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IGNOU BANC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BANC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
There are three Sections in the Assignment. Answer all the questions in all the three sections.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following questions in the about 250 words. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment three.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. 20×2
a. Discuss the concept of tribes and peasantry. Define the characteristics of a tribe
and Indian village.
TRIBES AND PEASANTS IN INDIA
The discipline of Anthropology involves understanding the people and their institutionalized behavior in varied settings and contexts. Tribe and Peasant are the anthropological terms denoting categories of people. Together, these categories constitute largest proportion of Indian population. There are issues in conceptualizing these categories. There are problems related to definitions, typical characteristics because of overlapping features. Anthropologists documented processes ‘Tribe-Peasant continuum’ and pointed to the shift from their traditional means of subsistence resulting in peasantization of tribals.
On the basis of geographical surroundings and socio-cultural characteristics, the Indian society is divided into tribal, rural and urban societies. Tribal communities are an integral segment of Indian society. Tribal population is found in almost all parts of the world. India has the second largest tribal population in the world, the first being Africa. India, with a variety of ecosystems, presents a varied tribal population depicting a complex cultural mosaic. The tribal population lives in relative isolation in hilly forests or well demarcated areas marked with distinct culture, language, religion and strong ethic identity.
DEMOGRAPHY AND DISTRIBUTION OF TRIBES IN INDIA
Tribes are found in all parts of India, except the states of Punjab and Haryana and the Union Territory of Chandigarh, Delhi and Puducherry. The Anthropological Survey of India under the ‘People of India Project’ identified 4,635 communities in India, of which 461 communities were of the scheduled tribes. The Government of India, in its Draft of the National Tribal Policy for Scheduled Tribes, which came for the first time in February 2004, identified 698 tribal communities in India. The second version of the Draft was circulated in July 2006 which noted that there were more than 700 tribes in India. The Census of India held in 2011 counted the number of scheduled tribes (both ‘major tribes’ and their ‘sub-tribes’) to be 705. As can be noted from the increasing number of tribal communities, with the passage of time more and more communities are being added to the list of the scheduled tribes. According to the Census of 2011 the population of scheduled tribes in India was 10,42,81,034 persons, constituting 8.6 per cent of the population of the country. From 2001 to 2011, as per census of the respective years, their population has increased from 8.2 per cent to 8.6 per cent of India’s population (Srivastava V. K: 2015). The decadal population growth of the tribals from Census 2001 to 2011 has been 23.66 per cent against the 17.69 per cent population growth of the entire population. The sex ratio for the overall population is 940 females per 1,000 males and that of scheduled tribes is 990 females per 1,000 males. The population of scheduled tribes has seen an increasing trend since Census 1961. In the 1961 census the number of scheduled tribe communities increased to 427, twice the number from the previous census. This increased to 432 by the 1971 census.
PROBLEMS OF NOMENCLATURE
The Government of India Act 1935 used the term ‘backward tribe’. Later, the Indian Constitution retained the terminology with slight modification using ‘Scheduled Tribe’ in place of ‘backward’. However, the Constitution does not have a precise definition for the term ‘tribe’. At the time of first census of independent India in 1951, there were 212 recognised scheduled tribes in the country. Article 366 (25) of the Indian Constitution refers Scheduled Tribe to those who are scheduled in accordance with Article 342.
Article 342 says that the Indian President, after consulting with the concerned Governors of State or Union territory, can specify the tribes or tribal groups through public notification. Still there exists no clarification as to who is to be included under the category of Scheduled Tribe. In 1959 the Government appointed a commission headed by Shri U.N. Dhebar to look into the welfare of the scheduled tribes. This commission too failed to arrive at a satisfactory definition. The Lokur Committee (1965) identified certain criteria for specification of a community as a scheduled tribe. They are:
- Indication of primitive traits
- Distinctive culture
- Shyness of contact with the community at large
- Geographical isolation; and
From the above identifying features, the idea of the tribe as ‘primitive’ has clearly continued into the post-colonial period. The first backward classes commission (Kaka Kalelkar Commission) appointed by the President of India under Article 340 argued that the tribes:
“lead a separate exclusive existence and are not fully assimilated in the main body of the people. Scheduled Tribes may belong to any religion. They are listed as Scheduled Tribes, because of the kind of life led by them”.
De-notified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribal Communities
The tribal population in India, though numerically a small minority, represents an enormous diversity of groups. Each tribal group is different from the other; their culture and values are distinct from each other. Tribes in India are not a homogeneous group in respect of: language and linguistic traits, ecological settings, physical features, size of the population, the extent of acculturation, dominant modes of making a livelihood, level of development and social stratification.
The word “tribe”, derived from the Latin term “tribus” has since been transformed to mean, “A group of persons forming a community and claiming descent from a common ancestor”. Tribes are found in all parts of India, except a few states and union territories. In India, tribal people are known by many names, such as ‘adivasi’ (original settlers), ‘scheduled tribes’ (anusuchit janajati) and ‘tribes’. According to the Census of 2011 the total population of scheduled tribes in India is at 10,42,81,034 persons, constituting 8.6 per cent of the population of the country. In India geographical distribution of tribal population is not uniform. Everywhere they have adapted to the local ways of living, thus cultural differences are quite visible within the same community. Bhils are the largest tribal group in India, followed by Gonds, Santhals, and Meenas.
IGNOU BANC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23
b. Write a note on the history of tribal administration in India.
TRIBAL ADMINISTRATION IN PRE-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD
Prior to the advent of the British, tribes were never fully subjugated by the invading Muslim rulers, who preferred to make settlements with the local non-tribal princes or with tribal chieftains. They did not intervene in tribal customary laws, lifestyles and economic fabric. As a result, tribal life was not influenced by political changes due to Muslim rule. Till the entry of the British, the tribals were the masters of the forests and their ancestral lands. Under the British rule, the contact of the British officials with the tribal people remained difficult due to the rather inaccessible habitats of the tribals, such as remote hills, marshy or malarial forests and inhospitable tracts. The British depended on Christian missionaries for information and followed a policy of ‘let them alone’. They tried to consolidate their power on the majority of the accessible Indian population rather than on minor tribal groups. Thus, they maintained the isolation of the tribal people from the rest of the country. They were not bothered to save them from the clutches of moneylenders, landholders and contractors or from the influence of missionaries. But within a short span of their rule, the British encountered a major turbulence from the hill tribes Mal Pahariya of Rajmahal hills in Bengal. Local landlords or feudal zamindars had been slowly encroaching upon the neighbouring tribal lands in connivance with corrupt officials and forcing the tribals to accept slavery. The condition of tribals worsened due to exploitation by local traders, businessmen and moneylenders. It created a great discontent among the hill men who finally revolted against the Hindu zamindars in 1772 and launched a violent struggle in some areas.
LEGISLATIONS OF BRITISH
To counter the tribal unrest, British administrators adopted new executive and legislative policies. At first, they tried to tackle the rebellious tribes with arms and bribed some tribal leaders by giving monetary allowance. Retired military officials were encouraged to settle down around the tribal habitation as they are more effective than civil officers in suppressing the agitation. In 1782, Augustus Cleveland, the administrator of Rajmahal hills, decided to withdraw this area from normal administration. As a result, local leaders got the power to supervise civil and penal jurisdiction over the hill tracts in local courts. Thus, Mal Pahariya people were freed from the clutches of zamindars and were able to enjoy rentfree land directly from the government. Further, a tribal assembly was formed for conducting the affairs of the Pahariyas with their customary laws and procedures. Based on the Pahariya model, a universal regulation for the tribes known as ‘Regulation I’ was promulgated by the government in 1796. But due to corrupt landlords, this Act could not continue for long. This Act came to an end in 1827 and a new regulation was accepted, bringing the Mal Pahariya under the jurisdiction of ordinary courts. Following the outbreak of the Santhal revolt in 1855, special administrative stipulations for the affected areas known as The Indian Councils Act came into existence in 1861. The provisions of this Act, meant to suppress tribal unrest through legislation, were made a part of the day-to-day administration. Subsequently, British rulers felt the necessity for a special type of administration for tribal areas, ignoring the existing atmosphere of suspicion among tribals and the need for cautious approach. In 1874, Act XIV was passed in British India, popularly known as The Scheduled District Act, to exclude specific areas from ordinary laws, in order to save them from exploitation.
TRIBAL ADMINISTRATION IN POSTINDEPENDENCE PERIOD
After independence the government of India adopted the policy of isolation in a slightly modified form. In the partially excluded areas, they undertook welfare measures. Verrier Elwin recommended creating “national parks “for tribal people where they could live in isolation. This idea was supported by A.V. Thakkar who emphasized that the aborigines must be protected from exploitation by non-tribes. The Constituent Assembly recommended isolation of some areas as tribal and scheduled areas. The government machinery remained confined to scheduled areas and tribals living outside the areas were not duly protected. Constitutional safeguards and the inclusion of tribes in the Fifth schedule created a gap between the general population and the tribes. In the five-year plans, tribal development also got financial separation. But isolation of the tribal people attracted severe criticism. Subsequently the government sought their assimilation with the rest of population. The unabated contact with mainstream population wrought many changes in the lives of the tribes. On the whole, a national policy tried to integrate and level up the tribes in a common national social order. This integration policy of tribes was adopted by Jawaharlal Nehru, popular as ‘Panchsheel’ i.e., five fundamental principles for tribal upliftment. They are the following:
i) Non-imposition: The tribal people should develop along the lines of their own genius and nothing should be imposed on them.
ii) Respect of tribal customs: Tribal rights to land and forests should be respected.
iii) Development of tribal youth: Tribal youth should be trained and a team of their own people should be built to do the work of administration and development.
iv) Simplicity of Administration: One should not over-administer these areas or overwhelm them with a multiplicity of schemes.
v) Emphasis on human growth: One should judge the results not by statistics but by quality of human character that is involved.
ADMINISTRATION AT CENTRE AND STATE LEVEL
Independent India visualized integration of tribals into national mainstream. To promote integration of tribes, the Union government introduced a tribal welfare department in 1951 for protection and upliftment of Scheduled Tribes. With the help of various provisions of the Constitution, a new line of administration was set up by creating Fifth Schedule (Scheduled Area) and Sixth Schedule (Tribal Area) through Article 244. The Fifth Schedule of the Constitution mentioned that the President may, by order, declare tribal areas to be Scheduled Areas. The President may make any changes in the Scheduled Areas after consultation with the Governor of the state. These areas are administered as part of the states in which they are situated but the Governor is given powers to modify Centre and State laws in their application to these areas. Further, he has the power to frame regulations for peace and good governance of these areas, particularly with regards to protection of land rights, settlement of wasteland and safeguards against moneylenders. In framing the regulations, the Governor is required to consult the Tribes Advisory Council (TAC) of the state. The recommendations further required to submit to the President of India an annual report or a report at such intervals as may be required by the Union government. The Scheduled Areas were constituted to assist the tribals in enjoying their existing rights and to develop the areas to promote economic, educational and social progress of the Scheduled Tribes.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 10×2
a. Deliberate on the approaches to the study of peasants.
b. Write a note on the problems faced by tribes.
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IGNOU BANC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Answer any two of the following questions in about 150 words each. 5×2
a. Ethno-political movements
b. Singur Project in West-Bengal
c. Polavaram Project
d. Planning Commission and NITI Aayog
Answer the following questions in the about 250 words 10×3=30
a. What is Fieldwork? Explain the methods, tools and techniques you would use to collect data in a tribal village. Describe what would be your universe and unit of study. 20
b. Discuss qualitative analysis of data and report writing.
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IGNOU BANC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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