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IGNOU BANC 113 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
There are three Sections in the Assignment. Answer all the questions in all the three sections.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following questions in the about 250 words. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment three.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. 20×2
a. Briefly discuss the history of forensic anthropology.
Forensic anthropology, application of physical anthropology to legal cases, usually with a focus on the human skeleton. Forensic anthropology uses the techniques of physical anthropology to analyze skeletal, badly decomposed, or otherwise unidentified human remains to solve crimes. Forensic anthropologists can assess the age, sex, and unique features of a decedent and are invaluable in documenting trauma to the body and estimating how long a corpse has been decomposing. Forensic anthropologists work closely with individuals in law enforcement and medical science—and especially with specialists in ballistics, explosives, pathology, serology (the study of blood and bodily fluids), and toxicology—and are often expert witnesses in murder trials.
Although physical anthropology is concerned with human evolution, human variation, and the biological bases of human behaviour, many of its excavation and reconstruction techniques can be applied to forensic anthropology. Both disciplines use empirical evidence, genetic information, and computer technology to determine the physical characteristics of human specimens. Indeed, a forensic anthropologist can reconstruct the face of a murder victim in much the same way a physical anthropologist can reconstruct the face of a 100,000-year-old Neanderthal skull.
Since the 13th century, medical examiners have sought to determine the causes of deaths and to solve crimes. Given that a death can be natural, accidental, homicide, suicide, or undetermined, forensic science has been greatly aided by developments in modern chemistry, toxicology, and photography.
Equipped with the pioneering work of German anthropologist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in comparative human morphology, early forensic anthropologists relied upon anthropometry (the science of recording measurements of various parts of the human body). They used such physical measurements to determine general biological traits within a human population, as well as morphological differences from population to population, including the alleged physical characteristics of races and criminals. This comparative methodology has largely been supplemented by the more exacting sciences of fingerprinting and DNA profiling for determining a positive identification.
The publication of Austrian criminologist Hans Gross’s Handbuch für Untersuchungsrichter (1893; Criminal Investigation) helped to establish the science of forensics, especially in terms of a cross-transfer of evidence, such as dirt, fingerprints, carpet fibres, or hair, from the criminal to the victim. Early in the 20th century, serological research led to the discovery of the A, B, AB, and O blood groups, thus increasing the value of blood as evidence at a crime scene. In the mid-20th century, advances in biochemistry and technology resulted in the discovery of unique gene markers in each person; these genetic differences allow for the DNA fingerprinting of hair, blood, semen, and tissue. Thus, DNA testing was a major contribution to modern forensic science, though forensic anthropologists generally do not conduct such DNA analyses and often only supply samples to be tested. The 20th and 21st centuries have also seen substantial growth in public and private forensic laboratories, enabling the collection and study of empirical evidence.
Forensic anthropologists may work with bodies in a variety of conditions, including as mummies, piles of bones, decomposed bodies, charred remains, and the victims of aircraft crashes or natural catastrophes. Investigations often begin with a ground search team using cadaver dogs or a low-flying plane to locate a missing body or skeleton. As a meticulous examination of any death scene is imperative, forensic anthropologists are frequently involved at the earliest stages of investigating a human skeleton. After mapping, photographing, and labeling relevant items at the scene, the osteological evidence is examined at a forensic laboratory. Bone fragments are sorted according to size and shape and fitted together when possible.
As experts in osteology, forensic anthropologists focus on human skeletal traits, such as skull features, dental characteristics, and subcranial bone sizes and shapes, that vary from individual to individual and from population to population. When compared with medical and dental records, the presence of bone anomalies, metal plates or pins, or specific dental characteristics can help to make a positive identification. In addition to revealing the age, sex, size, stature, health, and ethnic population of the decedent, an examination of the skeleton may reveal evidence concerning pathology and any antemortem (before death), perimortem (at the time of death), or postmortem (after death) trauma. Often the time elapsed since death can be determined by using forensic entomology, which studies the relationship between insects and decomposition.
The adult human skeleton has 206 bones, although this number may vary among individuals; a person may have an extra vertebra or rib. Generally, the adult male skeleton is larger and more robust in appearance than the adult female skeleton. An examination of the pelvis can be used to determine the sex of an individual; a smaller pelvic inlet and narrower subpelvic opening indicate an adult male, whereas a larger pelvic inlet and wider subpelvic opening indicate an adult female. The general age of an individual may be determined by skull size, condition of sutures, and an examination of the teeth, as well as by the length of particular bones (e.g., the femur and the humerus) and the degree of ossification (bone hardening) that has taken place between the shaft of a long bone and its end caps.
IGNOU BANC 113 Solved Assignment 2022-23
b. Discuss in brief blood stains.
Because blood behaves according to certain scientific principles, trained bloodstain pattern analysts can examine the blood evidence left behind and draw conclusions as to how the blood may have been shed. From what may appear to be a random distribution of bloodstains at a crime scene, analysts can categorize the stains by gathering information from spatter patterns, transfers, voids and other marks that assist investigators in recreating the sequence of events that occurred after bloodshed. This form of physical evidence requires the analyst to recognize and interpret patterns to determine how those patterns were created.
Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the interpretation of bloodstains at a crime scene in order to recreate the actions that caused the bloodshed. Analysts examine the size, shape, distribution and location of the bloodstains to form opinions about what did or did not happen.
BPA uses principles of biology (behavior of blood), physics (cohesion, capillary action and velocity) and mathematics (geometry, distance, and angle) to assist investigators in answering questions such as:
- Where did the blood come from?
- What caused the wounds?
- From what direction was the victim wounded?
- How were the victim(s) and perpetrator(s) positioned?
- What movements were made after the bloodshed?
- How many potential perpetrators were present?
- Does the bloodstain evidence support or refute witness statements?
Because blood behaves according to certain scientific principles, trained bloodstain pattern analysts can examine the blood evidence left behind [and draw conclusions as to how the blood may have been shed]. From what may appear to be a random distribution of bloodstains at a crime scene, analysts can categorize the stains by gathering information from spatter patterns, transfers, voids and other marks that assist investigators in recreating the sequence of events that occurred after bloodshed. This form of physical evidence requires the analyst to recognize and interpret patterns to determine how those patterns were created.
BPA provides information not only about what happened, but just as importantly, what could not have happened. This information can assist the investigator in reconstructing the crime, corroborating statements from witnesses, and including or excluding potential perpetrators from the investigation.
c. Define Biometrics and discuss its application.
For a quick biometrics definition: Biometrics are biological measurements — or physical characteristics — that can be used to identify individuals. For example, fingerprint mapping, facial recognition, and retina scans are all forms of biometric technology, but these are just the most recognized options.
Researchers claim the shape of an ear, the way someone sits and walks, unique body odors, the veins in one’s hands, and even facial contortions are other unique identifiers. These traits further define biometrics.
Three Types of Biometrics Security
While they can have other applications, biometrics have been often used in security, and you can mostly label biometrics into three groups:
- Biological biometrics
- Morphological biometrics
- Behavioral biometrics
Biological biometrics use traits at a genetic and molecular level. These may include features like DNA or your blood, which might be assessed through a sample of your body’s fluids.
Morphological biometrics involve the structure of your body. More physical traits like your eye, fingerprint, or the shape of your face can be mapped for use with security scanners.
Behavioral biometrics are based on patterns unique to each person. How you walk, speak, or even type on a keyboard can be an indication of your identity if these patterns are tracked.
Biometric Security Works
Biometric identification has a growing role in our everyday security. Physical characteristics are relatively fixed and individualized — even in the case of twins. Each person’s unique biometric identity can be used to replace or at least augment password systems for computers, phones, and restricted access rooms and buildings.
Once biometric data is obtained and mapped, it is then saved to be matched with future attempts at access. Most of the time, this data is encrypted and stored within the device or in a remote server.
Biometrics scanners are hardware used to capture the biometric for verification of identity. These scans match against the saved database to approve or deny access to the system.
In other words, biometric security means your body becomes the “key” to unlock your access.
Biometrics are largely used because of two major benefits:
- Convenience of use: Biometrics are always with you and cannot be lost or forgotten.
- Difficult to steal or impersonate: Biometrics can’t be stolen like a password or key can.
While these systems are not perfect, they offer tons of promise for the future of cybersecurity.
Examples of Biometric Security
Here are some common examples of biometric security:
- Voice Recognition
- Fingerprint Scanning
- Facial Recognition
- Iris Recognition
- Heart-Rate Sensors
In practice, biometric security has already seen effective use across many industries.
Advanced biometrics are used to protect sensitive documents and valuables. Citibank already uses voice recognition, and the British bank Halifax is testing devices that monitor heartbeat to verify customers’ identities. Ford is even considering putting biometric sensors in cars.
Biometrics are incorporated in e-Passports throughout the world. In the United States, e-passports have a chip that contains a digital photograph of one’s face, fingerprint, or iris, as well as technology that prevents the chip from being read — and the data skimmed — by unauthorized data readers.
As these security systems are rolled out, we are seeing the pros and cons play out in real-time.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 10×2
a. Write short notes on the following
i. Bite marks
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IGNOU BANC 113 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BANC 113 Forensic Anthropology Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
IGNOU BANC 113 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Answer any two of the following questions in about 150 words each. 5×2
i. Examination of semen and seminal stains
ii. Techniques of DNA Fingerprinting
iii. Methods of personal identification through skeletal remains
Answer the following questions in the about 250 words 10×3=30
a. Discuss the functions of saliva constituent.
b. Define somatoscopy. Discuss somatoscopic characteristics.
c. Discuss in brief examination of handwriting
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IGNOU BANC 113 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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