IGNOU BECE 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , BECE 002 INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : BECE 002 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU BECE 002 Assignment 2022-23, BECE 002 Assignment 2022-23 , BECE 002 Assignment , BECE 002 INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- BACHELOR OF ARTS Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for BACHELOR OF ARTS Programme for the year 2022-23. IGNOU BDP stands for Bachelor’s Degree Program. Courses such as B.A., B.Com, and B.Sc comes under the BDP category. IGNOU BDP courses give students the freedom to choose any subject according to their preference. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .
- 1 IGNOU BECE 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 2 A. Long Answer Questions (word limit-500 words) 2×20=40 marks
- 3 1) Discuss the arguments on the relationship between ‘development and social justice’.
- 4 2) Explain the concept of ‘labour market flexibility’.
- 5 B. Medium Answer Questions (word limit-250 words) 4X12=48 marks
- 6 1) Discuss the principal issues relating to ‘water’. 2) What are ‘Federal Grants’? How are they useful in fiscal adjustment? 3) Outline the theoretical background to the New Agricultural Strategy. 4) Describe the concepts frequently used in the context of Foreign Investment.
- 7 IGNOU BECE 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 8 GET IGNOU Handwritten Hardcopy , WhatsApp – 8130208920
- 9 C. Short Answer Questions (word limit 100 words) 2×6=12 marks
- 10 1) Write a note on the objectives of ‘Exchange Rate Management’. 2) NCEUS.
- 11 Get IGNOU BECE 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Now here from this website.
- 13 GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23
- 14 IGNOU Assignment Front Page
- 15 BECE 002 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23
IGNOU BECE 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23
We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BECE 002 INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
Important Note – IGNOU BECE 002 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer all the questions
A. Long Answer Questions (word limit-500 words) 2×20=40 marks
Social justice refers to a political and philosophical theory that focuses on the concept of fairness in relations between individuals in society and equal access to wealth, opportunities, and social privileges.
History and Evolution of Social Justice
The concept of social justice first arose in the 19th century during the Industrial Revolution as attempts were made to promote more egalitarian societies and reduce the exploitation of certain marginalized groups due to the vast disparity between the rich and poor at the time. Social justice initially focused on issues such as the distribution of capital, property, and wealth due to the extreme levels of inequality and economic distress prevalent at the time, resulting from the European social class structure.
Today, social justice has shifted towards a stronger emphasis on human rights and improving the lives of disadvantaged and marginalized groups that have historically faced discrimination in society. Many of these groups have been discriminated against on the basis of factors such as sex, age, wealth, ethnicity, heritage, social status, religion, and others. Social justice often leads to efforts to redistribute wealth to some of the underprivileged groups through providing income, jobs, and education support and opportunities.
Social Justice and the Government
While activists and advocates significantly influence the widespread emphasis on social justice in the world today, the actual implementation of social justice policies is often left to administrators, such as the government, non-profit organizations, foundations, or agencies within the bureaucracy. Such organizations are responsible for shaping public policies to address social justice issues, and as a result, political factors influence the extent to which social justice plays a role in the policies shaped by the government and administrators of the day.
Social justice initiatives can be pursued through many different types of government programs via wealth and income redistribution, government subsidies, protected legal status in employment, and even legalized discrimination against privileged groups through fines and taxes or even through purges historically. Social justice initiatives are commonly seen in socialist and communist countries, which integrates them into their economic policies, as well as in the platforms of left-leaning political parties within democracies.
Five Principles of Social Justice
There are five main principles of social justice that are paramount to understanding the concept better. Namely, these are access to resources, equity, participation, diversity, and human rights.
1. Access to Resources
Access to resources is an important principle of social justice and refers to the extent to which different socioeconomic groups receive equal access to give everyone an equal start in life. Many societies offer a multitude of resources and services for their citizens, such as healthcare, food, shelter, education, and recreational opportunities. However, unequal access to such services often exists.
For example, individuals from wealthy households among the upper and upper-middle classes are often better able to afford to attend good schools and access post-secondary education, which leads to a greater chance of obtaining jobs with higher income in the future. In contrast, those from the lower classes face fewer opportunities. It, in turn, limits access to education for future generations and continues the cycle of facing disadvantages.
Equity refers to how individuals are given tools specific to their needs and socioeconomic status in order to move towards similar outcomes. It contrasts with equality, where everyone is offered the same tools to move towards the same outcome.
As such, often, things that are equal are not equitable due to the more advanced needs of some individuals and groups. Social justice, integrated with addressing equity issues, might include advancing policies that provide support to overcome systemic barriers.
Participation refers to how everyone in society is given a voice and opportunity to verbalize their opinions and concerns and have a role in any decision-making that affects their livelihood and standard of living. Social injustice occurs when a small group of individuals makes decisions for a large group, while some people are unable to voice their opinions.
Understanding diversity and appreciating the value of cultural differences are especially important because policymakers are often better able to construct policies that take into consideration differences that exist among different societal groups. It is important to recognize that some groups face more barriers in society, and by considering the inequities, policymakers and civil servants will be in a stronger position to expand opportunities for marginalized or disadvantaged groups.
Discrimination in employment on the basis of factors such as race, gender, ethnicity, sex, age, and other characteristics are constant issues in society, and enforcing policies to countermand discriminatory practices are one way in which diversity is taken into consideration.
5. Human Rights
Human rights are one of the most important principles of social justice and form a foundational part of the concept. Human rights and social justice are certainly interrelated, and it is impossible for one to exist without the other.
Human rights are fundamental to societies that respect the civil, economic, political, cultural, and legal rights of individuals and governments, organizations, and individuals must be held responsible if they fail to ensure the upholding of these rights. They are extremely important in many societies and are recognized internationally through institutions such as the International Criminal Court and the United Nations Human Rights Council.
2) Explain the concept of ‘labour market flexibility’.
The degree of labour market flexibility is the speed with which labour markets adapt to fluctuations and changes in society, the economy or production. This entails enabling labour markets to reach a continuous equilibrium determined by the intersection of the demand and supply curves.
Labour unions can limit labor market flexibility by negotiating higher wages, benefits, and better working conditions with employers. In the words of Siebert, labour unions were seen to inhibit “the clearing functions of the market by weakening the demand for labor, making it less attractive to hire a worker by explicitly pushing up the wage costs or by introducing a negative shadow price for labor; by distorting the labor supply; and by impairing the equilibrating function of the market mechanism (for instance, by influencing bargaining behavior).”
The most well-known concept of labour market flexibility is given by Atkinson. Based on the strategies companies use, he notes that there can be four types of flexibility.
External numerical flexibility
External numerical flexibility is the adjustment of the labour intake, or the number of workers from the external market. This can be achieved by employing workers on temporary work or fixed-term contracts or through relaxed hiring and firing regulations or in other words relaxation of employment protection legislation, where employers can hire and fire permanent employees according to the firms’ needs. Employers typically prefer high levels of unemployment because, as workers become more desperate for employment, they are willing to work for lower wages, thus increasing employer profits.
Internal numerical flexibility
Internal numerical flexibility, sometimes known as working time flexibility or temporal flexibility, is achieved by adjusting working hours or schedules of workers already employed within the firm. This includes part-time, flexi time or flexible working hours or shifts (including night shifts and weekend shifts), working time accounts, leaves such as parental leave, and overtime. Many employers thus hire large numbers of part-time employees to avoid government regulations associated with full-time employees, such as the requirement that employers pay for health insurance of their full-time employees. This allows employers to maximize their own profits while decreasing the standard of living of the working classes.
Functional flexibility or organizational flexibility is the extent to which employees can be transferred to different activities and tasks within the firm. It has to do with organization of operation or management and training workers. This can also be achieved by outsourcing activities. Job rotation is a label given to many functional flexibility schemes.
Financial or wage flexibilit
Financial or wage flexibility occurs when wage levels are not decided collectively and there are more differences between the wages of workers. This is done so that pay and other employment costs reflect the supply and demand of labour and so that employers can force employees to compete for wages, thus lowering the average wage paid to employees and ultimately to maximize profits while decreasing the standard of living of the working classes. This can be achieved by rate-for-the-job systems, or assessment based pay system, or individual performance wages.
Flexibility for workers
Labour market flexibility refers to more than the strategies used by employers to adapt to their production or business cycles as it is in the definitions above. Increasingly, the common view is that labour market flexibility can potentially be used for both workers and companies, or employees and employers. It can also be used as a method to enable workers to “adjust working life and working hours to their own preferences and to other activities”. As companies adapt to business cycles and facilitate their needs through the use of labour market flexibility strategies, workers adapt their life cycles and their needs through it (Chung, 2006).
The European Commission also addresses this issue in its Joint Employment Report and its new Flexicurity approach, calling for an adequate method to enhance flexibility for both workers and employers that is “capable of quickly and effectively mastering new productive needs and skills and about facilitating the combination of work and private responsibilities.” ETUC also emphasizes the importance of the development of working time flexibility as an alternative to implementing external flexibility as the sole method of increasing flexibility in the labour market (ETUC, 2007).
In their report on working time, the TUC has also argued that flexible working should be extended to all workers through stronger regulations (Fagen et al. for TUC, 2006). As authors Gerson and Jacobs agree, “flexibility and autonomy are only useful if workers feel able to use them” (Gerson & Jacobs, 2004, pg. 238).
Some of the widely used arrangements that enable workers more flexibility in their work include flextime, remote work, and part-time jobs.
B. Medium Answer Questions (word limit-250 words) 4X12=48 marks
1) Discuss the principal issues relating to ‘water’.
2) What are ‘Federal Grants’? How are they useful in fiscal adjustment?
3) Outline the theoretical background to the New Agricultural Strategy.
4) Describe the concepts frequently used in the context of Foreign Investment.
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IGNOU BECE 002 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BECE 002 INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
IGNOU BECE 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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C. Short Answer Questions (word limit 100 words) 2×6=12 marks
1) Write a note on the objectives of ‘Exchange Rate Management’.
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IGNOU BECE 002 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
- Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
- Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
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GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23
IGNOU BECE 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
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BECE 002 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23
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