MES 104 Solved Assignment 2021-22

MES 104 Solved Assignment 2021-22 , MES 104 Solved Assignment 2021-22 , MES 104 Assignment 2022 , FREE MES 104 Assignment , IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of this session for MASTER OF ARTS (EDUCATION) for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t need to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this text only.

MES 104 Solved Assignment 2021-22 : for college kids – MES 104 : PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION Solved Assignment 2021-22 , Students are advised that after successfully downloading their Assignments, you’ll find each and every course assignments of your downloaded. Candidates got to create separate assignment for the IGNOU Master Course, so as that it’s easy for Evaluators to ascertain your assignments.

MES 104 Solved Assignment 2021-22

Assignment: 01

a) ‘Accountability is a necessary and important pre-condition for autonomy of universities’. Discuss the statement. (500 words)

Traditionally, institutions of upper education across the planet enjoyed considerable freedom to work out their own policies and priorities during a wide selection of their activities. This level of autonomy is however reviewed by many governments, and a policy of governance and accountability instituted. Prondzynski (2015) posed the question; how does one reconcile university autonomy with the fashionable desire for accountability? With universities being liberal to follow their chosen strategic direction, he’s particularly concerned with how those that take the choices on strategy are often answerable to those suffering from it, or indeed to anyone in the least . Prondzynski agrees that institutions of upper education should be held accountable by government in financial matters, but that government shouldn’t be allowed to direct or review their decisions in other matters. Questions at the guts of governance review and reform consistent with Prondzynski includes:

How is accountability expressed?
How can it’s assured that the framework of accountability doesn’t undermine effectiveness and operational success?
Satisfactory answer to those questions, he believes are going to be the key to securing acceptable sorts of governance. He further postulates that “it is vital for governments to know that controlling education institutions condemns them to educational and intellectual mediocrity and compromised integrity”. Dell (2005) supports this stance, pointing to the irony of an equivalent government ministry which floundered and now operating in turmoil, should believe that their intervention would offer an answer for governance in education institution.

Definition of terms

“Autonomy: comes from the Greek roots ‘auto’ meaning “self” and ‘nomos’ meaning “custom” or “law.” This reflects the political sense of the word — a group’s right to self-government or self-rule. When an individual seeks autonomy, he or she would really like to be ready to make decisions independently from an authority .” (

Accountability: describes accepting responsibility. it’s the trait of being answerable to someone for something. ( “The term accountability, because it is usually utilized in education , includes a variety of policy issues, not all of which are associated with student outcomes. As a general policy construct, it refers to the responsibility (if not legal obligation) of campus and system administrators, also as governmental officials, to supply their supervisors (ultimately, the public) reports of their stewardship of public funds.” (Leveille, 2006)


In the late 1960s, access to education grew to what was then considered an unprecedented level. Students demonstrated concerning civil rights and other issues, and therefore the general public became skeptical about the role of mass education . Concurrently, the worth of all social institutions was being questioned, and therefore the government’s role in other social concerns expanded. All of those factors, consistent with Leveille, (2006), gave significant impetus to education entering an era of accountability. Higher educational institutions therefore, had to become more concerned about growth and variety as they were increasingly held in charge of the effectiveness and efficiency of their institutions. Primarily, accountability focussed on financial concerns, but because the concept evolved, the worth of upper educational outcomes increasingly came into play.

To whom are institutions accountable? Institutions of upper education are accountable to all or any its stakeholders (students, legislators, leaders of educational institutions, business leaders, et al. curious about higher education) both internal and external. The education of a nation may be a vital responsibility of state , and therefore the harsh depression faced by most countries places them under extreme pressure to supply excellent outcomes according to their mission and vision, and expectations of stakeholders. Autonomy in institutions of upper education may end in administrations’ abuse of their power and authority, if left unchecked by the state. this is often why institutions of upper education need a supportive governance structure during which they need autonomy to realize their objectives, also because the appropriate level of accountability. consistent with Fielden, (2008), countries everywhere the planet are modifying their governance structures to entrust management and oversight of their universities to realize the twin goals of autonomy with accompanying levels of accountability. Accountability is aligned with a governance structure, strategically selected by all stakeholders to oversee the operation of the institution. It involves an executive Head, the institutional decision-making body, (internal and external), the tutorial body, also as advisory or supervisory bodies.

b) Discuss, briefly, how classroom climate and tasks can be managed effectively by a higher education teacher. (500 words)
c) Suppose you are made a member of an expert group by the Principal of a College to develop the curriculum in the subject of your choice. Describe the steps that you would
follow while developing the curriculum for the same course.

IGNOU MES 104 Solved Assignment 2021-22 : Gandhi National Open University had recently updated this session of 2021-22 MASTER OF ARTS (EDUCATION) assignments on their official university website. we’ve made your work easy by making the solved assignments directly on one portal so as that students can easily get the solved assignments in one go. Students are advised to download their MASTER OF ARTS (EDUCATION) IGNOU Assignments from this webpage itself with none hassle.

GUIDELINES FOR MES 104 Solved Assignment:-

You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.

2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.

Please ensure the following before submitting your assignment :

1. Your enrolment number, name and address have been written correctly.
2. The title of the course and assignment number has been written clearly.
3. Each assignment on each course has been written on separate sheets and pinned properly.
4. All the questions in a particular section should be answered before attempting the next

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