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MAE 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22
a) Describe growth and development of extension education in India during the postindependence period. (500 words)
The postindependence period in India
India and Pakistan were partitioned and given independence in 1947, after which there was remarkable improvement in scientific and technological education and research; illiteracy, however, remained high. The new constitution adopted by India didn’t change the general administrative policy of the country. Education continued to be the prime responsibility of the state governments, and therefore the refore the union (central) government continued to assume responsibility for the coordination of educational facilities and the maintenance of appropriate standards in education and research and in scientific and technical education.
In 1950 the govt of India appointed the design Commission to organize a blueprint for the event of various aspects of life, including education. Thereafter, successive plans (usually on a five-year basis) were drawn and implemented. the most goals of those plans were (1) to realize universal education , (2) to eradicate illiteracy, (3) to determine vocational and skill training programs, (4) to upgrade standards and modernize all stages of education, with special emphasis on technical education, science, and environmental education, on morality, and on the connection between school and work, and (5) to supply facilities for high-quality education in every district of the country.
From 1947 the govt of India also appointed three important commissions for suggesting educational reforms. The University Education Commission of 1949 made valuable recommendations regarding the reorganization of courses, techniques of evaluation, media of instruction, student services, and therefore the recruitment of teachers. The education Commission of 1952–53 focused mainly on secondary and teacher education. The Education Commission of 1964–66 made a comprehensive review of the whole field of education. It developed a national pattern for all stages of education. The commission’s report led to a resolution on a national policy for education, formally issued by the govt of India in July 1968. This policy was revised in 1986. The new policy emphasized educational technology, ethics, and national integration. A core curriculum was introduced to supply a standard scheme of studies throughout the country.
The national department of education was a neighborhood of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, headed by a cupboard minister. A Central planning board of Education counseled the national and state governments. there have been several autonomous organizations attached to the Department of Education. the foremost important bodies were the All-India Council of Technical Education (1945), the University Grants Commission (1953), and therefore the National Council of Educational Research and Training (1961). the primary body advised the govt on technical education and maintained standards for the event of technical education. The second body promoted and coordinated university education and determined and maintained standards of teaching, examination, and research within the universities. It had the authority to enquire into the financial methods of the schools and to allocate grants. The third body worked to upgrade the standard of faculty education and assisted and advised the Ministry of Human Resource Development within the implementation of its policies and major programs within the field of education.
The central government ran and maintained about 1,000 central schools for youngsters of central government employees. It also developed schools offering quality education to qualified high achievers, regardless of ability to pay or socioeconomic background. The seventh five-year plan (1985–90) specified that one such vidyalaya would be found out in each district. The state governments were liable for all other elementary and education . Conditions, generally , weren’t satisfactory, although they varied from state to state. education was provided in universities and colleges.
From the 1950s to the ’80s, the amount of educational institutions in India tripled. the first schools, especially, experienced rapid climb because the states gave highest priority to the universalization of education so as to satisfy the constitutional directive of providing universal, free, and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14. Most, but not all, children had a grade school within 1 km (0.6 mile) of their homes. an outsized percentage of those schools, however, were understaffed and didn’t have adequate facilities. the govt , when it revised the national policy for education in 1986, resolved that each one children who attained the age of 19 years by 1990 would have five years of formal schooling or its equivalent. Plans were also made to enhance or expand adult and nonformal systems of education. Dissension among political parties, industrialists, businessmen, teacher politicians, student politicians, and other groups and therefore the consequent politicization of education hampered progress at every stage, however.
b) Discuss various causes of developmental disparities and marginalisation in India with the help of suitable examples. (500 words)
c) Explain the steps involved in critical path method (CPM). How does CPM help in effective planning and monitoring of an extension programme? Give suitable examples.
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1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
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4. All the questions in a particular section should be answered before attempting the next
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