IGNOU MTTM 6 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU MMTM 6 MARKETING FOR TOURISM MANAGERS Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MTTM 4 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MTTM 4 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.
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IGNOU MTTM 6 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field.
- 1 IGNOU MTTM 6 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 2 Q1. Discuss the relevance of social marketing in modern society. Substantiate your answer with suitable examples.
- 3 Q2. Define Market Segmentation. Discuss the significance of market segmentation in the tourism industry with the help of suitable examples.
- 4 Q3. Discuss the various elements of Marketing Mix. What is the role of “People” in tourism service marketing?
- 5 Q4. Discuss the concept of marketing strategy. Explain with the help of suitable examples the marketing strategy to be adopted to promote a tourism product.
- 6 5. Differentiate between the following:
- 7 Q8. What are the various determinants of Pricing? Explain with the help of suitable examples from the tourism and hospitality industry.
- 8 ii. Marketing Research
- 9 iii. Characteristics of Service Industry
IGNOU MTTM 6 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
Social marketing is the use of marketing principles and techniques to promote positive social behaviors or change societal attitudes and beliefs. It involves using marketing concepts such as audience segmentation, product positioning, and marketing mix to create and implement social change programs.
In modern society, social marketing is highly relevant as it offers an effective approach to address social issues and bring about positive changes in behavior. Some of the examples of social marketing campaigns that have made a significant impact in modern society are:
- Anti-smoking campaigns: Social marketing has played a vital role in creating awareness about the harmful effects of smoking and promoting anti-smoking behaviors. The Truth campaign, launched by the American Legacy Foundation, is a prime example of a successful social marketing campaign that has significantly reduced smoking among young people in the United States.
- Mental health awareness: Mental health issues are becoming increasingly prevalent in modern society, and social marketing campaigns have been instrumental in promoting mental health awareness and reducing stigma. The #BellLetsTalk campaign, launched in Canada, has been successful in raising awareness about mental health issues and promoting conversations about mental health.
- Environmental campaigns: Social marketing campaigns have been used to promote sustainable behaviors and reduce environmental harm. The “Don’t Mess with Texas” campaign, launched by the Texas Department of Transportation, is an excellent example of a successful social marketing campaign that has reduced littering and promoted responsible waste disposal.
- HIV/AIDS prevention: Social marketing has played a crucial role in promoting safe sexual behaviors and preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS. The “Know Your Status” campaign, launched by the United Nations, has been successful in raising awareness about HIV/AIDS and promoting testing and treatment.
In conclusion, social marketing is highly relevant in modern society as it offers an effective approach to address social issues and promote positive changes in behavior. Through successful campaigns, social marketing has proven to be a powerful tool in promoting awareness, changing attitudes, and improving social outcomes.
Q2. Define Market Segmentation. Discuss the significance of market segmentation in the tourism industry with the help of suitable examples.
Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that involves dividing a larger market into smaller groups of consumers with similar needs, wants, or characteristics. The aim is to create a more targeted approach to marketing by tailoring products, services, and messaging to specific customer groups, rather than a one-size-fits-all approach.
In the tourism industry, market segmentation is crucial because it helps tourism businesses to better understand their customers and create offerings that are more relevant to their needs. Here are some examples:
- Demographic segmentation: Tourist destinations may target specific age groups or genders. For example, a spa resort may target middle-aged women with its advertising and promotional campaigns.
- Geographic segmentation: This involves dividing the market based on geographic location. Tourist destinations can target customers from specific regions, countries, or cities. For example, a theme park may target families living in nearby cities, while a luxury hotel may target high net worth individuals from overseas.
- Psychographic segmentation: This involves dividing the market based on personality, lifestyle, and values. Tourist destinations can target customers with similar interests, attitudes, and beliefs. For example, an adventure sports company may target thrill-seekers, while a wellness retreat may target customers interested in self-improvement and mindfulness.
- Behavioral segmentation: This involves dividing the market based on customer behavior, such as purchase history, frequency of travel, or travel preferences. Tourist destinations can target customers who have already shown interest in their offerings or who have similar travel patterns. For example, a cruise line may target customers who have previously taken a cruise, or a ski resort may target customers who have previously booked ski vacations.
Overall, market segmentation helps tourism businesses to better understand their customers, tailor their offerings to meet their needs, and create more effective marketing strategies. By segmenting the market, tourism businesses can increase customer satisfaction, loyalty, and profitability.
Q3. Discuss the various elements of Marketing Mix. What is the role of “People” in tourism service marketing?
The marketing mix, also known as the 4Ps of marketing, consists of the various elements that a company can control in order to influence customer behavior and achieve its marketing objectives. The four elements are product, price, promotion, and place. However, in the context of services marketing, the marketing mix is expanded to include three additional elements: people, process, and physical evidence. Let’s discuss each element of the marketing mix in brief:
- Product: The product is the tangible or intangible offering that satisfies the needs or wants of the customer. It can be a physical product or a service, and it can include features, design, packaging, and branding.
- Price: The price is the amount the customer pays for the product or service. It is influenced by factors such as the cost of production, competition, and customer demand.
- Promotion: Promotion refers to the communication activities used to inform, persuade, and remind customers about the product or service. It can include advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, and public relations.
- Place: Place, also known as distribution, is the channel through which the product or service is made available to the customer. It includes the physical location of the business, the distribution channels, and the logistics involved in delivering the product or service.
- People: People refer to the personnel involved in delivering the service, including customer service representatives, salespeople, and service technicians. People are a crucial element of the marketing mix in service industries like tourism, as they are often the primary point of contact between the customer and the company.
- Process: Process refers to the procedures, mechanisms, and flow of activities involved in delivering the service to the customer. It can include steps like booking, check-in, and payment, and it influences the customer’s overall experience of the service.
- Physical Evidence: Physical evidence refers to the tangible elements of the service experience, such as the physical environment, facilities, and equipment. It can also include intangible factors such as the company’s reputation and branding.
In tourism service marketing, the role of people is crucial. The quality of customer service provided by the people involved in the tourism industry can significantly impact the overall customer experience. This is because people are often the primary point of contact between the customer and the company. The attitudes and behavior of the service providers can influence the customer’s perception of the service quality, leading to positive or negative word-of-mouth recommendations. Therefore, it is essential for tourism service providers to invest in the training, development, and motivation of their people to ensure the delivery of high-quality customer service.
Q4. Discuss the concept of marketing strategy. Explain with the help of suitable examples the marketing strategy to be adopted to promote a tourism product.
Marketing strategy refers to the long-term approach and planning that companies use to promote their products or services to their target audience. It involves identifying the right audience, developing a unique value proposition, and creating a plan to reach and persuade potential customers to purchase or use the product or service. A marketing strategy typically includes elements such as market research, product positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution.
To promote a tourism product, a suitable marketing strategy would involve the following steps:
- Identify the target audience: The first step is to identify the ideal customer or tourist that the product is designed for. This could include factors such as age, income level, interests, and location.
- Develop a unique value proposition: Next, it’s essential to create a compelling reason why tourists should choose your product over competitors. This could be achieved by highlighting unique features, such as the location, amenities, or the experience offered.
- Determine pricing: The next step is to determine the price point for the product. It’s important to consider the price range that the target audience is willing to pay and the price of comparable products offered by competitors.
- Promote the product: Once the target audience, unique value proposition, and price point are determined, it’s time to create a marketing campaign to promote the product. This could include various tactics such as online advertising, social media marketing, email marketing, and influencer marketing.
- Distribution: Finally, it’s essential to make the product available to customers in the most convenient way possible. This could include partnering with travel agencies or making the product available for purchase online.
For example, let’s say you are promoting a new eco-tourism resort in Costa Rica. Your target audience could be environmentally-conscious travelers looking for a unique and sustainable experience. Your unique value proposition could be the resort’s location, which is surrounded by lush rainforest and offers guided tours of the surrounding flora and fauna. The pricing could be set at a premium to reflect the exclusivity and environmental commitment of the resort.
To promote the resort, you could create a marketing campaign that includes social media ads targeted to eco-conscious travelers and partnering with travel bloggers and influencers who focus on sustainable tourism. You could also set up a booth at a travel expo to showcase the resort and its unique offerings. Additionally, you could make the resort available for booking through travel agencies that specialize in eco-tourism.
5. Differentiate between the following:
i. Cyber marketing and Social Marketing
Cyber marketing and social marketing are both important approaches to promoting products and services online, but they differ in their focus and methods.
Cyber marketing, also known as digital marketing, involves using various digital channels such as websites, search engines, social media, email, and mobile apps to reach and engage with potential customers. The goal of cyber marketing is to generate leads, drive traffic to websites, and increase sales through online channels. Cyber marketing may include tactics such as search engine optimization (SEO), pay-per-click (PPC) advertising, content marketing, and social media marketing.
Social marketing, on the other hand, focuses on promoting social good and behavior change. Social marketing aims to influence people’s attitudes and behaviors in order to promote health, safety, environmental protection, or other social causes. Social marketing uses the same channels as cyber marketing, but its message is focused on social good rather than commercial gain. Examples of social marketing campaigns include anti-smoking campaigns, campaigns to promote safe sex, and campaigns to reduce energy consumption.
In summary, cyber marketing is a commercial approach to online promotion, focused on generating leads and driving sales. Social marketing, on the other hand, is a social good approach to online promotion, focused on promoting behavior change and social causes.
ii. Publicity and Advertisement
Publicity and advertisement are two closely related but distinct concepts in marketing.
Publicity refers to the use of media outlets to generate public interest and awareness about a product, service, or event. This can be done through media relations, such as press releases, interviews, and news articles, as well as through social media and other digital platforms.
Advertisement, on the other hand, refers to paid promotional messages that are typically created by the company or organization themselves. Advertisements can be found in various forms such as television commercials, print ads, online banners, and billboards.
While both publicity and advertisement are used to increase awareness of a brand or product, there are some key differences between the two. Publicity is typically considered to be more credible than advertising, as it is seen as coming from a third-party source, such as a journalist or media outlet. Advertising, on the other hand, is often viewed as biased because it comes directly from the company that is trying to sell the product.
Ultimately, both publicity and advertisement are important tools in a marketer’s toolkit, and a well-rounded marketing strategy will typically incorporate both approaches to maximize the impact of their messaging.
iii. Product Line and Product Mix
A product line is a group of related products that are marketed and sold by a company. These products usually share similar characteristics, such as functionality or design, and are targeted at a specific customer segment. For example, a company that produces smartphones may have a product line that includes different models of phones with various features and price points.
On the other hand, a product mix refers to the entire range of products that a company offers. This includes all of the product lines that a company has, as well as any other products or services that they offer. For example, a company that produces smartphones may also offer other products such as smartwatches or headphones.
In summary, a product line is a subset of a company’s product mix that consists of a group of related products, while a product mix refers to the entire range of products that a company offers.
iv. Trademark and Branding
Trademarks and branding are two closely related concepts in the field of marketing and intellectual property law.
A trademark is a symbol, word, or phrase that is used to identify and distinguish the goods or services of one company from those of another. Examples of trademarks include logos, brand names, and slogans. Trademarks are registered with the government and give the owner the exclusive right to use that mark in connection with their goods or services.
Branding, on the other hand, is the process of creating a unique image and identity for a company or product through various marketing strategies. This includes everything from the design of the company’s logo and packaging to the tone and messaging used in advertising campaigns. A strong brand helps to build customer loyalty and can differentiate a company from its competitors.
While trademarks are a key component of branding, they are just one part of the overall strategy. Other elements of branding include product design, packaging, advertising, and customer service. A company with a strong brand will often have a recognizable trademark, but the trademark is just one piece of the puzzle.
Q6. Explain the significance of demand forecasting while marketing a tourism product.
Demand forecasting is the process of estimating the future demand for a product or service. In the tourism industry, demand forecasting is essential for marketing a tourism product because it helps to identify potential customers, understand their needs, and develop marketing strategies that are tailored to meet those needs. Here are some of the key reasons why demand forecasting is significant in marketing a tourism product:
- Helps to plan for capacity: By forecasting demand, tourism businesses can plan for the capacity they need to meet the needs of their customers. This can include determining the number of hotel rooms needed, the number of tour guides required, or the amount of transportation needed to move tourists from one location to another.
- Enables pricing strategy: Forecasting demand helps tourism businesses to determine the right price for their product. Pricing too high can deter customers, while pricing too low can lead to insufficient profits. By knowing the expected demand for their product, tourism businesses can set prices that are competitive and profitable.
- Improves marketing strategy: Understanding the expected demand for a tourism product can help businesses to develop targeted marketing strategies that resonate with their target audience. By knowing who their customers are and what they are looking for, businesses can tailor their marketing messages and promotions to reach the right people at the right time.
- Helps with inventory management: Demand forecasting also enables tourism businesses to manage their inventory effectively. By knowing how much demand to expect, businesses can ensure that they have enough resources to meet customer needs without overstocking and wasting resources.
In summary, demand forecasting is significant in marketing a tourism product because it helps businesses to plan for capacity, determine pricing strategy, improve marketing strategy, and manage inventory effectively. By accurately forecasting demand, tourism businesses can ensure that they are providing the best possible customer experience while maximizing profits.
Q7. Explain with the help of suitable examples the need of Personal Selling in tourism and hospitality industry. Also mention the industries that primarily rely on personal selling and why.
Personal selling is a sales technique used in the tourism and hospitality industry that involves direct face-to-face communication between a salesperson and a potential customer to promote a product or service. This approach is important in the tourism and hospitality industry because it allows for a personalized and tailored approach to customer needs, as well as providing a way to build trust and rapport with potential customers.
Here are some examples of the need for personal selling in the tourism and hospitality industry:
- Luxury Hotels: Luxury hotels rely on personal selling to attract high-end customers who are looking for a personalized experience. The salesperson can highlight the exclusive services and amenities offered by the hotel and create a customized package based on the customer’s preferences.
- Travel Agencies: Travel agencies use personal selling to promote their travel packages and create a personalized itinerary based on the customer’s interests and budget. A travel agent can also provide valuable advice and information about the destination, accommodations, and transportation options.
- Cruise Lines: Cruise lines use personal selling to promote their onboard activities, dining options, and excursions at the various ports of call. A salesperson can provide information about the different cruise packages available, as well as help the customer choose the best cabin or suite based on their preferences.
- Destination Marketing Organizations: Destination marketing organizations (DMOs) use personal selling to promote their destination to potential visitors. A salesperson can provide information about the attractions, events, and activities available, as well as help the visitor plan their trip and make reservations.
Industries that primarily rely on personal selling include luxury goods, real estate, financial services, and high-end consumer products. These industries rely on personal selling because the products or services they offer are often expensive and require a high level of customization and personal attention. Personal selling allows salespeople to build a relationship with potential customers and provide them with the information and support they need to make an informed decision.
Q8. What are the various determinants of Pricing? Explain with the help of suitable examples from the tourism and hospitality industry.
The determinants of pricing refer to the factors that influence the price of a product or service. The tourism and hospitality industry is no exception, and several factors affect pricing decisions. Here are some examples:
- Demand: The level of demand for a product or service can have a significant impact on its price. In the tourism and hospitality industry, the peak season is usually characterized by higher demand, and as such, prices tend to be higher. For instance, the price of hotel rooms in a popular tourist destination, such as Hawaii, is much higher during the peak season than in the off-season.
- Competition: The level of competition in the market can also affect pricing. In a highly competitive market, businesses may be forced to lower their prices to remain competitive. In contrast, in a market with less competition, businesses may be able to charge higher prices. For example, the price of hotel rooms in a remote location with few accommodation options may be higher than in a popular tourist destination with many accommodation options.
- Cost of production: The cost of production is a crucial factor in determining pricing. Businesses need to ensure that the price they set covers their costs and leaves them with a reasonable profit margin. For example, the price of food and beverages in a restaurant may be influenced by the cost of raw materials and labor.
- Brand image: The brand image of a business can also impact pricing. A brand with a premium image may be able to charge higher prices than a brand with a lower image. For instance, a luxury hotel brand may charge higher prices than a budget hotel chain.
- Seasonality: Seasonality can affect pricing in the tourism and hospitality industry. For example, the price of airline tickets tends to be higher during holidays and peak travel seasons, such as summer and winter breaks.
- Location: The location of a business can also influence pricing. In general, businesses located in prime locations, such as those near tourist attractions, tend to charge higher prices. For instance, the price of a hotel room in Times Square, New York City, is likely to be higher than the price of a hotel room in a less popular area of the city.
In conclusion, pricing in the tourism and hospitality industry is influenced by various factors, including demand, competition, cost of production, brand image, seasonality, and location. Businesses need to carefully consider these factors when making pricing decisions to ensure they remain competitive and profitable.
Q9. Discuss the impact of Government Control on Product Design. Support your answer with suitable examples.
Government control can have a significant impact on product design, as regulations and laws set by governments can influence the development of products. There are various ways in which government control can impact product design, such as product safety, environmental regulations, and intellectual property rights. Here are some examples of how government control affects product design:
- Product Safety: Government regulations are in place to ensure that products are safe for consumers. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is a federal agency that sets safety standards for consumer products in the United States. For example, the CPSC regulates the safety of children’s toys to ensure they don’t pose a risk of choking hazards or other injuries to young children. Manufacturers must comply with these regulations when designing products.
- Environmental Regulations: Government regulations are also in place to protect the environment. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the emissions of vehicles to reduce air pollution. This regulation has led to the development of more environmentally friendly vehicles, such as electric and hybrid cars. These regulations can also impact the design of packaging, as companies must use materials that are recyclable or biodegradable.
- Intellectual Property Rights: Intellectual property rights, such as patents and trademarks, are granted by governments to protect the rights of inventors and creators. These rights can impact the design of products, as companies must ensure that their products do not infringe on the intellectual property rights of others. For example, a company designing a new smartphone must ensure that it does not infringe on any existing patents related to smartphone technology.
In conclusion, government control can significantly impact product design in many ways. From product safety to environmental regulations to intellectual property rights, government regulations and laws play a critical role in shaping the design of products in various industries. Companies must stay informed about the regulations and laws that apply to their products to ensure they comply with them and produce products that are safe and sustainable for consumers.
10. Write short notes on any two of the following:
i. Psychological Factors influencing Consumer Behaviour
Consumer behavior is influenced by various psychological factors, which include:
- Motivation: Motivation refers to the underlying force that drives an individual to take action towards a particular goal. The level of motivation can influence the consumer’s buying decision, as it determines the intensity of the desire to satisfy a need or want.
- Perception: Perception refers to how consumers interpret and make sense of the information they receive about products or services. The way a product is presented or advertised can influence how consumers perceive it and their willingness to buy it.
- Attitudes: Attitudes refer to an individual’s general evaluation of a product or service. Consumers’ attitudes towards a particular product or brand can significantly influence their buying behavior.
- Learning: Learning refers to the process by which consumers acquire knowledge and skills related to products and services. Learning can influence consumer behavior by shaping their preferences and expectations of products and services.
- Personality: Personality refers to the individual’s distinctive characteristics that influence their behavior, thoughts, and feelings. Consumers with different personalities may have different buying behaviors and preferences.
- Social and Cultural factors: Social and cultural factors such as family, reference groups, social class, and cultural values also influence consumer behavior. Social influences such as family and friends can affect consumer behavior by shaping their preferences, while cultural values can influence their attitudes towards certain products or brands.
These psychological factors can play a significant role in shaping consumer behavior and should be considered by marketers when designing marketing strategies and developing products and services.
ii. Marketing Research
Marketing research is the process of gathering and analyzing data about consumers, competitors, and the market to inform marketing strategies and decision-making. The main goal of marketing research is to understand customer needs and preferences, identify market trends, and evaluate the effectiveness of marketing campaigns.
Marketing research typically involves the following steps:
- Defining the research problem: This involves identifying the marketing question or problem that needs to be addressed.
- Developing the research plan: This involves deciding on the research approach, research instruments, data collection methods, and sample size.
- Collecting data: This involves gathering data through surveys, focus groups, interviews, or other methods.
- Analyzing data: This involves using statistical techniques to analyze the data collected and identify patterns and trends.
- Drawing conclusions and making recommendations: This involves interpreting the data and using the findings to make informed decisions about marketing strategies.
Marketing research can be conducted through primary research, which involves collecting data directly from consumers, or through secondary research, which involves analyzing existing data and research reports. Both methods can provide valuable insights for businesses looking to improve their marketing efforts and better understand their target audience.
iii. Characteristics of Service Industry
The service industry is a sector of the economy that includes businesses that provide intangible products or services to consumers or other businesses. Here are some key characteristics of the service industry:
- Intangibility: Unlike tangible goods, services cannot be touched or felt. They are intangible and can only be experienced.
- Inseparability: Services are often produced and consumed simultaneously. The provider of the service is often present when the service is delivered.
- Heterogeneity: Service providers often have to customize their services to meet the needs of individual customers, making each service unique.
- Perishability: Services cannot be stored or saved for later use. They must be consumed when they are produced.
- Customer Interaction: Service providers interact with customers in order to understand their needs and provide personalized services.
- Labor Intensive: The service industry is often labor-intensive, with a high degree of interaction between service providers and customers.
- Time Sensitivity: Services are often time-sensitive and must be provided when the customer needs them.
- Quality Control: Quality control is critical in the service industry, as the quality of the service depends on the skill and expertise of the service provider.
- Customer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction is the key to success in the service industry. Service providers must work hard to ensure that their customers are satisfied with the services they receive.
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