IGNOU BESC 131 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BESC 131 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU BESC 131 Solved Assignment 2022-2023  Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

There are three Assignments. All questions are compulsory. Total marks of the assignment questions are 100.

Answer the following in about 500 words each in Assignment A , each question carry 20 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Assignment B , each question carry 12 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 125 words each in Assignment C , each question carry 6 marks.

Assignment A

1. Explain the concept of social aim of education. Discuss arguments in favour and against the social aim of education.

The social aim of education.

The social aim of education takes into consideration the social needs of society. Education is provided with a view to making new members of society familiar with social traditions, manners, mores, customs, etc.

In other words, when a society wants to have a very strong social organization and does not permit freedom to the individual members to deviate from its social traditions, it emphasizes to a great extent the social aim of education. In the social aim of education, great importance is attached to society and, therefore, an individual becomes of secondary importance. In countries where socialistic governments are functioning, there is great emphasis on the social aim of education.

While the social aim is good so far as it helps in the social growth of a people, it is at the same time injurious for the development of an individual’s initiative, freedom and enterprise.

It has been seen that new inventions and things of extraordinary historical importance have been generally done not by a group of people, but by certain individuals in their own way. If there is any regimentation of thought and action it is bound to lead to mediocrity. It is only in an atmosphere of freedom that one can think boldly and discover something entirely new. But at the same time a lot of risk is involved when an individual is given too much of freedom.

Education for Socialization.

Both socialization and education involve learning, but there is a difference important in sociology. Socialization is what happens every day of our lives, is not planned, involves our learning our identities, the nature of reality, and how to get along with others. Education, in contrast, is planned, usually involves a formal organization with the responsibility of providing and monitoring the learning, and concentrates oh finite skills and knowledge.

Socialization, therefore, is the action by which a person becomes the member of a society, through a mechanism of interaction. It is a learning process whose purpose is to prepare individuals for the range of roles that they will interpret in the future.

The primary stage involves the socialization of the young child in the family, the secondary stage involves the school, and the third stage is adult socialization. In the process of socialization, the attitudes and values of adult roles are acquired. Correct socialization is a normal operation by the social system designed to prevent any deviant behaviour.

The importance of aims and objectives of Education is recognized by all the Educational, professional, political, nonpolitical and religious associations, Organizations and groups at various levels in their memoranda, letters and brochures. It is said that Education without clear cut aims is like a rudderless ship. The following comparisons emphasize this point fully well.

Every pilot has a route-chart and set timing of landing at predetermined destination. There is constitution or set of Principles and traditions through which a country is governed Similarly, there should be properly defined and declared principles, aims and objectives of Education or the basis of which policies and programs of Education nave to be formulated to achieve the set goals wit out wasting scarce energies and resources in chasing the wild goose.

It is generally felt that our Educational system has not followed the desired aims as a result that it does not produce ideal citizens in the country. It has followed, rather a narrow aim of preparing individuals for livelihood, as mentioned in one of the documents received from an Organization.

The main reason of failure of Educational system is that it basically stands or, pre-independence system. The main Objective of its products was how to take degree and to earn money and to be careerist without consideration of ethical values and national spirit.

On the one hand we are developing and cultivating the British given economy, judicial system and system of administration and parliament and on the other we are decrying and criticizing the Education system which merely fulfils the needs of the British systems that we are propagating.

The aims and objectives of Education, suggested in the documents, include individual as well as social aims, with emphasis of social transformation aiming at reconstructing society to make it modernized, productive, participative, and value oriented nation committed to its constitutional obligations.

Individual Development

Development of an individual – physically, mentally and spiritually is well known aim of Education. Objectives related to this aim of individual development have been expressed in various ways in the memoranda:

1. Developing physical and mental faculties.

2. Acquiring the capacities of understanding, appreciation and expression through word and act, are the fundamental aims of Education.

3. Aim of Education should be to make children self- confident and self dependent, and to make them strong physically and mentally

4. Education is meant to develop every child’s character, personality and culture and as much knowledge as the child can assimilate not merely memorize.

2. Discuss educational philosophy of Sri Aurobindo with special reference to aims of education, curriculum, pedagogy and relationship between teacher and students.

Sri Aurobindo Ghosh and his Philosophy on Education
IntroductionSri Aurobindo Ghosh, occupies a very important position among the contemporary Indian philosophers of education due to his wide knowledge of East and West, ancient and modern system of education. He has presented an integral philosophy of education through his ‘ashram’ at Pondicherry. Here, experiments are conducted to evolve a new system of education which may be adopted for the reconstruction of Indian education. 
He considers the fulfillment of swadharma as the law of life and wants that every individual in a nation should fulfill his swadharma. Hence, the purpose of education is to prepare the individual to serve their nation and humanity. His education philosophy in the field of modern educaton is very important. 
Life of Sri Aurobindo Ghosh
Sri Aurobindo Ghosh, a famous sage, poet, patriot, philosopher and an educationist, is known by the name Aurobindo, was born on August 15, 1872 in Kolkata. The word ‘Aurobindo’ means ‘Lotus’ in sanskrit. His father Dr. Krishan Dhan Ghosh loved the Western culture and he wanted his son to grow up into a fake Englishman. So, Aurobindo was sent to England at the age of seven and he lived there for 14 years. He got education in London and Cambridge, and he became a master in English, Greek and Latin. He passed the Indian Civil Service Examination in 1890 but he could not appear for the horse-riding test. As a result, he was disqualified for the job and he returned to India in 1893. Aurobindo studied sanskrit language and literature in India and served as an adviser and sometimes as secretary to the Maharaja for fourteen years in the princely state of Baroda. He became a professor of English at Baroda College. He learnt Bengali, Gujarati and Marathi, and delve deeply in the culture and philosophy of India. He practiced yoga in 1904. 
As per the instruction of the Indian National Congress, he became the Principal of Bengal National College (now Jadavpur University) at Kolkata. After the Bengal Partition (1905), Aurobindo resigned from his job and became an active freedom fighter. He launched the journals Vande Matram, Karma Yogi, Dharm and the Bengali daily Yugantar to propagate his revolutionary ideas and arouse intense feelings of nationalism among the people of India. His political and nationalistic sentiments were expressed through his writings and fiery speeches. The British Government arrested Aurobindo and put him in Alipore Jail for a year in connection with the Alipore Bomb Case in 1908. 
When he was in jail, he spent most of his time in yoga, meditation and the study of the Gita, philosophy and spiritual literature. Once he was in Alipore jail, he realised the presence of God in a dream. After his release from the prison, he shunned all his political activities immediately and returned to Pondicherry for penance and spiritual advancement. 
He spent his retired life at his ashram in Pondicherry. He became a yogi and devoted his time to yoga and meditation. He preached his philosophy of dharma, education, spiritual advancement and brahmacharya across the country. He had set up an international ashram and International Centre of Education at Pondicherry and started several educational and social activities. He established Auroville as a city of universal culture for international cooperation and human unity. Aurobindo propounded his major philosophy and published it in Arya a new journal in English from 1914 to 1921. Aurobindo, the great saint, passed away on December 5, 1950. His demise put an end to a glorious chapter in the spiritual history of India. 
Aurobindo’s General Philosophy of Life
Sri Aurobindo’s philosophy of life is based on an experienced integralism. It is a synthesis of idealism, realism, naturalism and pragmatism. His life began with psychic experiences connected with his political, philosophical and poetic life. The general philosophical ideas of Aurobindo are found mostly in his weekly newspaper “karma yoga”. 
Corner stone of Indian thought: 
Jnana (knowledge), Bhakti (devotion) and Karma (work ethics) are the three cornerstones upon which the Indian philosophy of life has been built. Those who resort to Jnana, Bhakti and Karma can walk on the divine path. 
Aurobindo stood against the exclusive emphasis on them. He did not want to deprive the individual of the variety of life. He believed any such emphasis resulted in the lopsided development of a personality. He felt that there should be a combination of India’s genius consisting of spirituality, creativeness and intellectuality. Spirituality is indeed the master key of the Indian mind, the sense of the infinite is native to it. The first age of India’s greatness was a spiritual age when she sought passionately for the truth of existence through the intuitive mind and through an inner experience and interpretation of both the psychic and the physical existence. 
Aurobindo had a great faith in the creativeness of India. “For three thousand years at least … India has been creating abundantly, incessantly and lavishly with an inexhaustible many sidedness republics and kingdoms and empires; philosophies and cosmogonies and sciences; creeds, arts and poems… systems of yoga, arts spiritual, arts worldly,… the list is endless and in each item there is about a plethora of activity”. The third pillar of India’s genius is its strong intellectuality. 
In the words of Aurobindo, “the greatness of Indian culture depends on its strong intellectuality. It is at once austere and rich, robust and minute, powerful and delicate, massive in principle and curious in detail. 
Integral approach to Indian thought: 
Aurobindo wanted to discover integration in Indian thoughts. He also wanted to see life as a whole. As he wanted to strike a balance between the multicoloured shades of life, he turned to the Gita. He says that there is a fellowship between God and man. The fellowship with God can be achieved by disinterested action (Nishkan Karma) in society, never-ending meditation, self-forgetting devotion and feeling a kind of unity of all things in God. 

Assignment B

3. Compare and contrast among the face-to-face, distance and online education system.
4. How philosophy and education are interrelated with each other? Explain.
5. Explain the concept of Basic Education system and pedagogy as per Gandhiji.
6. Explain the causes of inequality in education.  

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Assignment C

7. Briefly explain the essential features of Experimental Method. 
8. Differentiate between classical and operant conditioning.

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IGNOU BESC 131 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

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IGNOU BESC 131 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BESC 131 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
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  3. Presentation: IGNOU BESC 131 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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BESC 131 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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