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- 1 IGNOU BPCC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 2 2. Explain the various causes and theoretical approaches to aggression.
- 3 GET IGNOU Handwritten Hardcopy , WhatsApp – 8130208920
- 4 3. Causes and outcomes of conflict. 4. Strategies for Gaining Compliance. 5. Types of schema. 6. Errors and Biases in Attribution. 7. Attitude Formation. 8. Types of leadership
- 5 Get IGNOU BPCC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Now here from this website.
- 6 GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23
- 7 IGNOU Assignment Front Page
- 8 BPCC 107 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23
IGNOU BPCC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23
We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BPCC 107 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
Important Note – IGNOU BPCC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks in Assignment two.
1. Discuss the various components and types of group. Explain the stages of group formation.
Everyone knows what a group is in general. When two persons or more come together and interact at one place it may be called a group. The group may be defined in various ways. Given below are a few important definitions of a group and each of these definitions emphasises one or the other important features of the group.
R.M. Williams (1951) “A social group is a given aggregate of people playing inter-related roles and recognised by themselves or others as a unit of interaction.” Here it can be said the group is an aggregate of some people. The roles of the group members are interrelated. The group is considered a unit.
R.M. MacIver (1953) “By group we mean any collection of social beings who enter into distinctive social relationships with one another.” It is clear that there must be social relationships between the individual members of a group.
David (1968) “ A social psychological group is an organised system of two or more individuals who are interrelated so that the system performs some functions, has a standard set of the role relationship among its members and has a set of norms that regulate the function of the group and each of its members.”
Kretch, Crutchfield and Ballachy (1962) defined psychological group “ as two or more persons who meet the following conditions : (i) the relations among the members are independent, each member’s behaviour influences the behaviour of each of the others, (ii) the members ‘share on ideology’ – a set of beliefs, values and norms which regulate their mutual conduct.”
Features of Group
The important features of the group are:
- One or more individuals come together and influence each other.
- There are social interactions and relationships amongst the individual members of a group.
- There exists some common motives, drives, interests, emotions etc. amongst group members.
- There is communication among group members, both verbal and or non-verbal.
- The group members have some common object of attention and group members stimulate each other.
- They have common loyalty and participate in similar activities.
- There exits feeling of unity in the group. Group members treat each other with respect and regard and has a sense of comradiere that develops among them.
- The action of the members is controlled by the group.
- There are some customs, norms and procedures which are acceptable to everyone but if exception happens, then the particular member will be ostracised from the group.
Stages of Group Development
According to Tuckman’s theory, there are five stages of group development: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. During these stages group, members must address several issues and the way in which these issues are resolved determines whether the group will succeed in accomplishing its tasks.
The five-stage group-development model are:
The first stage, Forming stage, faces a great amount of uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership amongst the members of the group. Members “test the waters” to determine what types of behaviours are acceptable. This stage is complete when members have begun to think of themselves as part of a group.
The Storming stage is one of intra-group conflict. Members accept the existence of the group but resist the constraints it imposes on individuality. There is conflict over who will control the group. When this stage is complete, there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group.
In the third stage Norming, close relationships evolve and the group develops cohesiveness. There is now a strong sense of group identity and camaraderie. This Norming stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines the correct behaviour of members.
The fourth stage is Performing. The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to perform the task at hand. For permanent workgroups, performing is the last stage in development.
However, for temporary committees, teams, task forces, and similar groups that have a limited task to perform, the Adjourning stage is for wrapping up activities and preparing to disband. Some group members are upbeat, basking in the group’s accomplishments.
Others may be depressed over the loss of camaraderie and friendships gained during the work group’s life.
Many interpreters of the five-stage model have assumed a group becomes more effective as it progresses through the first four stages. Although this may be generally true, what makes a group effective is actually more complex.
First, groups proceed through the stages of group development at different rates. Those with a strong sense of purpose and strategy rapidly achieve high performance and improve over time, whereas those with less sense of purpose actually see their performance worsen over time.
Similarly, groups that begin with a positive social focus appear to achieve the “performing” stage more rapidly. Nor do groups always proceed clearly from one stage to the next. Storming and performing can occur simultaneously, and groups can even regress to previous stages.
2. Explain the various causes and theoretical approaches to aggression.
The theories are: 1. Instinct Theory of Aggression 2. Frustration Aggression Hypothesis 3. Social Learning Theory.
1. Instinct Theory of Aggression:
The instinct theory of aggression was advanced by Sigmund Freud (1927) the great psychoanalyst of yester years. In his earlier writings, Freud was of view that all human behaviour originates either directly or indirectly from ‘EROS’, the life instinct, which helps in reproduction of life.
Thus revising his earlier view on instincts he wrote. After long doubts and vacillations we have decided to assume the existence of only two basic urges Eros or the Life instinct and Thantos or the Destructive instinct.
Thus in Freud’s view aggression originates primarily from the redirection of self destructive death instinct away from the person towards others. The instinct theory of aggression was not much developed by Freud in the beginning. But later on, he and his associates worked on it and attempted to explain it in detail.
According to Freud when we analyze the desire for love we also find some desire for aggression. Thus the best loved friend becomes the bitterest enemy when both fall out. In our hence attitude towards every stimulus there is the desire for love as well as aggression.
The instinct theory of aggression holds that aggression is inherited and biological in nature and is expressed overtly and covertly i.e., outwardly and internally. Subsequently Freud had decided there is no use in trying to get rid of man’s aggressive inclinations.
According to Alexander “Fear of the consequences of losing love because of jealousy gives rise to aggression. No matter whether love or hate are instinctual or early acquired, they are always with us. The facts of love and hate are psychological data independent of the theory.”
The two instincts advanced by Freud are not mutually opposed to each other. Behaviour originated by life instinct may have strong components of death instinct and behaviour mainly motivated by death instinct may have strong components of life instinct. Same psychologists object to the death instinct advanced by Freud.
The group for advancement of psychiatry (1964) formally rejected the instinct theory of aggression advanced by Freud and held “war is a social institution; it is not inevitably rooted in the nature of man.” These conclusions are supported by studies during Second World War.
The great majority of soldiers reported that their reason for fighting was to get the job done or the desire not to let their outfits down. Only 2 percent said that they fought out of anger, revenge or fighting spirit. Another 3percent gave replies that might be interpreted as aggressive such as crushing or cutting the aggressor piece by piece.
Observations of animals in their natural habitats led some psychologists to view that aggressive drive has an innate, biological or instinctive basis. In the opinion of Konrad Lorenz, aggression which causes physical harm to others starts from a fighting instinct that human beings share with other organisms. The energy associated with this instinct is spontaneously produced in individuals at a more or less constant rate.
The probability of aggression increases as a function of the amount of stored energy and the presence and strength of aggression releasing stimuli. According to him aggression is inevitable and at times spontaneous outbursts of powerful feelings occur like volcanic irruption.
Lorenz considers aggression as a “true, primarily species preserving instinct”, in humans as well as in animals. Though observation of animal behaviour suggests that the innate instinct of aggression drives animals to aggressive behaviour, the same should not be generalized in case of human beings, and such generalization if made by anybody is highly questionable.
There are in fact major differences between human aggression and animal aggression. While animal aggression can be controlled and regulated by immediate changes in the stimulus, human aggression can be maintained by mediating cognitive structures and to a much smaller degree stimulus bound. (Feshbach)
2. Frustration Aggression Hypothesis:
Miller and Dollard in their stimulating yet no less illuminating book “Frustration and Aggression” define frustration as “that condition which exists when a goal response suffers interference.” Frustrating events are those which block the individual’s goal oriented behaviour, threaten his sell’ esteem or deprive him of the opportunity to gratify his important motives and immediate goals.
When an event or situation disturbs or upsets the child or the adult, it is considered frustrating. But a situation which is considered frustrating for one person may not be frustrating for another person. Here parental training, social class, economic status and early childhood training for frustration tolerance play their role.
Freud probably for the first time gave the term frustration a scientific basis. Frustration in simple terms may be defined as that state in the organism which exists as a consequence of interference in the goal oriented behaviour and gives rise to a number of maladaptive or substituted reactions.
A person who fails to marry his sweet heart because of parental rejection and social restrictions is said to be suffering from severe frustration.
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3. Causes and outcomes of conflict.
4. Strategies for Gaining Compliance.
5. Types of schema.
6. Errors and Biases in Attribution.
7. Attitude Formation.
8. Types of leadership
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