IGNOU MSW 010 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MSW 010 Social Work in African Context Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : MSW 010 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU MSW 010 Assignment 2022-23, MSW 010 Assignment 2022-23 , MSW 010 Assignment , MSW 010 Social Work in African Context Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- MASTER DEGREE IN SOCIAL WORK Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MASTER DEGREE IN SOCIAL WORK Programme for the year 2022-23. MSW course or Master of Social Work is a post-graduation course majoring in the field of social work. MSW course is imparted with a two-year duration, which is typically divided into four semesters. Aspirants can pursue MSW courses after completing a Bachelor degree in the relevant field. A career in social work is all about giving and helping others in need. From various NGOs (non-government organizations) across the nation to social development, a Master of Social Work (MSW) course provides comprehensive knowledge about the work put into the development of humanity and social welfare. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23 ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .
IGNOU MSW 010 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU MSW 010 Solved Assignment 2022-23. You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer all the five questions.
All questions carry equal marks.
Answers to question no. 1 and 2 should not exceed 600 words each.
Q.1. Discuss the historical evolution of social work education in Africa.
Discuss current trends of the social welfare programme in Ethiopia.
Social work as a profession with cardinal responsibility of supporting and empowering vulnerable groups and individuals in the society such as women, persons with disabilities, children and the elderly as well as people living with HIV/AIDS has been identified, explained and defined differently by various scholars. In the year 2000, two professional representative bodies, the International Federation of Social Workers and the International Association of Schools of Social Work adopted the following definitions of social work:
That social work is a profession that promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Theories of human behaviour and social systems have been utilized to intervene at various points of peoples’ interaction with their environments, indicating human rights and social justice principles as fundamental to social work (International Federation of Social Workers, 2000, para. 1).
These definitions will be adopted for purposes of this article. Seeking to discuss social work practice in Africa, the basic argument advanced by the article centres on the curative or remedial approach which is currently used in many African countries, which however does not adequately address the needs of the numerous populations residing largely in rural areas of the continent. It therefore advocates for the adoption of the ‘social development paradigm’. Highlights of the genesis of the profession of social work in Africa will come first. The article will then go on to mentioning some of the problems faced by the African continent. Social work in Africa and the social development paradigm will be discussed, and conclusion drawn suggesting the way forward.
GENESIS OF THE SOCIAL WORK PROFESSION IN AFRICA
The past few years have seen social work expanding virtually to every corner of the world (Darkwa, 2007). Factors such as the fall of communism in the Soviet Union (Hokenstad & Kendall, 1995), would have necessarily prompted emergence of democratic institutions in Africa, and the impact of the technological revolution have all contributed to the globalization of social work. Africa is characterised by a number of factors that play substantial influential role in facilitating the emergence of social work. The missionaries, other African mutual aid organisations, in partnership with Europe and other parts of the world came up with various activities that led to the colonization of the continent by external powers there by contributing to social work development on the continent.
Notably, the missionaries did precede the colonizers. Although their primary role focused on addressing religious and spiritual needs of Africans, by establishing schools, vocational training, and engaging in almsgiving and community work, the missionaries also projected, to a substantial level, an informal display of official responsibility in areas of service delivery and social work interventions – thus functioning as informal social workers (Darkwa, 2007). Nonetheless, there has been a long history of tribal and mutual aid society’s existence in Africa. Family members accessed services from various mutual aid societies prior to the development of statutory welfare system. Example of such were family or kin-based (obviously the largest category); others were cultural- and/or religious-based (such as rotating credit societies, and informal service societies) (Midgley, 1997). The African extended family is a clear example of such societies that has always operated as a social welfare system (Apte & Grieco, 1994), and they upheld continuity in an attempt to address appalling social problems/welfare needs faced by a larger number of Africans there by ensuring social protection.
On a more professional basis however, social work in Africa is a relatively young having been introduced in the 1960s. Although the first school of social work—the Cairo School of Social Work in Egypt—was established way back in 1937 (Yiman, 1990), the profession did not take root until the 1960s. Most African countries were once colonized and they attained independence in rapid succession in the 1960s. Asamoah (1995) notes that although there are many regional differences with regards to social problems, economic growth, social development and political arrangements, newly independent countries south of the Sahara had inadequate political and social infrastructures to support rapid social change and industrial development. In a general note, social work in Africa was influenced and moulded after activities in the colonizing powers, including Britain, France and Portugal, among others (Mupedziswa, 2005). Today, it is somewhat conclusive that social work now exists as a profession in most African countries with some countries like Zimbabwe, South Africa,
Zambia, Ethiopia, Swaziland, Nigeria, Uganda, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Egypt training their own social workers. The training normally takes place in Universities. As a matter of fact, however, social work practice introduced and enforced in many African countries remains curative or remedial in approach. This approach is accused of being generally, reactive and dealing with the symptoms of problems as opposed to causes of problems. This will be further highlighted in details as we proceed.
PROBLEMS FACED BY THE AFRICAN CONTINENT
Africa as a continent, has more than 50 nations, and often dismissed as a continent of vast natural resources and primitive societies, governed by military dictators who change regularly. In fact searching through the sensationalist headlines, one finds democratic governments struggling to get a foothold on a continent called Africa as well as many nations in Africa have severe social problems which threaten the moral fibre of societies. Unfortunately, these social problems have lingered for several years without professional social work intervention. Research has shown that one of the main triggers of social problems in Africa is the scourge of poverty (Muzaale, 1987). Despite the fact that Africa is potentially the richest continent on the planet, it is actually the poorest. For instance, studying poverty figures in Africa produces a daunting picture. 315 million people: one in two people in Sub Saharan Africa survive on less than one dollar per day. 184 million people: 33% of the African population suffers from malnutrition (United Nations Development Programme, 2007). With regard to poverty of income, it is estimated that “just under three million households in South Africa live on
less than R1000 a month, approximately 105 Euro” (Monama, 2006, p. 3). Poverty, manifesting itself in the form of the majority spending less than a dollar a day on their livelihood, degraded environment, and homelessness, is increasing at an alarming rate in Africa and is mainly caused by corrupt regimes that do not care for the welfare of their citizens. A report has lately exposed the late Presidents Sani Abacha of Nigeria and Mobutu Sese Seko of the former Zaire to have looted their countries’ resources running off-shore accounts. Similar situations are peculiar to some current African leaders who involve themselves in the habit of plundering their countries’ resources leading to the majority of their citizens wallowing in poverty
SOCIAL WORK IN AFRICA AND THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM
Most African countries embraced the curative or remedial approach to solving social problems during its inception. For instance, Kaseke (1991) notes that the development of social work in Zimbabwe is closely tied to the country’s colonial history, its orientation reflecting a wholesale transfer from the British experience. He goes on to say that social work in Zimbabwe also developed as a response to urban social ills such as crime, prostitution and destitution. The philosophy of the colonial policy makers was that such ills, if unattended, would undermine order and stability. Social work was, therefore, seen primarily as an instrument of social control, and never seriously addressed itself to the root of social problems. Even after independence (SOCIAL
WORK IN A DEVELOPING CONTINENT 150) In practice all over the world, social workers concern about poverty has increased because of their long history in working with the marginalized, or excluded, those lacking resources, scenarios which push them to poverty situations. This is peculiar in various nations within African continent. At the micro level of daily practice, social workers are used to dealing with poverty and also with
the risk assessment, working creatively and innovatively to help people (individuals and communities) to understand their situation and to change their behaviour and their environment, where possible. One role that derives increased attention is community development, which requires skills in community analysis, social planning, community organizing and social action. Community development requires the ability to foster economic opportunities for area residents through work on industrial retention, local business development, job training, and placement.
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2. What are nine major guiding principles of social security as enunciated by Robert Ball? Discuss in detail.
Explain the impacts of Eurocentric influence on African Social Work. Illustrate your answer with suitable examples.
Accordingly, they took the long view. They gave major emphasis to estimating program income and expenses over a much longer period than was customarily done in other countries, and this is still true today. The time frame of 75 years that is now used for Social Security is much longer than that used in almost all other contexts, from foreign social insurance programs to federal budgeting. The point, then and now, was not to try to pretend that anyone could really know precisely what would be happening in 75 or even 25 years; the point was that the planners of Social Security, in making exceptionally long-term commitments, wanted always to be looking far enough ahead to anticipate necessary improvements and make needed changes in ample time to preserve the integrity of the program.
That approach has served well. The legislation of 1935 and 1939 created the basic design of Social Security, and all major legislation since then can be seen as building on that design: extending coverage to more and more workers, improving the level of protection, adding protection against loss of income from long-term and total disability, providing protection for the elderly and disabled against the increasingly unmanageable cost of medical care, protecting against the erosion of income by inflation, and abolishing all statutory differences in the treatment of men and women.
These and many other accomplishments and adjustments have taken place within a framework consisting of nine major principles. Social Security is universal; an earned right; wage-related; contributory and self-financed; redistributive; not means-tested; wage-indexed; inflation-protected; and compulsory. As with any framework, the stability of the entire structure depends on the contribution made by each part, so it is useful to review these principles and how they work together.
- Universal: Social Security coverage has been gradually extended over the years to the point where 96 out of 100 jobs in paid employment are now covered, with more than 142 million working Americans making contributions in 1997. The goal of complete universality can be reached by gradually covering those remaining state and local government positions that are not now covered.
- Earned right: Social Security is more than a statutory right; it is an earned right, with eligibility for benefits and the benefit rate based on an individual’s past earnings. This principal sharply distinguishes Social Security from welfare and links the program, appropriately, to other earned rights such as wages, fringe benefits, and private pensions.
- Wage-related: Social Security benefits are related to earnings, thus reinforcing the concept of benefits as an earned right and recognizing that there is a relationship between one’s standard of living while working and the benefit level needed to achieve income security in retirement. Under Social Security, higher-paid earners get higher benefits; the lower-paid get more for what they pay in.
- Contributory and self-financed: The fact that workers pay earmarked contributions from their wages into the system also reinforces the concept of an earned right and gives contributors a moral claim on future benefits above and beyond statutory obligations. And, unlike many foreign plans, Social Security is entirely financed by dedicated taxes, principally those deducted from workers’ earnings matched by employers, with the self-employed paying comparable amounts. The entire cost of benefits plus administrative expenses (less than one percent of income) is met without support from general government revenues. This self-financing approach has several advantages. It helps protect the program against having to compete against other programs in the annual general federal budget—which is appropriate, because this is a uniquely long-term program. It imposes fiscal discipline, because the total earmarked income for Social Security must be sufficient to cover the entire cost of the program. And it guards against excessive liberalization: contributors oppose major benefit cuts because they have a right to benefits and are paying for them, but they also oppose excessive increases in benefits because they understand that every increase must be paid for by increased contributions. Thus a semi-automatic balance is achieved between wanting more protection versus not wanting to pay more for it.
- Redistributive: One of Social Security’s most important goals is to pay at least a minimally adequate benefit to workers who are regularly covered and contributing, regardless of how low-paid they may be. This is accomplished through a redistributional formula that pays comparatively higher benefits to lower-paid earners. The formula makes good sense. If the system paid back to low-wage workers only the benefit that they could be expected to pay for from their own wages, millions of retirees would end up on welfare even though they had been paying into Social Security throughout their working lives. This would make the years of contributing to Social Security worse than pointless, since earnings deductions would have reduced their income throughout their working years without providing in retirement any income greater than what would be available from welfare. The redistributional formula solves this dilemma.
- Not means-tested: In contrast to welfare, eligibility for Social Security is not determined by the beneficiary’s current income and assets, nor is the amount of the benefit. This is a crucial principle. It is the absence of a means test that makes it possible for people to add to their savings and to establish private pension plans, secure in the knowledge that they will not then be penalized by having their Social Security benefits cut back as a result of having arranged for additional retirement income. The absence of a means test makes it possible for Social Security to provide a stable role in anchoring a multitier retirement system in which private pensions and personal savings can be built on top of Social Security’s basic, defined protection.
- Wage-indexed: Social Security is portable, following the worker from job to job, and the protection provided before retirement increases as wages rise. Benefits at the time of initial receipt are brought up to date with recent wages, reflecting improvements in productivity and thus in the general standard of living. Without this principle, Social Security would soon provide benefits that did not reflect previously attained levels of living.
- Inflation-protected: Once they begin, Social Security benefits are protected against inflation by periodic Cost-of-Living Adjustments (COLAs) linked to the Consumer Price Index. Inflation protection is one of Social Security’s greatest strengths, and one that distinguishes it from other (except federal) retirement plans: no private pension plan provides guaranteed protection against inflation, and inflation protection under state and local plans, where it exists at all, is capped. Without COLAs, the real value of Social Security benefits would steadily erode over time, as is the case with unadjusted private pension benefits. Although a provision for automatic adjustment was not part of the original legislation, the importance of protecting benefits against inflation was recognized, and over the years the system was financed to allow for periodic adjustment to bring benefits up to date. But this updating was done only after a lag. Provision for automatic adjustment was added in 1972.
- Compulsory: Social Security compels all of us to contribute to our own future security. A voluntary system simply would not work. Some of us would save scrupulously, some would save sporadically, and some would postpone the day of reckoning forever, leaving the community as a whole to pay through a much less desirable safety-net system. With a compulsory program, the problem of adverse selection—individuals deciding when and to what extent they want to participate, depending on whether their individual circumstances seem favorable—is avoided (as is the problem of obtaining adequate funding for a large safety-net program serving a constituency with limited political influence).
3)Answer any two of the following questions in about 300 words each:
a) What are the various ethics and values of social work in the African context
b) What are the focus areas of welfare services by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and Faith-Based Organizations (FBOs) in Ethiopia?
c) Discuss the relevance of social case work in Ethiopia.
d) What are the major problems identified by Yizengaw concerning higher education expansion in Ethiopia?
4) Attempt any four of the following in about 150 words each:
a) What are the impacts of neoliberal policies on social work practice in Africa?
b) Discuss goals and functions of social group work in the African context.
c) What are five types of school education system in Ethiopia?
d) Enlist core qualities of a community worker with reference to prevailing problems in Africa.
e) What are the historical, social and political challenges of education in Ethiopia?
f) Enlist six purposes of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) code of ethics of Ethiopia.
5) Write short notes on any five of the following in about 100 words each:
a) Asset Based Community Development (ABCD)
b) Intended Functions of Education
c) Community Policing
d) Human Trafficking in Ethiopia
e) Non-state actors
f) Welfare state
g) Field Theory
h) Social Insurance
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