutions such as hospitals, schools, and prisons, as well as through scientific and medical research.

Biopolitics has been criticized for its potential to create systems of control and oppression, particularly in the context of eugenics and population control. However, it has also been praised for its potential to improve public health and promote social welfare.

Q8. Genralised others

In sociology, the term “generalized others” refers to the collective attitudes, expectations, and beliefs of the larger society or community that individuals internalize and use as a reference point for their behavior. These generalized others are the people who we imagine are watching us and judging us, and they provide us with a sense of social norms and values.

According to sociologist George Herbert Mead, who introduced the concept of the generalized other, our development of a self-concept depends on our ability to take the perspective of the generalized other. In other words, we learn to see ourselves as others see us, and we adjust our behavior accordingly.

The generalized other can include many different groups and institutions, such as family, friends, schools, religious organizations, and the media. By internalizing the attitudes and expectations of these groups, we learn to conform to social norms and values and become functioning members of society.

Overall, the concept of the generalized other is an important part of understanding how socialization works and how individuals develop a sense of self and social identity.

Q9. Need disposition

The term “disposition” can have different meanings depending on the context. Here are some possible definitions:

  • In law, disposition refers to the final outcome of a legal case or the way in which property or assets are distributed.
  • In psychology, disposition refers to a person’s inherent qualities of character or personality that predispose them to behave in certain ways.
  • In medical terms, disposition refers to the decision made by a healthcare provider about a patient’s next steps, such as whether they should be discharged or admitted to the hospital.
  • In manufacturing, disposition refers to the process of deciding what to do with defective or non-conforming products, such as whether to scrap them, rework them, or accept them as-is.

Overall, “disposition” refers to the way in which something is handled or dealt with, often in a final or conclusive manner.

Q10. New Left

The term “New Left” typically refers to a political movement that emerged in the United States and Europe in the 1960s. The New Left was characterized by a rejection of traditional Marxist and social democratic political theory, and a focus on issues such as civil rights, feminism, and the environment.

In the United States, the New Left was closely associated with the student movement, which played a key role in opposing the Vietnam War and advocating for greater civil rights and social justice. In Europe, the New Left was often associated with left-wing political parties and labor unions.

The New Left was also influenced by the writings of figures such as Herbert Marcuse, who argued that traditional Marxist theory had failed to adequately address issues such as the role of technology and the importance of individual freedom. Other influential thinkers included Michel Foucault, who explored the relationship between power and knowledge, and Antonio Gramsci, who emphasized the importance of culture and ideology in shaping political and social change.

Although the New Left did not always have a clear political program or strategy, it played an important role in shaping political discourse and promoting progressive causes. Some of the ideas and values associated with the New Left, such as environmentalism, feminism, and opposition to war and imperialism, continue to influence political movements today.

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