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IGNOU BPCC 113 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCC 113 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks in Assignment two.
1. . Explain schizophrenia with a focus in its symptoms.
Depression. Bipolar. Anxiety. You’ve probably heard these terms before, but how much do you know about these mental health conditions, and about how they affect people?
Understanding these conditions can help reduce fear and misunderstanding of mental illness, and empower everyone with the knowledge on how to care for their mental health, and that of their loved ones. Read on to find out more about some of the more common conditions.
We have compiled this resource using online materials shared by professional and expert groups (full list below). The resources on these pages are meant to be educational, and should not be taken as medical advice. If you suspect you have a mental health concern, seek help from professionals before taking any action.
Mental health conditions explained
What: Addiction is when a person compulsively persists in certain behaviours regardless of the consequences. A person can be addicted to substances (drugs or alcohol) or activities (gambling, sex, the Internet). Over time, the frequency and intensity of the activity increases, and when the person stops, he or she experiences unpleasant feelings or emotions.
Symptoms: Impaired control, social problems such as being unable to concentrate in school or work because of the addiction, making excuses or lying in order to continue with activity, engaging in risky behaviour in order to continue with activity (such as borrowing large sums of money to gamble).
Treatment and help: Individual or group talk therapy, sometimes in combination with medication to control drug cravings, can help. Individuals dealing with substance abuse may also require detoxification and rehabilitation services.
What: Anxiety is a common emotion when dealing with daily stresses and problems. But when these emotions are persistent, excessive and irrational, and affect a person’s ability to function, anxiety becomes a disorder. There are different types of anxiety disorders, including phobias, panic and stress disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder.
Symptoms: Apprehension, confusion, on edge, a sense of helplessness, repeated negative thoughts, muscle tension, palpitations and difficulty breathing
Treatment and help: Simple strategies, such as relaxation techniques and regular exercise, are effective in reducing anxiety and contributing to emotional well-being. Psychotherapy can help and is sometimes used together with medication to reduce and eliminate signs and symptoms.
What: Bipolar disorder, formerly referred to as manic depressive illness, is a mood disorder with two extremes: depressed (“low”) and manic (“high”). It varies in severity, and mild cases may appear ordinary for many years. Symptoms vary; a person may be predominantly depressed, or predominantly manic. In between episodes, a person is likely to be quite well and able to function.
Symptoms: When depressed, a person feels persistently sad, hopeless and lethargic, and may feel suicidal, among other symptoms. When manic, a person becomes overly elated, more irritable, requires less sleep, makes grand plans and may impulsively engage in potentially dangerous behaviour.
Treatment and help: Psychotherapy can help people who are more stable to help them with symptom recognition and management. Medication can be used to treat acute episodes and to help prevent a relapse. Psychosocial support is an important component of treatment.
What: Depression is a low mood that lasts for a long time, affecting everyday life. It is often triggered by a mix of genetic, psychological and environmental factors; studies show that the risk of becoming depressed can be increased by life events such as poverty, death of a loved one, physical illness or abuse. For some, the risk is also hereditary.
Symptoms: Persistent sadness, loss of interest in activities, loss of appetite, feelings of worthlessness, becoming easily agitated, among others
Treatment and help: Talk therapy with a trained counsellor or psychotherapist, exercise and support groups are among the options available. Antidepressants are also sometimes prescribed, but they should not be used for treating children, and should not be the first line of treatment for adolescents. All treatment should involve identifying stress factors and sources of support, and individuals should maintain social networks and activities.
Schizophrenia and other psychoses
What: Psychosis, including schizophrenia, is characterised by distortions in thinking, perception, emotions, language, sense of self and behaviour. During a psychotic episode, a person may experience hallucinations and delusions.
Symptoms: Perception-wise, a person may think other people are talking about him or her, or hear voices. The person may also feel sad and irritable, or that he or she is constantly being watched. Behaviour-wise, the person may have difficulty sleeping, talk to him or herself, and behave aggressively.
Treatment and help: Medication is the main form of treatment, as it can help with abnormal biochemical balances in the brain and relieve symptoms like hallucinations. Psychotherapy can help a person make sense of his or her illness and deal with the impact of the illness on their lives. Rehabilitation and counselling helps the person build social relationships and independent living skills.
2. Explain behaviour modification with a focus on its principles, procedure, techniques and limitations.
Behavior modification developed as an alternative to psychoanalytic therapy, which focused on unconscious fears and motives. One significant influence on behavior modification therapy was B.F. Skinner, who tested mice and came up with the concepts of operant conditioning and negative reinforcement, among others. This focus on stimulus and response carried over into using these concepts on human behavior; this is how behavior modification developed.Behavior is what people do. So, what is behavior modification? Behavior modification means using the principles and theories of cognition and learning to understand and modify people’s behavior and emotional reactions.Behavior modification theory focuses on modifying behavior. It is a systematic way to change behavior using the principles of conditioning. The behavior modification model is based on classical conditioning, meaning learning by association, and operant conditioning, meaning learning through reinforcement.One of the main assumptions of behavior modification is that behavior is a product of learning, conditioning, other people’s reactions to behavior, and the social environment. If something is a learned behavior, it can also be unlearned. The goal is to condition people differently to demonstrate more desirable and effective ways of behaving or reacting. When appropriately used, behavior modification therapy will target a particular aspect of a person’s behavior to modify. Behavior modification focuses on observable behaviors and on changing undesirable or unconstructive behaviors into more constructive ones.
Behavior Modification Examples
Here are some examples of behavior modification strategies. Behavior modification can change undesirable behaviors in people into more desirable behaviors (chewing gum instead of smoking cigarettes). Or it can help increase desirable behaviors (paying attention in class) and decrease undesirable behaviors (temper tantrums). Another example of behavior modification is children getting rewards for positive behavior. Such as doing chores or controlling their temper; in this way, the positive behavior of doing chores would continue, and the negative behavior of having a hard-to-control temper would decrease or stop happening (become extinct).The goal of behavior modification in the educational setting is to teach the student different ways of behaving by making changes to the educational environment, changing emotional and cognitive processes, and helping the child learn new skills. Therapists/teachers using behavior modification use operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and modeling for behavior problems, problematic emotional responses, and psychological disorders in children.A teacher might use behavior modification in a classroom to get a student with ADHD who has problems focusing and being disruptive to pay better attention, do his work, and reduce disruptiveness. The teacher might do this by providing the student with positive reinforcement. When he demonstrates the desired behaviors, she could praise him, which is positive reinforcement. Hopefully, her praise of him would help him to continue and increase these desired behaviors.Another educational example is providing a student who has some behavior issues with a daily report card; this would provide daily feedback to parents on their child’s behavior (operant conditioning). They can give their child positive reinforcement (rewards) for meeting specific behavioral goals, such as staying in an assigned seat and not interrupting others.Another example of behavior modification is its use to help someone overcome a fear. With the help of a therapist, a client might try to overcome his fear of riding on an escalator. The therapist could use exposure therapy, one type of behavior modification therapy, to help the client. After learning about the client’s fears, thoughts, and reactions to escalators, the therapist might gradually expose the client to escalators. She might first show him pictures of escalators, gauging his emotional response and asking his thoughts. Then she might ask him to imagine and describe riding one. Next, she might give him the assignment to visit an escalator nearby but not ride it. And she might show him videos of people riding escalators and not getting hurt. Finally, she might ask him to ride an escalator. The design of this gradual exposure would decrease and eliminate his anxiety about riding an escalator. The goal would be for the stimulus of riding an elevator not to cause a negative reaction.Parents might use behavior modification on their 3-year-old child who was having frequent temper tantrums. One way to strengthen the likelihood of temper tantrums would be to reinforce and thus increase the behavior by yelling, giving the child attention when she was throwing a tantrum, or even giving her what she wants so that the fit stops. The way to use behavior modification is to ignore the behavior; this may cause extinction or eliminate the undesirable behavior as the child realizes she will not get the attention she seeks or get what she wants by pitching a fit.
Behavior Modification Therapy
Within therapy, for example, therapists using behavior modification therapy focus on specific goals with clients, which is changing certain maladaptive or undesirable behaviors in specific situations. During a first session, the therapist would listen to the client’s concerns to see what the client needs or wants to change; this could be a phobia, overeating, a problem with focus and productivity, etc. The client and therapist would identify the specific problem to be solved and then figure out what steps are necessary to change the behavior gradually. The therapist and client develop a treatment plan.Here is an example of how behavior modification therapy could work. Sally is afraid of heights. To conquer this fear, she is exposed to pictures of high places, then shown films of high places. Then, after learning some relaxation techniques, she goes to areas that are gradually higher and higher until her fear is gone or significantly lessened; this is an example of systematic desensitization, a type of behavior modification therapy.
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3. Describe the causal factors of unipolar mood disorders.
4. Explain cluster C personality disorders.
5. Elucidate drug use and dependence disorder.
6. What is psychotherapy? Explain how psychotherapy is different from counselling and guidance.
7. Describe the features and stages of short term psychotherapies.
8. Discuss the key concepts in gestalt therapy.
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