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IGNOU BANC 106 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BANC 106 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
There are three Sections in the Assignment. Answer all the questions in all the three sections.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following questions in the about 250 words. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment three.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. 20×2
1. Define human ecology. Briefly comment on Acclimation and Acclimatization 20
The term “Acclimatization” refers to a process where an organism adjusts to changes in its environment with respect to temperature, altitude, humidity, pH, light, salinity, pressure and presence of certain chemicals.
Acclimatization is defined as a process where an organism adjusts its behaviour or physiology in response to changes in its environment. The changes in the physiology and behaviour of a single organism happens in a short period of time within its lifetime. It is also reversible across most cases.
The presence of special features or habits in a species that help to survive in a particular habitat is called adaptation. For example, desert plants have leaves reduced into spines to reduce water loss by transpiration. But, acclimatization helps to overcome the small problems caused by changes in the surroundings.
For example, tomatoes are plants that grow best in temperate climates. However, they can survive freezing temperatures if the temperature drop happens over a few days rather than occurring suddenly. This short-term “adjustment” is how the tomato acclimatizes to the harsh temperature. It happens in short period within the lifetime of an entity. On the other hand, the adaptation of a species to a particular environment takes place over generations.
One of the best known examples of acclimatization in humans can be observed when travelling to high altitude locations – such as tall mountains or hill stations. For instance, if an individual hikes to 3,000 meters above sea level and stays there for 1-3 days, they become acclimatized to 3,000 meters. If the same individual hikes to 4000 meters in altitude, then their body has to acclimatize once again. Some of the changes that take place during acclimatization to high altitudes involves:
- Increased production of red blood cells
- Increased pressure in pulmonary arteries – thereby forcing blood into sections of the lungs that are usually not used during normal breathing at lower altitudes
- Increased depth of respiration
- Increased depth (volume) of breath
In some cases, individuals suffer from Acute Mountain Sickness when ascending to elevations of over 3,000 meters from sea level. However, it is a very common and mild condition that can be overcome if the body is given enough time to acclimatize. The reason why it happens is reduced air pressure at high altitudes as well as lower oxygen levels. One of the more severe forms of mountain sickness is called High Altitude Cerebral Edema, where fluid builds up in the brain. This is a life-threatening condition and requires immediate medical attention.
Deep sea divers have to acclimatize when ascending from a certain depth. This form of acclamatization during deep-sea diving involves a process called decompression, where the dissolved inert gases are eliminated from the diver’s body by pausing at several stops during the ascent to the water’s surface. The issue arises when the diver starts descending – which leads to an increase in hydrostatic pressure as well as ambient pressure. Moreover, the breathing gas which is used with the dive is supplied at ambient pressure. This means the gases begin to dissolve in the diver’s body. On depressurization (during ascent), the dissolved gases form bubbles inside the body, often causing debilitating pain. In severe cases, it can also cause coma or even death.
IGNOU BANC 106 Solved Assignment 2022-23
2. Briefly describe adaptation to Infectious and Non-infectious diseases.
An infectious disease can be defined as an illness due to a pathogen or its toxic product, which arises through transmission from an infected person, an infected animal, or a contaminated inanimate object to a susceptible host. Infectious diseases are responsible for an immense global burden of disease that impacts public health systems and economies worldwide, disproportionately affecting vulnerable populations. In 2013, infectious diseases resulted in over 45 million years lost due to disability and over 9 million deaths (Naghavi et al., 2015). Lower respiratory tract infections, diarrheal diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis (TB) are among the top causes of overall global mortality (Vos et al., 2015). Infectious diseases also include emerging infectious diseases; diseases that have newly appeared (e.g., Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range (e.g., extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) and Zika virus (Morse, 1995). Infectious disease control and prevention relies on a thorough understanding of the factors determining transmission. This article summarizes some of the fundamental principles of infectious disease transmission while highlighting many of the agent, host, and environmental determinants of these diseases that are of particular import to public health professionals.
The Epidemiological Triad: Agent–Host–Environment
A classic model of infectious disease causation, the epidemiological triad (Snieszko, 1974), envisions that an infectious disease results from a combination of agent (pathogen), host, and environmental factors (Figure 1 ). Infectious agents may be living parasites (helminths or protozoa), fungi, or bacteria, or nonliving viruses or prions. Environmental factors determine if a host will become exposed to one of these agents, and subsequent interactions between the agent and host will determine the exposure outcome. Agent and host interactions occur in a cascade of stages that include infection, disease, and recovery or death (Figure 2(a) ). Following exposure, the first step is often colonization, the adherence and initial multiplication of a disease agent at a portal of entry such as the skin or the mucous membranes of the respiratory, digestive, or urogenital tract. Colonization, for example, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the nasal mucosa, does not cause disease in itself. For disease to occur, a pathogen must infect (invade and establish within) host tissues. Infection will always cause some disruption within a host, but it does not always result in disease. Disease indicates a level of disruption and damage to a host that results in subjective symptoms and objective signs of illness. For example, latent TB infection is only infection – evidenced by a positive tuberculin skin test or interferon gamma release assay – but with a lack of symptoms (e.g., cough or night sweats) or signs (e.g., rales on auscultation of the chest) of disease. This is in contrast to active pulmonary TB (disease), which is accompanied by disease symptoms and signs.
Recovery from infection can be either complete (elimination of the agent) or incomplete. Incomplete recovery can result in both chronic infections and latent infections. Chronic infections are characterized by the continued detectable presence of an infectious agent. In contrast, latent infections are distinguished by an agent which can remain quiescent in host cells and can later undergo reactivation. For example, varicella zoster virus, the agent causing chicken pox, may reactivate many years after a primary infection to cause shingles. From a public health standpoint, latent infections are significant in that they represent silent reservoirs of infectious agent for future transmission.
Determinants of Infectious Disease
When a potential host is exposed to an infectious agent, the outcome of that exposure is dependent upon the dynamic relationship between agent determinants of infectivity, pathogenicity, and virulence, and intrinsic host determinants of susceptibility to infection and to disease (Figure 2(b)). Environmental factors, both physical and social behavioral, are extrinsic determinants of host vulnerability to exposure.
Infectivity is the likelihood that an agent will infect a host, given that the host is exposed to the agent. Pathogenicity refers to the ability of an agent to cause disease, given infection, and virulence is the likelihood of causing severe disease among those with disease. Virulence reflects structural and/or biochemical properties of an infectious agent. Notably, the virulence of some infectious agents is due to the production of toxins (endotoxins and/or exotoxins) such as the cholera toxin that induces a profuse watery diarrhea. Some exotoxins cause disease independent of infection, as for example, the staphylococcal enterotoxins that can cause foodborne diseases. Agent characteristics can be measured in various ways. Infectivity is often quantified in terms of the infectious dose 50 (ID 50), the amount of agent required to infect 50% of a specified host population. ID50 varies widely, from 10 organisms for Shigella dysenteriae to 106–1011 for Vibrio cholerae (Gama et al., 2012; FDA, 2012). Infectivity and pathogenicity can be measured by the attack rate, the number of exposed individuals who develop disease (as it may be difficult to determine if someone has been infected if they do not have outward manifestations of disease). Virulence is often measured by the case fatality rate or proportion of diseased individuals who die from the disease.
The outcome of exposure to an infectious agent depends, in part, upon multiple host factors that determine individual susceptibility to infection and disease. Susceptibility refers to the ability of an exposed individual (or group of individuals) to resist infection or limit disease as a result of their biological makeup. Factors influencing susceptibility include both innate, genetic factors and acquired factors such as the specific immunity that develops following exposure or vaccination. The malaria resistance afforded carriers of the sickle cell trait exemplifies how genetics can influence susceptibility to infectious disease (Aidoo et al., 2002). Susceptibility is also affected by extremes of age, stress, pregnancy, nutritional status, and underlying diseases. These latter factors can impact immunity to infection, as illustrated by immunologically naïve infant populations, aging populations experiencing immune senescence, and immunocompromised HIV/AIDS patients.
Mechanical and chemical surface barriers such as the skin, the flushing action of tears, and the trapping action of mucus are the first host obstacles to infection. For example, wound infection and secondary sepsis are serious complications of severe burns which remove the skin barrier to microbial entry. Lysozyme, secreted in saliva, tears, milk, sweat, and mucus, and gastric acid have bactericidal properties, and vaginal acid is microbicidal for many agents of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Microbiome-resident bacteria (a.k.a. commensal bacteria, normal flora) can also confer host protection by using available nutrients and space to prevent pathogenic bacteria from taking up residence.
The innate and adaptive immune responses are critical components of the host response to infectious agents (Table 1 ). Each of these responses is carried out by cells of a distinct hematopoietic stem cell lineage: the myeloid lineage gives rise to innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells) and the lymphoid lineage gives rise to adaptive immune cells (e.g., T cells, B cells). The innate immune response is an immediate, nonspecific response to broad groups of pathogens. By contrast, the adaptive immune response is initially generated over a period of 3–4 days, it recognizes specific pathogens, and it consists of two main branches: (1) T cell-mediated immunity (a.k.a. cell-mediated immunity) and (2) B cell-mediated immunity (a.k.a. humoral or antibody-mediated immunity). The innate and adaptive responses also differ in that the latter has memory, whereas the former does not. As a consequence of adaptive immune memory, if an infectious agent makes a second attempt to infect a host, pathogen-specific memory T cells, memory B cells, and antibodies will mount a secondary immune response that is much more rapid and intense than the initial, primary response and, thus, better able to inhibit infection and disease. Immune memory is the basis for the use of vaccines that are given in an attempt to stimulate an individual’s adaptive immune system to generate pathogen-specific immune memory. Of note, in some cases the response of the immune system to an infectious agent can contribute to disease progress. For example, immunopathology is thought to be responsible for the severe acute disease that can occur following infection with a dengue virus that is serotypically distinct from that causing initial dengue infection (Screaton et al., 2015).
An immune host is someone protected against a specific pathogen (because of previous infection or vaccination) such that subsequent infection will not take place or, if infection does occur, the severity of disease is diminished. The duration and efficacy of immunity following immunization by natural infection or vaccination varies depending upon the infecting agent, quality of the vaccine, type of vaccine (i.e., live or inactivated virus, subunit, etc.), and ability of the host to generate an immune response. For example, a single yellow fever vaccination appears to confer lifelong immunity, whereas immune protection against tetanus requires repeat vaccination every 10 years (Staples et al., 2015; Broder et al., 2006). In malaria-endemic areas, natural immunity to malaria usually develops by 5 years of age and, while protective from severe disease and death, it is incomplete and short-lived (Langhorne et al., 2008).
Functionally, there are two basic types of immunization, active and passive. Active immunization refers to the generation of immune protection by a host’s own immune response. In contrast, passive immunization is conferred by transfer of immune effectors, most commonly antibody (a.k.a. immunoglobulin, antisera), from a donor animal or human. For example, after exposure to a dog bite, an individual who seeks medical care will receive both active and passive postexposure immune prophylaxis consisting of rabies vaccine (to induce the host immune response) and rabies immune globulin (to provide immediate passive protection against rabies). An example of natural passive immunization is the transfer of immunity from mother to infant during breastfeeding.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 10×2
3. Write a brief note on Mortality
4. Adaptation to Agricultural Society.
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IGNOU BANC 106 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BANC 106 HUMAN ECOLOGY: BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL DIMENSIONS Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
IGNOU BANC 106 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Answer any two of the following questions in about 150 words each. 5×2
5. Bergmann’s rule
6. Cultural Ecology
Answer the following questions in the about 250 words 10×3=30
7. Write a note on Fieldwork
8. Briefly comment on data analysis, interpretation, and report writing.
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IGNOU BANC 106 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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IGNOU BANC 106 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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