IGNOU BSOC 112 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU BSOC 112 SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS I Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU BSOC 112 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU BSOC 112 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.
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IGNOU BSOC 112 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field. IGNOU BSOC 112 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 1 IGNOU BSOC 112 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 1.1 Q1. What is objectivity? Discuss Weber’s view on objectivity in social science research.
- 1.2 Q2. What is reflexivity? Explain the importance of reflexivity in social science research.
- 1.3 Q3. Explain the ethnological method of research.
- 1.4 Q4. Discuss Durkheim’s contribution to the use of the historical method.
- 1.5 Q5. What were the criticisms against the earlyattemptsto do research on women?
- 1.6 Q6. What are the main arguments of standpoint theorists?
- 1.7 Q7. What is ethnomethodology?
- 1.8 Q8. What is a descriptive research design?
- 1.9 Q9. What are the objectives of quantitative research?
- 1.10 Q10. In what way do ICTs influence social science research?
IGNOU BSOC 112 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
Objectivity refers to a state of being impartial or neutral, where one is free from bias, personal preferences, or emotions, and is able to view a situation or phenomenon with a detached and rational approach. In the context of social science research, objectivity is often seen as a key requirement for generating reliable and valid knowledge about social phenomena.
Max Weber, a prominent German sociologist, was one of the earliest scholars to discuss the issue of objectivity in social science research. According to Weber, social science research must strive for objectivity in order to generate valid and reliable knowledge about the social world. However, he also recognized that complete objectivity is impossible to achieve due to the subjective nature of human experiences.
Weber argued that social scientists should strive to be as objective as possible by acknowledging their personal biases and values, and by using rigorous and transparent methods for data collection and analysis. He believed that social scientists must also be aware of their own social location and how it might influence their interpretation of social phenomena.
Weber also emphasized the importance of value neutrality in social science research. He argued that social scientists should not allow their personal values or beliefs to influence their research findings, as this could compromise the objectivity of their work. Instead, they should strive for value-free analysis, where research findings are based solely on empirical evidence and logical reasoning.
Overall, Weber’s view on objectivity in social science research stresses the need for social scientists to be aware of their own biases and to use rigorous and transparent methods for data collection and analysis. He recognized that complete objectivity is impossible to achieve, but argued that social scientists should strive to be as objective as possible in order to generate valid and reliable knowledge about the social world.
Reflexivity is a concept that refers to the way in which researchers are reflexive about their own positionality, assumptions, and biases when conducting social science research. It involves a critical reflection on the ways in which researchers’ own identities and experiences may shape their research questions, methodologies, and interpretations of data.
In other words, reflexivity is the process of examining the researcher’s own beliefs, values, and experiences and how they might influence the research process and outcomes. This can involve questioning assumptions, considering alternative perspectives, and being open to new insights and knowledge.
Reflexivity is important in social science research because it helps to ensure that researchers are aware of their own biases and assumptions and can take steps to minimize their influence on the research process. This can improve the quality and validity of research findings by reducing the likelihood of researchers imposing their own beliefs and values on the data.
Moreover, reflexivity can also enhance the ethical considerations in research by ensuring that researchers acknowledge and address power imbalances and potential harm to participants. For example, being reflexive about the researcher’s positionality and power can help to identify potential sources of harm and allow for measures to be taken to minimize this harm.
In summary, reflexivity is a crucial aspect of social science research as it helps to ensure that research is conducted in an ethical, transparent, and self-aware manner, leading to more accurate and valid results.
Q3. Explain the ethnological method of research.
The ethnological method of research is an approach used in anthropology and other social sciences to study different cultures and societies. Ethnology involves the systematic study of people and their cultures, including their customs, beliefs, and practices.
The ethnological method typically involves fieldwork, which involves living among the people being studied to observe and participate in their daily activities. Ethnographers often use a combination of participant observation, interviews, and other qualitative research methods to collect data and gain insights into the culture they are studying.
The ethnological method often involves comparing and contrasting different cultures to identify common patterns and unique features. Ethnographers may also use historical and comparative approaches to better understand the development and evolution of different cultural practices over time.
Overall, the ethnological method of research aims to provide a deep understanding of cultural diversity and the complex ways in which social, economic, and historical factors shape human behavior and practices.
Q4. Discuss Durkheim’s contribution to the use of the historical method.
Émile Durkheim is known for his significant contribution to the development of sociology as a discipline, and he played a crucial role in shaping the use of the historical method in social research. Durkheim emphasized the importance of historical analysis for understanding the development of social institutions and the cultural context in which they emerge.
Durkheim believed that the historical method was essential for understanding the social phenomena that emerged over time. He argued that social institutions were not static but were shaped by historical processes, and therefore, understanding the past was crucial for understanding the present. According to Durkheim, a historical analysis could provide insights into how social institutions and practices evolved, and how they influenced social behavior.
One of Durkheim’s significant contributions to the use of the historical method was his development of the concept of “social facts.” Social facts refer to the cultural, social, and economic structures that exist independently of individual will or action. Durkheim argued that social facts are objective and measurable, and their analysis requires a historical approach. By studying the evolution of social facts over time, Durkheim believed that researchers could gain a deeper understanding of their function and impact on society.
Durkheim’s use of the historical method was also evident in his studies of religion. In his book “The Elementary Forms of Religious Life,” Durkheim conducted an analysis of the religious practices of pre-modern societies. He argued that religion was a fundamental social institution that played a crucial role in shaping the values and beliefs of society. Durkheim’s historical analysis of religion allowed him to identify common patterns and characteristics of religious practices across different cultures and time periods.
In conclusion, Durkheim’s contributions to the use of the historical method in social research were significant. He emphasized the importance of historical analysis for understanding the evolution of social institutions and the cultural context in which they emerge. His development of the concept of social facts and his analysis of religion demonstrated the value of a historical approach for gaining insights into the social phenomena that shape our world.
Q5. What were the criticisms against the earlyattemptsto do research on women?
There were several criticisms against the early attempts to do research on women, particularly in the fields of medicine and psychology. Some of the main criticisms include:
- Exclusion of women from research: Early research often excluded women entirely or included only small numbers of women, which limited the generalizability of the findings. This was due in part to the assumption that men and women were fundamentally different and that studying women would therefore be unproductive or irrelevant.
- Stereotyping of women: When women were included in research, they were often studied in ways that reinforced gender stereotypes. For example, they were studied as passive subjects of male desire, as wives and mothers, or as objects of study rather than as fully realized human beings.
- Failure to account for gender differences: When women were studied, they were often treated as if they were the same as men, and their unique experiences and perspectives were ignored. This led to a lack of understanding of gender differences in health and behavior.
- Lack of ethical considerations: Women were sometimes used as experimental subjects without their informed consent or without appropriate safeguards in place to protect their health and well-being. This led to serious ethical concerns and resulted in harm to many women.
- Lack of female researchers: Early research was dominated by male researchers, which limited the perspectives and experiences that were represented in the research. This also led to a lack of attention to issues that were particularly relevant to women’s lives and health.
Overall, these criticisms highlighted the need for more inclusive and ethical research practices that took into account the diversity of human experience and the unique needs of different populations, including women.
Q6. What are the main arguments of standpoint theorists?
Standpoint theorists argue that people’s social and cultural positioning shapes their experiences and knowledge of the world. The main arguments of standpoint theorists can be summarized as follows:
- Knowledge is socially situated: Standpoint theorists argue that knowledge is not objective or neutral, but rather it is shaped by social and cultural factors. People’s experiences, values, and perspectives are influenced by their social positions, such as their race, gender, class, sexuality, and ability. As a result, knowledge is always situated within specific social and historical contexts.
- Marginalized groups have unique knowledge: Standpoint theorists argue that people who occupy marginalized positions in society have unique knowledge that is often overlooked or ignored by dominant groups. Marginalized groups are more likely to be aware of the ways in which social structures and institutions operate to privilege certain groups and disadvantage others.
- Power relations shape knowledge: Standpoint theorists argue that power relations are integral to the production and dissemination of knowledge. Dominant groups have the power to define what is considered legitimate knowledge, while marginalized groups are often excluded or marginalized from these processes. By understanding the ways in which power operates in knowledge production, standpoint theorists seek to challenge dominant knowledge claims and amplify marginalized voices.
- Multiple perspectives are necessary for a complete understanding of the world: Standpoint theorists argue that because knowledge is socially situated and shaped by power relations, multiple perspectives are necessary for a complete understanding of the world. By taking into account the perspectives of marginalized groups, we can gain a more comprehensive understanding of social issues and work towards social justice.
Overall, standpoint theorists emphasize the importance of acknowledging and valuing diverse perspectives in order to gain a more nuanced and accurate understanding of the world.
Q7. What is ethnomethodology?
Ethnomethodology is a sociological approach that seeks to understand how people make sense of the world and their social interactions. Developed by Harold Garfinkel in the 1960s, ethnomethodology is concerned with the ways in which people use common sense knowledge and practical reasoning to navigate their social environments.
The central idea of ethnomethodology is that people have a shared understanding of the world that is built on the social norms, values, and conventions that they have learned through their interactions with others. Ethnomethodologists are interested in the ways in which people use this shared understanding to make sense of their everyday experiences and to create social order.
One of the key methods of ethnomethodology is conversation analysis, which involves the detailed analysis of the structure and content of everyday conversations. Through this analysis, ethnomethodologists aim to uncover the implicit rules and norms that govern social interactions and to understand how people use these rules to create meaning in their interactions.
Overall, ethnomethodology is a theoretical and methodological approach that seeks to uncover the implicit rules and norms that underlie social interactions and to understand how people use these rules to make sense of their social world.
Q8. What is a descriptive research design?
Descriptive research design is a research method used to observe and describe the characteristics and behavior of a particular population or phenomenon, without attempting to influence or manipulate it in any way.
This type of research design is used to gather data that describes the current state of a particular phenomenon, such as attitudes, behaviors, or opinions of a group of people. Descriptive research design can be conducted through different methods, including surveys, interviews, case studies, and observational studies.
Descriptive research design is useful in developing a basic understanding of a topic, and it often forms the basis for further research. It is commonly used in social sciences, marketing, and other fields where it is necessary to describe the behavior and characteristics of a particular group or phenomenon accurately.
Q9. What are the objectives of quantitative research?
Quantitative research aims to collect and analyze numerical data in order to describe and explain phenomena or to test hypotheses. The specific objectives of quantitative research can vary depending on the research question and context, but some common objectives include:
- Describing or measuring characteristics: Quantitative research can be used to describe or measure various characteristics of individuals, groups, or phenomena. For example, a researcher might use surveys to measure the attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors of a sample of people.
- Testing hypotheses: Quantitative research can be used to test hypotheses or predictions about the relationships between variables. For example, a researcher might hypothesize that there is a positive relationship between physical activity and mental health, and conduct a study to test this hypothesis.
- Making predictions: Quantitative research can also be used to make predictions about future outcomes based on past data. For example, a marketer might use sales data to predict future demand for a product.
- Generalizing findings: Quantitative research can provide data that is representative of a larger population, allowing researchers to generalize findings to a broader group. For example, a researcher might conduct a study on a sample of college students and use the findings to make generalizations about college students in general.
Overall, the objectives of quantitative research are to collect and analyze numerical data in order to gain insights and make informed decisions based on evidence.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have had a significant impact on social science research in various ways. Here are some of the most notable influences:
- Data collection and analysis: ICTs have made it easier and faster to collect and analyze data. With the use of online surveys, electronic data capture systems, and computer-assisted analysis software, researchers can now collect and analyze vast amounts of data in a short period.
- Collaboration and communication: ICTs have facilitated collaboration and communication among researchers. Social media, email, and video conferencing tools have made it easier for researchers to communicate and share ideas with colleagues from different locations.
- Access to information: The internet has made it easier for researchers to access information on various topics. Online databases, search engines, and digital libraries have made it possible to access a vast amount of literature from different fields, making it easier for researchers to conduct literature reviews.
- New research methods: ICTs have opened up new research methods in social science research. For instance, social media data can be used to analyze human behavior, sentiment analysis, and demographic profiling.
- Ethics and privacy: ICTs have raised ethical and privacy concerns in social science research. With the use of online data collection methods, researchers must ensure that they obtain informed consent, protect participants’ privacy, and maintain confidentiality.
Overall, ICTs have had a significant impact on social science research by providing new methods of data collection, analysis, collaboration, and communication, and by raising ethical and privacy concerns that require attention from researchers.
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