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IGNOU BPSC 132 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPSC 132 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in the
Answer the following in about 500 words each in section I and Each question carries 20 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in section II and Each question carries 10 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in section III and Each question carries 6 marks
SECTION – I
Q.1. Discuss Marxist perspective to study Indian politics.
The movement for independence of India is one of the biggest mass movements in the history of the world. It saw the participation of wide sections of people under the leadership of the Indian National Congress. While the beginning of the Indian national movement is variously traced, a major consensus being the consideration of the revolt of 1857 as the first collective moment, the movement was given its mass appeal and national character under the leadership of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
The Indian national movement has been studied widely from many different perspectives. As students of social science we are aware that what we read as history depends a lot on who writes it. Thus we have apologists of colonial rule in India who interpret the Indian freedom struggle as a product of the needs of various elite groups of India to stage a „mock battle ‟ , when in reality there was no basic contradiction between interests of Indian people and colonial rulers. The nationalist writers see it as a movement of the Indian people which emerged and strengthened as a result of growing awareness among people about the essentially exploitative character of colonialism. Similarly, we have a Marxist interpretation of the Indian national movement too, coming from a particular world view of Marxist ideas about economic class contradictions and perceptions of history.
The subject matter of this unit is how the Indian national movement is interpreted by Marxist historiographers of India. But before going to the specific understanding of Indian nationalism by Marxists, we shall briefly attempt to understand the relation of classical Marxist thought to the idea of nationalism. In the next section, we would discuss some major contributions to the Marxist historiography of Indian national movement.
M.N. Roy1 and R. Palm Dutt2 were the first Indian scholars who attempted a Marxist analysis of Indian politics. Both Roy and Dutt tried to relate the political structure and movements to the structures at the economic level. They considered political process as a part of dynamic totality. Politics was not considered by both Roy and Dutt a totally autonomous process involving merely political ideology and important political personalities. Sudipto Kaviraj, while commenting on a contributions of Roy and Dutt, writes : “There wa s richer sensitivity about the non-political layers of the milieu in which politics goes on. Also there was a systemic understanding of history, Looking at history not just as a random collection of unrelated and largely inexplicable events, but as a total sequence of socio-economic systems.”3 Thus, both Dutt and Roy emphasize the intermingling of the economic and the political process.
Dutt observed that imperialism disturbed the normal process of transition from feudalism to capitalism in India. Imperialism retarded economic development and stalemated and complicated the process of transition.4 This process has also been referred to as de-industrialization by Daniel Thorner.5 Dutt was also alive to the contradictory character of the process of transition.6 In Kaviraj’s opinion Dutt was a Marxist thinker of higher order than M.N. Roy. Roy was against analysis extremist whom he called reactonary and he labelled the moderates a sprogressive.7 However, the applicaton of the Marxist method by both Dutt and Roy was not free of a political mindset. Both, however, prefaced the application of the Marxist method to Indian politics. Later on Nehru, J. Prakash Narian and Narendra Dev adopted a modified Marxist analysis to understand the course of Indian history and politics.
MARXISM AND THE STUDY OF INDIAN POLITY
A macro-structural analysis of Indian society in general and of Indian politics in particular in the early years of post-independence period was taken up by Charles Bettelheim using the orthodox Marxist framework with the help of concepts such as bourgeoisie, petty bourgeosie, proletariat, economic base and superstructure, public and private sector, surplus value etc. 13 With regard to relation between state power and people two main points are highlighted by Bettelheim. Firstly the state is an instrument of repression and bureaucratic control, the form which the repression and control takes depends on class tensions, the level of development of productive forces, the standard of education, and the social conscience of different classes. The state bureaucracy and its employees also affect the functioning of the state. Since the Indian state inherited a colonial legacy, it essentially remained repressive, bureaucratic and democratic. Secondly, after independence of the state organizations were not remodelled by the new government. Minor reforms could not negate the colonial legacy. Hence, a tendency to imitate traditional forms of self-government.
Bettelheim is also critical of the functioning of India’s political parties as they adopted a more Or less European system of party model. He considers the Congress party as ‘centre-left-wing-party’, and further left are the socialist and communist parties, and further there are various conservative parties and personalities. However, such ideological cleavages and divides in relation to India’s political Parties are not clearly discernible. Such a political divide hides the Peculiar Character of Indian political life. It conceals many feudal and semi-feudal economic and social relationships. The political parties in India must tackle the problems of state, economic control, and the agrarian problems. Again it may be added that the political scene in India has changed a lot since the late l960’s. Many of the premises and conclusions given in Betelheim’s analysis need to be reformulated in the light of vastly varying regional politics and political permutations and combinations at the centre.
Recent changes in India’s political economy negate Bettelheim’s hypothesis about the state capitalism and centralization of economic power in the Indian state. Liberalization of the economy during the last five years in particular not only has changed the nature and meaning Of India’s five year plans; it has also changed considerably the character of Indian state and ideological basis of Indian politics. Public sector has become extremely weak and multinationals are substituting them. Trade unionism has become somewhat weak. Private sector is no more a polluting arena gf employment. A revivalistic politics has also prospered along with liberalization of economy and weakening of the state.
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Q.2. Explain the essential features of the Indian Constitution.
Important Features of Indian Constitution
Every written constitution in the world has its own unique characteristics, and no exception is the Indian Constitution. But the Indian Constitution has many prominent features that distinguish it from the other Constitutions. This article clearly explains the Indian Constitution’s 8 key features.
1. World’s Longest Constitution
The Indian Constitution contains 395 articles and 12 schedules, making it the world’s longest written constitution. Just compare it with other countries Constitutions. For example, the UK has no written constitution, while the US Constitution contains only seven articles.
Not only this but since 1951 about 90 articles and more than 100 amendments have been added. However, since the articles are not added separately as part of an existing article (e.g. Article 21A, 35A etc.) the total number of articles remains the same at 395.
2. Taken from various sources
The Indian Constitution was framed from multiple sources including the 1935 Government of India Act and Other Countries Constitutions.In addition to these, the Constitutions of Canada, Australia, Germany, the U.S.S.R., and France also adopted various provisions.
3. Federal System with Unitary Features
Federal System with Unitar The Indian Constitution includes all the federal characteristics of governance such as dual government system (center and state),division of powers between the three state organs (executive, judiciary and legislature), constitutional supremacy, independent judiciary and bicameralism (lower and upper house).
Nevertheless, the Indian Constitution is unique in that it includes many unitary features such as a strong centre, all India services common to the center and the states, emergency provisions that can transform the Constitution into a unitary one if necessary, appointment of governors by the president on the advice of the center, etc.
Indeed, Article 1 clearly states that India is a ‘ Union of States ‘ rather than a federation of States. In India, the states did not come together to form the centre (or Union) like in the case of the USA which is the purest form of a federation. Rather, for administrative convenience, it is the center that created the states. Article 3 of the Indian Constitution makes Parliament the sole authority to create new states clearly indicating that the Indian Constitution is of a unitary nature with certain federal characteristics.
4. Parliamentary Form of Government
On the pattern of the British parliamentary system of government, the Indian Constitution has opted for the parliamentary form of government. The key characteristics of the parliamentary form of government are:
1. Executive are members of the legislature
2. Collective responsibility to the legislature of the Council of Ministers
3. Rule of the majority party
4. Prime Minister’s or chief minister’s leadership in the state
5. Lower house dissolution (Lok Sabha and state assemblies)
6. Government form of the Cabinet
5. Balance between the Sovereignty of Parliament and Judicial Supremacy
A fine balance has been struck between parliamentary sovereignty and judicial supremacy by the Indian Constitution. The Supreme Court is vacuumed by Articles 13, 32 and 136 with the power of judicial review. By its power of judicial review, it can strike down any parliamentary law as unconstitutional.
On the other hand, the Parliament, being the representative of the people’s will, has the authority to make laws, and it can also amend the major part of the Constitution through its video vested powers under Article 368.
6. Independent and Integrated Judicial System
In India, unlike the United States where there is a two-tiered judiciary, a single judicial system prevails with the Supreme Court at the top, the State and District High Courts and other subordinate courts below and subject to the supervision of the High Courts.
It is the duty of all levels of courts in India to enforce both central and state laws unlike in the US, where federal courts adjudicate on federal matters and state courts on state matters.
Not only is the judiciary system well fully integrated in India, but because of the following provisions it is also independent
1. Appointment of judges of Supreme Court and High Courts by collegium system
2. Removal of judges in Parliament through an impeachment procedure that is very difficult to pass
3. Supreme Court judges salaries, pensions, and allowances are charged to India’s Consolidated Fund
4. Power to punish for self – disregard
5. Ban on judges practice after retirement…etc
7. Directive Principles of State Policy
In Part IV of the Constitution, the Directive Principles of State Policies (DPSPs) aims to make India a welfare state. Therefore, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar calls the Directive Principles as the Indian Constitution’s novel feature. The Principles of the Directive are inherently unjustifiable, that is, they are not enforceable for their violation by the courts.
Their usefulness, however, lies in their moral obligation to apply these principles to the state in making laws. As such, the principles of the directive are fundamental to the country’s governance.
8. Combination of rigidity and flexibility
The Indian Constitution strikes a fine balance between rigidity and flexibility when it comes to ease of modification. Article 368 lays down two types of modifications:
1. Some provisions may be amended by a special parliamentary majority, i.e. a 2/3rd majority of the members of each House present and vote and majority (i.e. more than 50 %) of each House’s total membership.
2. Some other provisions can be amended by a special parliamentary majority and with half of the total states ratifying them. This ensures that with the widest possible majority, the Constitution is amended.
At the same time, in the manner of the ordinary legislative process, certain provisions of the Constitution can be amended by a simple majority of Parliament. Such amendments are not within the scope of Article 368.
SECTION – II
1. Critically examine the Basic Structure doctrine.
2. Explain the powers and functions of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.
3. Discuss the parliamentary devices to control the executive.
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SECTION – II
1. Write a brief note on Parliamentary Privileges.
2. Discuss the special powers and function of Rajya Sabha.
3. Explain the legislative powers of the President of India.
4. Write a note on the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
5. Explain what is a Money Bill.
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IGNOU BPSC 132 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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