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MANE 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22
Course Code: MANE-004
Assignment Code: MANE-004/ASST/TMA/2021-2022
Total Marks: 100
Note: Attempt a total of five questions. All questions carry equal marks. The word limit for 20 marks question is 500 words and for 5 marks question it is 125 words. Attempt at least two questions from each section.
1. What is gender? Evaluate the concepts of masculinity and femininity. 20
Masculinity and Femininity Definition
The terms masculinity and femininity ask traits or characteristics typically related to being male or female, respectively. Traditionally, masculinity and femininity are conceptualized as opposite ends of one dimension, with masculinity at one extreme and femininity at the opposite . By this definition, high masculinity implies the absence of femininity, and the other way around . In other words, people are often classified as either masculine or feminine. Contemporary definitions propose that masculinity and femininity are separate dimensions, allowing the likelihood that individuals may simultaneously possess both masculine and female attributes.
The Single-Factor Approach to Masculinity and Femininity
Masculinity and FemininityThe Attitude Interest Analysis Survey (AIAS) was the primary plan to measure masculinity versus femininity. To develop the test, many scale items—including measures of attitudes, emotions, personality traits, and occupational preferences—were given to American highschool |secondary school|lyceum|lycee|Gymnasium|middle school”> junior high school and high school students within the 1930s. only items that elicited different responses from girls and boys were included within the final version of the measure. Items that the standard girl endorsed—such as ignorance, desire for alittle income, and a passion for laundry dishes—received femininity points. Items that the standard boy endorsed—such as intelligence, desire for an outsized income, and dislike of tall women— received masculinity points. Because these things clearly reflect gender stereotypes and role expectations prevalent at the time the size was developed, responses to those items may simply reflect the will to be a “normal” man or woman. it’s not surprising then that the AIAS was less reliable than other standard measures of personality and wasn’t associated with other criteria of masculinity and femininity (e.g., teachers’ ratings of students’ masculinity and femininity). due to these methodological issues and a scarcity of theoretical basis, the AIAS is not any longer used today.
Multifactorial Approaches to Masculinity and Femininity
Contemporary scales of masculinity/femininity have abandoned the single-factor approach in favor of multifactorial models. within the 1970s, the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) introduced the concept of androgyny by allowing combinations of two independent dimensions of masculinity and femininity. Importantly, the things on the BSRI weren’t developed using differences within the responses typical of males and females, as was the AIAS. Instead, the BSRI was developed by asking male and feminine respondents to point how desirable it had been for an American man or woman to possess various traits. the ultimate version of the size consists of 20 femininity items, 20 masculinity items, and 20 neutral items. Respondents indicate what proportion each adjective is self-descriptive. supported these responses, people could also be classified as feminine (high femininity, low masculinity), masculine (low femininity, high masculinity), androgynous (high femininity, high masculinity), or undifferentiated (low femininity, low masculinity).
The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ), another measure of masculinity/femininity developed within the 1970s, also assumes that dimensions of masculinity and femininity are independent dimensions. Scale items for this measure were developed in ways almost like the event of the BSRI. the size consists of 16 socially desirable items designed to live instrumental traits (e.g., competitive), often related to males, and expressive traits (e.g., gentle), often related to females. Although the BSRI and PAQ are similar in content, they differ in their theoretical implications.
Currently, the BSRI is employed within the framework of gender schema theory as a measure of men and women’s degree of sex-typing. Sex-typed individuals (i.e., men classified as masculine or women classified as feminine) are said to be gender-schematic—or to use gender as how to arrange information in their world. Strong gender schemas develop through strong identification with gender roles, successively resulting in attitudes and behaviors according to role expectations. Thus, masculinity and femininity scores on the BSRI reflect a bent to conceptualize the planet in terms of male and feminine .
In contrast, the creators of the PAQ have rejected the notion that there’s one underlying factor of masculinity and one factor of femininity. Instead, multiple gender-related phenomena, like physical attributes, occupational preferences, and personality traits, contribute to multiple factors that contribute to gender identity—or one’s own sense of maleness and femaleness. From this attitude then, PAQ and BSRI scores don’t represent the worldwide concepts of masculinity/femininity or gender schemas. Rather, they’re simply measures of instrumental and expressive traits, one among many factors contributing to identity . Thus, scores should only be associated with gender-related behaviors to the extent they’re influenced by instrumentality and expressiveness.
Correlates of Masculinity and Femininity
In support of gender schema theory, initial studies demonstrated that BSRI scores predicted gender-related behaviors like nurturance, agency, and expressiveness. for instance , in one study, students who were categorized as feminine or androgynous displayed more nurturing behaviors while interacting with a baby compared with masculine or undifferentiated students. However, the creators of the PAQ argue that BSRI scores are only predictive of instrumental and expressive behaviors. Empirical evidence supports this claim. Some studies have found little or no relationship between the BSRI and typical measures of gender attitudes and behaviors. Failure to predict related gender constructs could also be indicative of psychometric flaws or problems with the underlying theory.
Measuring masculinity/femininity during a theoretically meaningful way continues to be problematic. Currently, the multifactor identity perspective of masculinity and femininity has received stronger empirical support than other models. Despite theoretical criticisms, both the BSRI and PAQ remain frequently used measures in gender research.
2. What are the main theories of gender? Discuss the feminist psychoanalytical thought of France. 20
3. What do you understand by socialisation? Discuss two agents of socialisation (Family and Peers) which influence the social growth of a child. 20
4. Discuss family from the perspective of sexuality and heteronormativity. Give examples. 20
5. Write short notes on any four of the following: 4 X 5 = 20
a) Radical Feminism
b) Gender performativity
c) Queer Politics
d) Bodies after menopause
e) Unpaid labour
6. What do you understand by ethnicity? How is ethnicity connected to gender? Discuss. 20
7. What is sexuality? Discuss Indian sexuality from a Foucaultian perspective. 20
8. Discuss women’s movements in post colonial period in India with specific reference to the Telangana and Chipko movements. 20
9. How does globalisation affect gender behaviour? Examine. 20
10. Describe and differentiate between any two of the following: 10+10
a. Sex and Gender
b. First wave and Second wave Feminism
c. Matriarchy versus Patriarchy
d. Women in pre-independent and independent India.
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GUIDELINES FOR MANE 004 Solved Assignment:-
You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
Please ensure the following before submitting your assignment :
1. Your enrolment number, name and address have been written correctly.
2. The title of the course and assignment number has been written clearly.
3. Each assignment on each course has been written on separate sheets and pinned properly.
4. All the questions in a particular section should be answered before attempting the next
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