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IGNOU BPCE 017 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks
1. Define counseling. Describe the characteristics of a counseling relationship. Explain the barriers to communication in counseling.
DEFINITION OF COUNSELLING
One of the important issues discussed in counseling and psychotherapy is whether counseling is an art or a science. If it is an art, then it becomes part of the counselor’s innate affective and relational qualities. If it is a science, then it refers to the skills that the counselor has developed as a result of the training that he or she has taken in counseling. Such a skill seeks to spell out the process in the treatment so that others can utilise the same practices. In order to say that counseling is a science, it needs research based evidence in regard to its effectiveness in treating a client’s problem. There are a number of research studies that have shown that the counseling process as is being practiced is effective in treating the client’s problem. However there are also research evidences that show the contrary. Hence the question keeps cropping up whether counseling is an art or a science. The answer is that it is both. Counselors need to have key affective qualities and helping skills, knowledge of and competencies in the 12 core functions, familiarity with legal and ethical issues, and grounding in various theoretical frameworks. Most importantly, they need to be able to establish a helpful therapeutic alliance with clients. Hubble, Duncan and Miller summarise 40 years of outcome research and assert that the single most important aspect of counseling is the alliance. The quality of the therapeutic alliance accounts for 30 percent of the change in counseling. Does the client feel listened to, cared for, supported, a sense of bond with the counselor, warmth, respect, genuineness, not judged? A good working relationship is the heart of effective counseling. The non-specific factors that contribute to this alliance are:
1) having a time/safe place to talk
2) feeling understood
3) a meeting of the minds
4) a sense of encouragement, coaching, teaching
But the art of counseling trumps knowledge and intervention. Knowing what to do is of little value if trust has not been fully formed. There is no substitute from having repeated interactions with another and getting detailed feedback related to one’s relational habits and idiosyncrasies. Jay Adams once said that teaching counseling should be like teaching art. You do not have a lecture on colours and shades and expect them to know how to use them well. Instead, you give them a brush and you expect them to do trial and error while providing good feedback. This means we really have to focus not just on what we counselors intend to communicate when respond to client content, but what they actually hear and take away from us.
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
i) Giving advice: Some counselors are anxious to help their clients by offering advice. They assume that it is their responsibility to guide clients in the right direction and to solve their problems. Because of their expertise in the areas of human development and behaviour, they expect to help clients by instructing them regarding the right course of action.
ii) Offering solutions: The difficulties with counselors offering solutions to client problems are several. First the clients present in the initial interview may not be the concerns for which they need counseling. If the client begins solving these, the more basic problem may never surface. It is unrealistic and pretentious for counselors to assume they have solutions to the various concerns that the client faces. This problem solving approach reduces the complexities of living to simple problems that have solutions.
iii) Moralising and preaching: When counselors moralise or preach they evaluate the client’s behaviour and indicate what the clients ought to do or how the client should feel. This type of response induces guilt, is judgmental, and attempts to change the client’s behaviour in the direction of the counselor’s value system. Such counselors do not attempt to understand the client’s world from the client’s perspective.
iv) Analysing and diagnosing: Analysing and diagnosing client’s problem is an example of ineffective and unaccepting communication because it puts the counselor in the position of viewing the client’s problem from an external frame of reference. In other words, the counselor is removed and objective, seeking to identify the maladaptive behaviours and to put them into a clinical framework.
v) Judging or criticising: When a counselor judges or criticises a client’s response, the client typically withdraws and withholds further information or feelings. Like moralising or preaching, this response does not facilitate client self disclosure but instead induces guilt.
vi) Praising and agreeing and giving positive evaluations: The two responses of praising or agreeing and giving positive evaluations are somewhat more difficult to view in terms of their negative impact on the client. Acceptance implies a neutral stand towards the client’s attitudes, values and behaviours. At times it is appropriate for the counselor to respond to the clients growth or behaviour change with genuine enthusiasm, however, the counselor must be careful that the seemingly positive response does not communicate a superficial attempt to make the client feel better, make the problem disappear, or to deny that the client really has a problem.
viii)Reassuring: Reassurance helps the client only on a superficial level. It stops interaction between the counselor and client and communicates to the client that many others have felt the same way. This type of statement prevents further discussion of the client’s fears, anxieties or concerns about particular issues.
2. Explain Rogers person centred approach to counseling.
Client centered therapy requires the therapist to focus on the client’s needs. Rather than giving an in-depth analysis of the client’s difficulties or blaming the client’s present thoughts and behaviors on past experiences, the person-centered therapist listens to the client and provides a conducive environment for them to make decisions independently. It also means that the person-centered therapist avoids judging the client for any reason, and accepts them fully. This lack of judgment is a quality known in this field as “unconditional positive regard.”
The practice of client centered therapy requires the person-centered counseling therapist to understand how the world works from the client’s point of view. Therefore, they may ask questions for clarification when in doubt about something their client shared.
According to the client centered theory, a negative and indirect approach makes a client more conscious of those parts of themselves that they were previously in denial about. When the therapist responds to the client’s feelings and brings a level of empathy to each therapy session, it brings those parts into focus, but when there’s little or no intrusion, the client is free to make decisions independently without making the therapist the center of their thoughts and feelings.
Essentially, client centered therapy doesn’t particularly aim to solve specific problems or relieve symptoms, but to help the client get rid of the idea or feeling that they are being influenced by external factors beyond their control. The goals of this practice include increasing self-awareness, improving the client’s ability to use self-direction to make desired changes, increasing clarity, improving self-esteem, and boosting the client’s self-reliance.
Therapists who practice Carl Rogers’ person centered therapy should exhibit three essential qualities: genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathetic understanding.
Open communication between the client-centered approach therapist and client should be established, where the client centered therapist feels comfortable sharing their feelings with the client. This will similarly encourage the client to share their own feelings and engage in honest conversations.
“Modeling open and honest communication is the first thing a client should see within the therapeutic relationship in the client centered approach. It shows what is possible and that the therapist is willing to show vulnerability to the client, just as the client will do for the therapist. It’s a reciprocal relationship.”Talkspace therapist Minkyung Chung, MS, LMHC
Unconditional positive regard
Carl Rogers believed that offering people conditional support often makes them develop further problems, and therefore, the client centered therapist should create a climate of unconditional positive regard, where the client is free to express their thoughts and feelings without fear of judgement.
Empathy is a key quality in client centered therapy. It fosters a positive relationship between the counseling therapist and client and represents a mirror that reflects the client’s thoughts and emotions so as to help them gain more insight INTO the situation they’re struggling with and into themselves.
The Importance of Self-Concept
Another key feature of Carl Rogers’ person centered therapy is the notion of self, also known as the self-concept. Rogers defined this concept as “the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs one has about themselves.”
The self-concept is important to your total life experience and influences the way you view yourself and the world around you. For instance, if you consider yourself to be smart, you may act in an assertive manner and see your actions as something done by a person who’s smart.
However, the self-concept doesn’t always match your reality, and you may see yourself a lot differently from the way other people see you. For instance, you might see yourself as uninteresting, while other people find you to be an exciting person to be around. This opinion of yourself may gradually start to reflect in your behavior, and make you develop a low self-esteem.
With person centered therapy, you can receive genuine support that will help you obtain a more positive view of yourself.
In addition to practicing unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathetic understanding, a client centered therapist can help the client get positive results from therapy sessions by employing the following techniques:
- Boundaries — Setting clear boundaries to maintain a healthy and appropriate relationship, such as ruling out certain topics of conversation and making it clear how long each session will last.
- Personal experiences — Keeping in mind that the client is the expert when it comes to personal experiences. It’s more helpful to let the client explain what they feel the problem may be, rather than telling them what the problem is and how they can resolve it.
- Active listening — Listening actively to the client and helping them work through their thoughts. This can help in making the client’s point of view a lot clearer, even to themselves.
- Calm — Sometimes, a client may express negative thoughts about themselves, the people around them, or about their therapist. Therapists are trained to stay calm while helping their clients work through their emotions. However, personal abuse should not be tolerated by therapists.
- Positive tone — Maintaining a positive tone of voice encourages the client to communicate openly. Knowing when to slow down the pace of the conversation or take short pauses can be helpful.
- Additional help — It’s also important to realize when the client requires more help than person centered therapy can offer. In such cases, the therapist may recommend further professional help for the client.
How Effective is Client Centered Therapy?
Client centered therapy sessions are conducted in a safe and conducive environment. They focus particularly on the present, rather than dwelling solely on the past. This is an effective tool for managing difficult situations, especially traumatic events.
The non-directive nature of client centered therapy encourages clients to be less dependent on the therapist for answers. Instead, they become more self-aware and learn to understand themselves better. They’re not seen as patients who are sick and in need of a cure, but as clients responsible for finding solutions and making changes in and for themselves.
The practice of client centered therapy has not been without criticism over the years, however. Skeptics of Carl Rogers’ theory have claimed that the principles of this type of therapy are vague, and have questioned its aversion to diagnosis. The idea of the client’s self-evaluation in person centered therapy has also been questioned by critics, who claim that it may not bring favorable outcomes.
Although client centered therapists don’t diagnose their clients with specific conditions, it’s important to note that this approach can still be helpful. Its effectiveness can be seen from its use in outpatient programs for issues such as substance use and eating disorders. Client centered therapy can also be a useful tool for crisis intervention, as it creates a safe and accepting space for clients to get support while dealing with the stress they’re going through.
Who Can Benefit From Client Centered Therapy?
Client centered therapy can be beneficial to clients who are dealing with a wide range of issues, such as relationship problems, phobias, panic attacks, substance abuse, personality disorders, low self-esteem linked to depression, stress management, eating disorders, and trauma recovery, among others.
“When I work with clients experiencing deep sadness in their struggles with depression, I like to integrate Person Centered Therapy into our work together, along with other supportive theories, because it can help clients process their feelings in a deeply healing and self-compassionate way; processing and integrating our emotions and experiences is key to moving forward towards our life’s goals.”Talkspace therapist Kate Rosenblatt MA, LPC, LMHC
The Rogerian approach can also be beneficial to individuals who are averse to therapy as a result of their fear of judgement or criticism thanks to the atmosphere of unconditional positive regard fostered by client centered therapists. Individuals looking to improve their self-awareness and problem-solving abilities can also benefit from person centered therapy with a trained counselor.
If you have decided to opt for client centered therapy, it’s important to remember that the purpose of therapy isn’t always restricted to completely overcoming a difficult time in your life. It could also be a means of learning to accept yourself as you really are and letting go of guilt over past mistakes.
3. Describe the theories of family counseling.
Traditional therapy deals with the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of one individual who is usually an adult. Family therapy is the process of treating an individual directly within the context of their family and sometimes in a group setting. Family therapy addresses behavioral, cognitive, and/or substance use issues.Family therapists look at patterns with a generational impact and see a diverse age range of clients. Couples, parents, guardians, and families with children are the typical demographics for a family therapist. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts higher than average growth with a job outlook of 16% within the next decade for marriage and family therapists.There are many ways to specialize your skills in a popular branch like family therapy. For example, families dealing with situations like divorce or domestic violence may require a therapist with a specific subset of skills regarding legal evaluations of a parent or child. In another instance, a therapist may need to treat a family with a minor who is facing legal repercussions at a juvenile facility.To stand apart from a typical marriage and family therapy practice, consider advancing your education to include highly sought-after forensic skills. CONCEPT, Continuing and Professional Studies at Palo Alto University offers certifications in child custody evaluation or juvenile forensic assessment to expand your knowledge in these related specialty assessment areas.Family therapists need to understand how to deal with situations unique to their work with children and adolescents. Knowledge of these adjacent skills provide useful, practical tools that can be applied in family therapy, such as:
- Report writing for forensic evaluation
- Interviewing children to preserve accurate testimony
- Risk management for custody evaluators and court-involved therapists
It helps for marriage and family therapists to understand the judicial implications behind professional evaluations in instances where a case requires additional legal action. To provide the best treatment for clients, there often comes a time where a licensed mental healthcare worker needs to provide a referral for a professional evaluation for the child or parent in a legal setting.With the proper training and networking, it doesn’t need to feel like a daunting task. Earning those extra qualifications adds versatility to your skillset and ensures you are able to point clients in the right direction for additional services they request.
The types of family therapy differ by what therapists see as the core problem and how they decide to treat the dysfunction in the family. Like the core branches of psychological thought, family therapy theories also separate into widely recognized subdivisions with the therapist free to mix and match based on the type of problem they are helping solve.
- Structural therapy discusses the importance of established roles within the unit and strong boundaries in the family structure. This type of therapy is a dominant ideology in family therapy and suitable for traditional family hierarchies.
- Strategic/systemic therapy emphasizes problem-solving after understanding family function. A majority of family therapy concentrates on a specific problem then works out a solution applicable to everyone in the family unit.
- Postmodern/narrative therapy focuses on normative stories within the family unit and stigmatization that arises because of these beliefs held on what normal is. Narrative therapy discusses and challenges what is normal, traditional, or acceptable in a family.
- Behavioral/cognitive-behavioral therapy confronts the source of maladaptive behavior and examines the behavior through communication. This is a well-researched and highly-effective form of treatment to confront unhealthy behavioral patterns.
- Transgenerational therapy handles the beliefs and ways of understanding for the multiple generations of lineage brought into treatment. Typically, a transgenerational therapist looks to address the family conflict patterns spanning over several generations.
The benefits of family therapy include communication improvements, access to psychoeducation tools, behavioral changes, clear boundaries, and stronger relationships. Family therapy provides families with the ability to identify and address conflicts.
- Improve communication
- Provide psychoeducational tools
- Encourage behavioral changes
- Establish clear roles and boundaries
- Strengthen relationships
A mental health professional serves as an official mediator when establishing the requests and boundaries of each individual in the family. A proactive family therapist plays an important role in speaking to family members who refuse or resist treatment. And, scientists are producing research demonstrating the effectiveness of family therapy as an intervention to treat a multitude of issues like substance abuse, eating disorders, and perinatal depression.
Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks
4. Explain the core conditions of counseling.
5. Describe the problem identification and exploration stage in counseling.
6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of direct and indirect approaches to counseling.
7. Explain the structure of personality as given by Freud.
8. Explain transference and counter transference in counseling relationship.
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Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks
9. Therapeutic climate
10. Exceptions to confidentiality
11. Importance of non-verbal communication in counseling
12. The oral stage
13. Reaction formation
16. Marital schism and marital skew
17. Technique of behavior exchange
18. Advantages of group counseling
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