IGNOU BPCE 018 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BPCE 018 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

All questions are compulsory.

Section A

Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks

1. Define neuropsychology and describe its relationship with other disciplines.

Goals of Neuropsychology

When neural damage is present or cognitive changes are observed, a neuropsychological evaluation is appropriate. The prominent neuropsychologist ArthurBenton (1975) best described neuropsychology as “a refinement of clinical neurological observation [that] serves the function of enhancing clinical observation [and] is closely allied to clinical neurological evaluation and in fact can be considered to be a special form of it” (p. 68). Neuropsychological assessment aims to extend the neurological examination by: (1) providing important information for differential diagnosis and prognosis; (2) identifying the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral deficits of disease or injury and characterizing their severity; (3) intervention and functional needs such as guiding treatment by using test results to select effective rehabilitation strategies, determining functional capacity and decision-making abilities for level-of-care decisions, driving and work capacity, assessing medication cognitive side effects, and establishing candidacy for surgical procedures; and (4) monitoring cognitive changes and treatment effectiveness across time. Neuropsychological assessment is also frequently used in forensic settings and for neuroscience research, but discussion on these topics is beyond the clinical focus of this chapter (Schoenberg et al., 2011).

Before the advent of neuroimaging in the 1970s and 1980s, one of the main goals of neuropsychology was lesion localization. Today,neuropsychology has shifted toward differential diagnosis when lesions may not be evident or in conditions with no clear biomarkers. For example, neuropsychologists assist in the early identification of various dementias, since they are primarily diagnosed based on patterns of clear cognitive declines and behavioral disturbances:Table 44.1 gives a comparison of cortical versus subcortical dementias as an example. Neuropsychological testing is also useful for diagnosing “non-neurological” conditions that can affect cognitive functioning or masquerade as neurocognitive disease, such as dementia of depression or somatoform disorders. Exaggerated and manufactured symptoms can also be clearly identified through the use of stand-alone and embedded measures of symptom and performance validity.

Another goal of neuropsychology is to accurately describe cognitive deficits and their severity. Even when the cause of cognitive dysfunction is clear (e.g., traumatic brain injury) or lesions are evident on imaging, the cognitive and behavioral manifestations of neural damage can be heterogeneous. The interaction among symptom onset, etiology, and patient characteristics results in a wide range of individual variability in cognitive deficits. For instance, the neuropsychological profiles of stroke and tumor patients can be very dissimilar even after matching for lesion location (tumor patients show notably less severe language deficits in the left hemisphere, presumably due to the acute versus chronic etiologies;Anderson et al., 1990). Repeated neuropsychological evaluations are also useful for monitoring the decline of neurodegenerative diseases over time, given the potential for varying degrees of disease progression across patients.

Neuropsychology aims at understanding the relationships between the brain, on the one hand, and the ‘mind’ and behavioral control, on the other. Although humankind has always been interested in this issue, the science of neuropsychology is relatively young. Its traditional approach was the study of the associations between focal brain lesions and psychological defects, but today neuropsychology is in possession of refined methodologies and theoretical frameworks for understanding both how the mind works and how the brain works. It is hoped that progress on both fronts will take neuropsychology nearer the solution of the as yet intractable mind–brain problem, despite the feelings of some that neuropsychological research in cognition should be restricted preferentially to inquiring how the mind works, leaving the brain to cognitive neuroscience.

Neuropsychology provides a more detailed understanding of cognitive constructs, thereby allowing identification of what cognitive functions are deficient or preserved. The pattern of neuropsychometric testing abnormalities can assist in predicting underlying anatomy and in the differential diagnosis of dementia. Testing is particularly helpful early in the course. Neuropsychology uses well-developed standards based on normative data that improve clinical utility and predictive value. The NIA workgroup consensus criteria of MCI due to AD (Albert et al., 2011) recommend episodic memory evaluation to assist in predicting those with MCI at high risk of converting to AD dementia. Memory testing alone is insufficient, and simple bedside testing cognitive screens can be insensitive to early changes of neurodegeneration. The preservation versus impairment in memory subcomponent testing allows for differentiation among disorders. In brief, learning or encoding refers to the transfer of to-be-learned material from short-term sensory stores into consolidated traces in recent memory involving numerous integrated networks. Free recall pertains to the retrieval of that material without any cues or aids and recognition refers to the identification of the material from among several candidates. A classical memory test such as a verbal memory test consists of reading a list of words over multiple trials. An improvement in encoding over the learning trials (i.e., an increase in number of correct words per trial) is found in normal learning. An individual with an encoding problem may demonstrate a flat learning curve (i.e., the same number of words per trial). Despite the flat learning curve, an encoding problem might lead to preserved free recall and recognition of words with cues. A retrieval deficit is manifest when the person is unable to perform free recall of the material but is able to recall the items when retrieval cues are given. For example, if the person remembers the word “sweater” and is unable to free recall it but can recall it when cued, “It is an item of clothing,” then the person was demonstrating a retrieval failure since the word was encoded but not recalled without cues. With a retention or consolidation problem, the individual generally encodes normally with improvement in number of words learned over trials, but with delayed recall has significant difficulty recalling words and does not benefit from recognition cuing. Encoding problems may correspond to attentional deficits or a failure of medial temporal lobe structures such as the hippocampus to facilitate consolidation of the material. This pattern of poor learning and consolidation is commonly seen in AD. In contrast, a relatively pure retrieval problem would be more characteristic of parkinsonian disorders, vascular cognitive impairment, or other disorders not involving the medial temporal lobe. Other neuropsychometric tests can provide discriminating information. For example, category and letter fluency tests may also provide useful diagnostic pattern in AD. Typically, fluency for semantic categories (e.g., fruits, vegetables, and animals) is impaired relative to letter fluency performance (e.g., words beginning with a certain letter). This discrepancy in verbal fluency performancetends to reflect temporal lobe involvement in AD pathology and the relative preservation of subcortical circuitry. Confrontation naming of common objects is also impaired in early AD. Executive function tasks may also be impaired in early AD as evidenced by tasks requiring set-shifting and sequencing, including Trail Making Test Part B (Albert, 1996). Tests of visual spatial function including figure copying can also be impaired early in AD spectrum disorders.

2. Explain neurons with the help of suitable diagram. Describe the various types of neurotransmitters.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells, send and receive signals from your brain. While neurons have a lot in common with other types of cells, they’re structurally and functionally unique.Specialized projections called axons allow neurons to transmit electrical and chemical signals to other cells. Neurons can also receive these signals via rootlike extensions known as dendrites.A 2009 study estimated that the human brain houses about 86 billion neuronsTrusted Source. The creation of new nerve cells is called neurogenesis. While this process isn’t well understood, we know that it’s much more active when you’re an embryo. However, 2013 evidenceTrusted Source suggests that some neurogenesis occurs in adult brains throughout our lives.As researchers gain insight into both neurons and neurogenesis, many are also working to uncover links to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their role and location. However, nearly all neurons have three essential parts: a cell body, an axon, and dendrites.

Cell body

Also known as a soma, the cell body is the core section of the neuron. The cell body contains genetic information, maintains the neuron’s structure, and provides energy to drive activities.

Like other cell bodies, a neuron’s soma contains a nucleus and specialized organelles. It’s enclosed by a membrane that both protects it and allows it to interact with its immediate surroundings.


An axon is a long, tail-like structure. It joins the cell body at a specialized junction called the axon hillock. Many axons are insulated with a fatty substance called myelin. Myelin helps axons to conduct an electrical signal.

Neurons usually have one main axon.


Dendrites are fibrous roots that branch out from the cell body. Like antennae, dendrites receive and process signals from the axons of other neurons. Neurons can have more than one set of dendrites, known as dendritic trees.

How many they have generally depends on their role. For instance, Purkinje cells are a special type of neuron found in a part of the brain called the cerebellum. These cells have highly developed dendritic trees which allow them to receive thousands of signals.

Types of neurons

Neurons vary in structure, function, and genetic makeup. Given the sheer number of neurons, there are thousands of different types, much like there are thousands of species of living organisms on Earth.

However, there are five major neuron forms. Each combines several elements of the basic neuron shape.

  • Multipolar neurons. These neurons have a single axon and symmetrical dendrites that extend from it. This is the most common form of neuron in the central nervous system.
  • Unipolar neurons. Usually only found in invertebrate species, these neurons have a single axon.
  • Bipolar neurons. Bipolar neurons have two extensions extending from the cell body. At the end of one side is the axon, and the dendrites are on the other side. These types of neurons are mostly found in the retina of the eye. But they can also be found in parts of the nervous system that help the nose and ear function.
  • Pyramidal neurons. These neurons have one axon but several dendrites to form a pyramid type shape. These are the largest neuron cells and are mostly found in the cortex. The cortex is the part of the brain responsible for conscious thoughts.
  • Purkinje neurons. Purkinje neurons have multiple dendrites that fan out from the cell body. These neurons are inhibitory neurons, meaning they release neurotransmitters that keep other neurons from firing.

In terms of function, scientists classify neurons into three broad types: sensory, motor, and interneurons.

Sensory neurons

Sensory neurons help you:

  • taste
  • smell
  • hear
  • see
  • feel things around you

Sensory neurons are triggered by physical and chemical inputs from your environment. Sound, touch, heat, and light are physical inputs. Smell and taste are chemical inputs.

For example, stepping on hot sand activates sensory neurons in the soles of your feet. Those neurons send a message to your brain, which makes you aware of the heat.

Motor neurons

Motor neurons play a role in movement, including voluntary and involuntary movements. These neurons allow the brain and spinal cord to communicate with muscles, organs, and glands all over the body.

There are two types of motor neurons: lower and upper. Lower motor neurons carry signals from the spinal cord to the smooth muscles and skeletal muscles. Upper motor neurons carry signals between your brain and spinal cord.

When you eat, for instance, lower motor neurons in your spinal cord send signals to the smooth muscles in your esophagus, stomach, and intestines. These muscles contract, which allows food to move through your digestive tract.


Interneurons are neural intermediaries found in your brain and spinal cord. They’re the most common type of neuron. They pass signals from sensory neurons and other interneurons to motor neurons and other interneurons. Often, they form complex circuits that help you to react to external stimuli.

For instance, when you touch something sharp like a cactus, sensory neurons in your fingertips send a signal to interneurons in your spinal cord. Some interneurons pass the signal on to motor neurons in your hand, which allows you to move your hand away. Other interneurons send a signal to the pain center in your brain, and you experience pain.

Neurons send signals using action potentials. An action potential is a shift in the neuron’s potential electric energy caused by the flow of charged particles in and out of the membrane of the neuron. When an action potential is generated, it’s carried along the axon to a presynaptic ending.

Action potentials can trigger both chemical and electrical synapses. Synapses are locations where neurons can pass these electrical and chemical messages between them. Synapses are made up of a presynaptic ending, a synaptic cleft, and a postsynaptic ending.

Chemical synapses

In a chemical synapse, the neuron releases of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. These molecules cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors in the postsynaptic ending of a dendrite.

Neurotransmitters can trigger a response in the postsynaptic neuron, causing it to generate an action potential of its own. Alternatively, they can prevent activity in the postsynaptic neuron. In that case, the postsynaptic neuron doesn’t generate an action potential.

Electrical synapses

Electrical synapses can only excite. These synapses form when two neurons are connected by a gap junction. This gap is much smaller than a chemical synapse and is made up of ion channels that help transmit a positive electrical signal.

Because of the way these signals travel, signals move much faster across electrical synapses than chemical synapses. However, these signals can diminish from one neuron to the next. This makes them less effective at transmitting repeated signals.

3. Describe the neuropsychological theories of emotion. 

Types of Theories of Emotion

The major theories of emotion can be grouped into three main categories:

  1. Physiological theories suggest that responses within the body are responsible for emotions.
  2. Neurological theories propose that activity within the brain leads to emotional responses.
  3. Cognitive theories argue that thoughts and other mental activity play an essential role in forming emotions.


Evolutionary Theory of Emotion

Naturalist Charles Darwin proposed that emotions evolved because they were adaptive and allowed humans and animals to survive and reproduce. Feelings of love and affection lead people to seek mates and reproduce. Feelings of fear compel people to fight or flee the source of danger.

According to the evolutionary theory of emotion, our emotions exist because they serve an adaptive role. Emotions motivate people to respond quickly to stimuli in the environment, which helps improve the chances of success and survival.

Understanding the emotions of other people and animals also plays a crucial role in safety and survival. If you encounter a hissing, spitting, and clawing animal, chances are you will quickly realize that the animal is frightened or defensive and leave it alone. Being able to interpret correctly the emotional displays of other people and animals allows you to respond correctly and avoid danger.

The James-Lange Theory of Emotion

The James-Lange theory is one of the best-known examples of a physiological theory of emotion. Independently proposed by psychologist William James and physiologist Carl Lange, the James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events.

According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, an external stimulus leads to a physiological reaction. Your emotional reaction depends upon how you interpret those physical reactions.

For example, suppose you are walking in the woods and see a grizzly bear. You begin to tremble, and your heart begins to race. The James-Lange theory proposes that you will conclude that you are frightened (“I am trembling. Therefore, I am afraid”). According to this theory of emotion, you are not trembling because you are frightened. Instead, you feel frightened because you are trembling.

The Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion

Another well-known physiological theory is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion. Walter Cannon disagreed with the James-Lange theory of emotion on several different grounds. First, he suggested, people can experience physiological reactions linked to emotions without actually feeling those emotions. For example, your heart might race because you have been exercising, not because you are afraid.

Cannon also suggested that emotional responses occur much too quickly to be simply products of physical states. When you encounter a danger in the environment, you will often feel afraid before you start to experience the physical symptoms associated with fear, such as shaking hands, rapid breathing, and a racing heart.

According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, we feel emotions and experience physiological reactions such as sweating, trembling, and muscle tension simultaneously.

Cannon first proposed his theory in the 1920s, and his work was later expanded on by physiologist Philip Bard during the 1930s.

More specifically, the theory proposes that emotions result when the thalamus sends a message to the brain in response to a stimulus, resulting in a physiological reaction. At the same time, the brain also receives signals triggering the emotional experience. Cannon and Bard’s theory suggests that the physical and psychological experience of emotion happen at the same time and that one does not cause the other.

Schachter-Singer Theory

Also known as the two-factor theory of emotion, the Schachter-Singer theory is an example of a cognitive theory of emotion. This theory suggests that the physiological arousal occurs first, and then the individual must identify the reason for this arousal to experience and label it as an emotion. A stimulus leads to a physiological response that is then cognitively interpreted and labeled, resulting in an emotion.

Schachter and Singer’s theory draws on both the James-Lange theory and the Cannon-Bard theory. Like the James-Lange theory, the Schachter-Singer theory proposes that people infer emotions based on physiological responses. The critical factor is the situation and the cognitive interpretation that people use to label that emotion.

The Schachter-Singer theory is a cognitive theory of emotion that suggests our thoughts are responsible for emotions.

Like the Cannon-Bard theory, the Schachter-Singer theory also suggests that similar physiological responses can produce varying emotions. For example, if you experience a racing heart and sweating palms during an important exam, you will probably identify the emotion as anxiety. If you experience the same physical responses on a date, you might interpret those responses as love, affection, or arousal.

Cognitive Appraisal Theory

According to appraisal theories of emotion, thinking must occur first before experiencing emotion. Richard Lazarus was a pioneer in this area of emotion, and this theory is often referred to as the Lazarus theory of emotion.

The cognitive appraisal theory asserts that your brain first appraises a situation, and the resulting response is an emotion.

According to this theory, the sequence of events first involves a stimulus, followed by thought, which then leads to the simultaneous experience of a physiological response and the emotion. For example, if you encounter a bear in the woods, you might immediately begin to think that you are in great danger. This then leads to the emotional experience of fear and the physical reactions associated with the fight-or-flight response.

Section B

Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks

4. Describe the approaches and goals of neuropsychological assessment.
5. Discuss the clinical evaluation of infants and young children.
6. Explain midbrain
7. Explain the effect of damage to frontal lobe.
8. Describe epilepsy with a focus on its types.

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Section C

Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks

9. Assessment of retrograde amnesia
10. Peabody Individual Achievement Test- Revised
11. Psychological testing
12. Brain fitness
13. Male female brain differences
14. Behavioural genetics
15. Cerebrum
16. Temporal lobe
17. Stages of memory
18. The Pons

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