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- 1 IGNOU BHIE 142 Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 2 3. Discuss the formation of political parties in Japan. 4. Write a note on the process of Japanese imperialist expansion in the early twentieth century. 5. Discuss the political and economic implications of the Allied occupation of Japan.
- 3 6. Intellectual Currents in Tokugawa Period 7. Sericulture in Japan 8. Japan and the Indian National Army 9. Development of Trade Unions in Japan 10. Rise of Militarism in Japan
- 4 Get BHIE 142 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Now here from this website.
- 5 GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23
- 6 IGNOU Assignment Front Page
- 7 BHIC 142 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23
IGNOU BHIE 142 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BHIE 142 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.
1. Discuss the important characteristics of the classical period in Japan.
Classical literature: Heian period (794–1185)
The foundation of the city of Heian-kyō (later known as Kyōto) as the capital of Japan marked the beginning of a period of great literary brilliance. The earliest writings of the period, however, were almost all in Chinese because of the continued desire to emulate the culture of the continent. Three imperially sponsored anthologies of Chinese poetry appeared between 814 and 827, and it seemed for a time that writing in Japanese would be relegated to an extremely minor position. The most distinguished writer of Chinese verse, the 9th-century poet Sugawara Michizane, gave a final lustre to this period of Chinese learning by his erudition and poetic gifts, but his refusal to go to China when offered the post of ambassador, on the grounds that China no longer had anything to teach Japan, marked a turning point in the response to Chinese influence.
The invention of the kana phonetic syllabary, traditionally attributed to the celebrated 9th-century Shingon priest and Sanskrit scholar Kūkai, enormously facilitated writing in Japanese. Private collections of poetry in kana began to be compiled about 880, and in 905 the Kokinshū (A Collection of Poems Ancient and Modern), the first major work of kana literature, was compiled by the poet Ki Tsurayuki and others. This anthology contains 1,111 poems divided into 20 books arranged by topics, including 6 books of seasonal poems, 5 books of love poems, and single books devoted to such subjects as travel, mourning, and congratulations. The two prefaces are clearly indebted to the theories of poetry described by the compilers of such Chinese anthologies as the Shijing (“Classic of Poetry”) and Wen xuan (“Selections of Refined Literature”), but the preferences they express would be shared by most tanka poets for the next 1,000 years. The preface by Tsurayuki, the oldest work of sustained prose in kana, enumerated the circumstances that move men to write poetry; he believed that melancholy, whether aroused by a change in the seasons or by a glimpse of white hairs reflected in a mirror, provided a more congenial mood for writing poetry than the harsher emotions treated in the earlier, pre-kana anthology Man’yōshū. The best tanka in the Kokinshū captivate the reader by their perceptivity and tonal beauty, but these flawlessly turned miniatures lack the variety of the Man’yōshū.
Skill in composing tanka became an asset in gaining preference at court; it was also essential to a lover, whose messages to his mistress (who presumably could not read Chinese, still the language employed by men in official documents) often consisted of poems describing his own emotions or begging her favours. In this period the tanka almost completely ousted the chōka, the length of which was indefinite, because the shorter tanka were more suited to the lover’s billet-doux or to competitions on prescribed themes.
For the poets of the Kokinshū and the later court anthologies, originality was less desirable than perfection of language and tone. The critics, far from praising novelty of effects, condemned deviation from the standard poetic diction—which was established by the Kokinshū and consisted of some 2,000 words—and insisted on absolute adherence to the poetic codes first formulated in the 10th century. Although these restrictions saved Japanese poetry from lapses into bad taste or vulgarity, they froze it for centuries in prescribed modes of expression. Only a skilled critic can distinguish a typical tanka of the 10th century from one of the 18th century. The Kokinshū set the precedent for later court anthologies, and a knowledge of its contents was indispensable to all poets as a guide and source of literary allusions.
The restoration event itself consisted of a coup d’état in the ancient imperial capital of Kyōto on January 3, 1868. The perpetrators announced the ouster of Tokugawa Yoshinobu (the last shogun)—who by late 1867 was no longer effectively in power—and proclaimed the young Meiji emperor to be ruler of Japan. Yoshinobu mounted a brief civil war that ended with his surrender to imperial forces in June 1869.
Reform and rebellion
The leaders of the restoration were mostly young samurai from feudal domains (hans) historically hostile to Tokugawa authority, notably Chōshū, in far western Honshu, and Satsuma, in southern Kyushu. Those men were motivated by growing domestic problems and by the threat of foreign encroachment. The latter concern had its origins in the efforts by Western powers to “open” Japan, beginning in the 1850s after more than two centuries of near isolation, and the fear that Japan could be subjected to the same imperialist pressures that they observed happening in nearby China. They believed that the West depended on constitutionalism for national unity, on industrialization for material strength, and on a well-trained military for national security. Adopting the slogan “Enrich the country, strengthen the army” (“Fukoku kyōhei”), they sought to create a nation-state capable of standing equal among Western powers. Knowledge was to be sought in the West, the goodwill of which was essential for revising the unequal treaties that had been enacted and granted foreign countries judicial and economic privileges in Japan through extraterritoriality.
The early goals of the new government were expressed in the Charter Oath (April 1868), which committed the government to establishing “deliberative assemblies” and “public discussion,” to a worldwide search for knowledge, to the abrogation of past customs, and to the pursuit by all Japanese of their individual callings. The first action, taken in 1868 while the country was still unsettled, was to relocate the imperial capital from Kyōto to the shogunal capital of Edo, which was renamed Tokyo (“Eastern Capital”). That was followed, after the end of the fighting, by the dismantling of the old feudal regime. The administrative reorganization had been largely accomplished by 1871, when the domains were officially abolished and replaced by a prefecture system that has remained in place to the present day. All feudal class privileges were abolished as well. Also in 1871 a national army was formed, which was further strengthened two years later by a universal conscription law. In addition, the new government carried out policies to unify the monetary and tax systems, with the agricultural tax reform of 1873 providing its primary source of revenue. Another reform was in the area of education. Japan’s first Ministry of Education was established in 1871 to develop a national system of education; it led to the promulgation of the Gakusei, or Education System Order, in 1872 and to the introduction of universal education in the country, which initially put emphasis on Western learning.
The revolutionary changes carried out by restoration leaders, who acted in the name of the emperor, faced increasing opposition by the mid-1870s. Disgruntled samurai participated in several rebellions against the government, the most famous being led by the former restoration hero Saigō Takamori of Satsuma. Those uprisings were repressed only with great difficulty by the newly formed army. Peasants, distrustful of the new regime and dissatisfied with its agrarian policies, also took part in revolts that reached their peak in the 1880s.At the same time, a growing popular rights movement, encouraged by the introduction of liberal Western ideas, called for the creation of a constitutional government and wider participation through deliberative assemblies. Responding to those pressures, the government issued a statement in 1881 promising a constitution by 1890. In 1885 a cabinet system was formed, and in 1886 work on the constitution began. Finally, in 1889, the Meiji Constitution was officially promulgated. It was presented as a gift from the emperor to the people, and it could be amended only upon imperial initiative. Largely the handiwork of the genro (elder statesman) Itō Hirobumi, the constitution established a bicameral parliament, called the Diet—in full Imperial Diet (Teikoku Gikai)—that was to be elected through a limited voting franchise. The first Diet was convened the following year, in 1890. A privy council composed of the Meiji genro, created prior to the constitution, advised the emperor and wielded actual power.
3. Discuss the formation of political parties in Japan.
4. Write a note on the process of Japanese imperialist expansion in the early twentieth century.
5. Discuss the political and economic implications of the Allied occupation of Japan.
6. Intellectual Currents in Tokugawa Period
7. Sericulture in Japan
8. Japan and the Indian National Army
9. Development of Trade Unions in Japan
10. Rise of Militarism in Japan
IGNOU BHIE 142 Solved Assignment 2022-23 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BHIE 142 HISTORY OF MODERN EAST ASIA: JAPAN Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
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IGNOU BHIE 142 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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IGNOU BHIE 142 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
- Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BHIE 142 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
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