IGNOU MPSE 001 INDIA AND THE WORLD Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 001 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU MPSE 001 INDIA AND THE WORLD Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU MPSE 001 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU MPSE 001 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

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IGNOU MPSE 001 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field.
IGNOU MPSE 001 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 001 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23


Q1. Explain historical linkages, economic and security cooperation between India and Central Asia.

India and Central Asia have a long history of cultural, economic, and political linkages that date back to ancient times. The Silk Road, which was a network of trade routes connecting China, Central Asia, India, and the Mediterranean region, played a significant role in the historical linkages between India and Central Asia.

In the modern era, India’s relations with Central Asian countries were limited during the Soviet era. However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, India started developing closer economic and security ties with the Central Asian countries.

Economic Cooperation: India and Central Asia have been working towards enhancing economic cooperation in various areas, such as trade, energy, and investment. In 2001, India and the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan signed a Joint Declaration on Strategic Partnership, which laid the foundation for closer cooperation in areas such as trade and investment.

India has been investing in various sectors in Central Asia, such as oil and gas, infrastructure, and mining. In 2019, India and Uzbekistan signed agreements worth over $500 million in areas such as pharmaceuticals, tourism, and textiles.

India has also been working towards enhancing connectivity with Central Asia. In 2017, India joined the Ashgabat Agreement, which is a transit and transport agreement between the five Central Asian countries of Iran, Oman, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan.

Security Cooperation: India and Central Asian countries have also been cooperating in the area of security. The Central Asian countries have been cooperating with India in the fight against terrorism and extremism.

India has been providing assistance to Central Asian countries in various areas, such as capacity building, intelligence sharing, and counter-terrorism. India has also been conducting joint military exercises with Central Asian countries.

In conclusion, India and Central Asia share a rich historical heritage and have been working towards enhancing economic and security cooperation. The two regions have the potential to work together in various areas, such as trade, energy, and investment, and contribute to each other’s growth and development.

Q2. Trace the evolution of India’s relations with South-east Asia bringing out the main features of the relationship.

India’s relations with Southeast Asia have a long and rich history dating back to ancient times when trade and cultural exchanges flourished between the two regions. Over the centuries, India’s engagement with Southeast Asia has taken many forms, ranging from commercial and religious exchanges to diplomatic and strategic cooperation.

Ancient times: India’s cultural and religious influence on Southeast Asia dates back to the ancient times when Indian traders and missionaries introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to the region. Indian merchants and sailors sailed across the Indian Ocean to trade with the kingdoms of Southeast Asia, leaving a lasting impact on the region’s art, architecture, and literature.

Medieval times: During the medieval period, India’s relations with Southeast Asia were primarily based on commercial exchanges. Indian traders traveled to the region to sell their wares, including textiles, spices, and precious stones. The rise of maritime empires such as the Srivijaya and Majapahit kingdoms in Southeast Asia further enhanced India’s engagement with the region.

Colonial era: During the colonial era, India’s relations with Southeast Asia were shaped by the expansion of European powers in the region. The British, in particular, played a key role in India’s engagement with Southeast Asia, as they established colonial rule in both regions. India’s role in the region was largely limited to supplying labor and raw materials to the colonial powers.

Post-Independence era: After gaining independence in 1947, India sought to strengthen its ties with Southeast Asia through diplomatic and cultural exchanges. India played a key role in the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), which sought to promote cooperation between developing countries. India also supported the decolonization of Southeast Asia and provided assistance to newly independent nations in the region.

Look East Policy: In the 1990s, India adopted a “Look East” policy aimed at enhancing its engagement with Southeast Asia. The policy focused on promoting economic cooperation, cultural exchanges, and strategic partnerships with the countries of Southeast Asia. India became a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1996, which further strengthened its ties with the region.

Act East Policy: In recent years, India has shifted its focus to the “Act East” policy, which seeks to deepen its strategic partnerships with Southeast Asian nations. Under this policy, India has expanded its economic and strategic ties with the region through initiatives such as the India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement and the “Quad” security alliance with the United States, Japan, and Australia. India has also increased its engagement with countries such as Vietnam, Indonesia, and Myanmar, which are seen as key partners in the region.

In conclusion, India’s relations with Southeast Asia have evolved over time, from ancient times of cultural and religious exchanges to the modern era of economic and strategic partnerships. India’s engagement with the region has been shaped by various factors, including colonialism, regional geopolitics, and its own domestic priorities. The current Act East policy reflects India’s growing strategic importance in the region and its desire to play a more active role in shaping the future of Southeast Asia.

Q3. Briefly describe international humanitarian laws and UN concerns for promotion and protection of human rights in India.

International humanitarian law (IHL), also known as the law of war or the law of armed conflict, is a set of rules and principles that regulate the conduct of armed conflicts and seek to protect civilians, prisoners of war, and other non-combatants. The principles of IHL include the prohibition of attacks on civilians, the requirement to treat prisoners of war humanely, and the obligation to provide medical care to the wounded.

The United Nations (UN) is concerned with the promotion and protection of human rights in India, as it is a signatory to various international human rights treaties and conventions. The UN has expressed concerns about a number of issues related to human rights in India, including the treatment of religious minorities, the use of excessive force by security forces, and the lack of accountability for human rights violations.

In particular, the UN has expressed concern about the situation in Jammu and Kashmir, where a long-standing dispute between India and Pakistan has resulted in a heavy military presence and ongoing human rights violations. The UN has called for an end to the use of excessive force in the region and for a peaceful resolution to the conflict.

The UN has also expressed concern about the treatment of religious minorities in India, including Muslims and Christians. The UN has criticized the government’s efforts to pass legislation that would discriminate against these groups, and has called for greater protection of their rights.

In addition, the UN has raised concerns about the situation of women and children in India, including the high rates of violence against women, child labor, and child marriage. The UN has called for greater efforts to address these issues and to promote gender equality and the rights of children.

Q4. Describe the trends and patterns of Sino-Indian relations.

Sino-Indian relations have been marked by a complex history of both cooperation and conflict. In recent years, the relationship between the two countries has been characterized by a mix of cooperation in certain areas and tensions in others. Here are some of the key trends and patterns of Sino-Indian relations:

  • Border Disputes: The most persistent issue between China and India has been the border dispute between the two countries, which dates back to the 1960s. The two countries have yet to fully resolve their border disputes, which have resulted in several military standoffs and skirmishes in recent years.
  • Economic Ties: China and India have established strong economic ties over the past decade, with China being India’s largest trading partner. However, there have been concerns in India about the trade deficit and the impact of Chinese imports on domestic industries.
  • Regional Competition: China and India are both major powers in the region, and there is a growing sense of competition between the two countries. China’s Belt and Road Initiative has raised concerns in India about China’s expanding influence in South Asia, while India’s close ties with the United States have caused unease in Beijing.
  • Multilateral Forums: Both China and India are members of several multilateral forums, including the BRICS, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). While these forums have provided opportunities for cooperation between the two countries, they have also been the site of disagreements.
  • Cultural Ties: China and India have a long history of cultural exchange and trade, dating back to the ancient Silk Road. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in cultural exchange between the two countries, with a number of initiatives aimed at promoting tourism, education, and people-to-people ties.

Overall, while Sino-Indian relations have been marked by tensions and disputes, there have also been efforts to promote cooperation and engagement between the two countries. The future of the relationship will depend on how these competing trends play out in the coming years.

Q5. Critically examine the challenges of India’s disarmament policy and its impact on national security.

India’s disarmament policy has faced several challenges over the years, particularly due to its regional security environment and historical conflicts with its neighbors. While disarmament is generally viewed as a positive step towards global peace and stability, the unique circumstances of India’s security environment make it difficult to achieve.

One major challenge that India faces is the security threat posed by its neighbors, particularly Pakistan and China. India has been engaged in several armed conflicts with Pakistan and has a long-standing border dispute with China. This security threat has resulted in a reluctance to disarm, as India sees its military capabilities as necessary for deterrence and defense.

Another challenge is the issue of nuclear disarmament. India is not a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and has faced international pressure to disarm its nuclear weapons. However, India views its nuclear weapons as a deterrent against potential threats from neighboring countries, particularly Pakistan and China, and sees its possession of nuclear weapons as necessary for its national security.

Furthermore, India has a strong defense industry, which provides significant employment opportunities and contributes to the country’s economic growth. Disarmament would likely result in job losses and economic challenges for the country.

Overall, while disarmament is a noble goal, it is difficult to achieve in India’s unique security environment. The challenges posed by neighboring countries, nuclear weapons, and the defense industry make it difficult for India to pursue a disarmament policy without compromising its national security.


6. a) Challenges of Nehruvian model of foreign policy

The Nehruvian model of foreign policy refers to the foreign policy adopted by India under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India. This policy emphasized India’s non-alignment with any of the major power blocs during the Cold War and promoted a policy of peaceful co-existence among nations. While this policy had its benefits, it also faced several challenges, including:

  • Economic isolation: The Nehruvian model of foreign policy emphasized self-reliance and non-alignment, which led to India’s economic isolation from the rest of the world. This isolation made it difficult for India to attract foreign investment and hindered its economic growth.
  • Security challenges: The policy of non-alignment put India in a vulnerable position, especially during the Cold War, when the world was divided into two major power blocs. India’s reluctance to align with any of the power blocs led to security challenges, including border disputes with neighboring countries.
  • Limited military capability: The Nehruvian model of foreign policy also emphasized disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. While this policy was aligned with India’s commitment to peace, it also limited its military capability and deterrence against external threats.
  • Dependence on aid: India’s foreign policy under Nehru relied heavily on foreign aid and assistance, which made it difficult for India to pursue an independent foreign policy. This dependence also led to a lack of autonomy in decision-making and limited India’s ability to assert itself on the global stage.
  • Perception of weakness: The Nehruvian model of foreign policy was often criticized for being too idealistic and weak. Critics argued that India’s emphasis on non-alignment and disarmament was perceived as a lack of willingness to defend its interests and that it led to a perception of weakness among other nations.

Overall, while the Nehruvian model of foreign policy had its merits, it also faced several challenges, which impacted India’s ability to pursue an independent foreign policy and assert itself on the global stage.

b) Role of interest groups in India’s foreign policy process

Interest groups can play a significant role in shaping India’s foreign policy process. Interest groups are organizations or individuals who seek to influence government policy in a particular area that affects their interests. In India, interest groups range from business groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), civil society organizations, academic institutions, and think tanks.

Some of the ways in which interest groups influence India’s foreign policy process are:

  • Lobbying: Interest groups use their influence to lobby the government to take specific positions on foreign policy issues. They may meet with government officials, participate in consultations, and submit policy proposals.
  • Advocacy: Interest groups use various media platforms to advocate for specific policy positions. They may use social media, public rallies, and public campaigns to raise awareness about their positions on foreign policy issues.
  • Expertise: Interest groups often have subject matter expertise on specific foreign policy issues. They can provide the government with analysis, research, and data to inform policy decisions.
  • Track 2 diplomacy: Interest groups can participate in Track 2 diplomacy, which involves unofficial dialogues between non-governmental actors from different countries. These dialogues can help build trust, exchange information, and provide alternative perspectives to government officials.

Overall, interest groups can be a valuable source of information and expertise for the Indian government in the foreign policy process. However, it is important to note that interest groups may have their own agenda, and their influence on policy should be balanced against the broader national interest.

7. a) Global implications of India and Pakistan nuclear tests 1998

The nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan in 1998 had significant global implications, particularly in terms of nuclear proliferation and regional stability.

Nuclear Proliferation: The tests increased the risk of nuclear proliferation as they encouraged other countries to seek nuclear weapons, potentially leading to an arms race. The tests also demonstrated that developing nuclear weapons was achievable by other countries, which could increase the likelihood of countries seeking nuclear weapons.

Regional Stability: The tests also had implications for regional stability. The tests further strained the already tense relationship between India and Pakistan, leading to concerns about a potential nuclear war between the two countries. The tests also raised concerns about the safety and security of nuclear weapons in the region, particularly given the history of tensions between the two countries.

International Response: The international community, including the United States, China, and other countries, condemned the tests and imposed economic sanctions on both India and Pakistan. The tests also led to increased scrutiny of nuclear non-proliferation efforts, with the international community calling for stronger measures to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.

Strategic Balance: The tests also impacted the strategic balance of power in the region, with India emerging as a dominant nuclear power. The tests led to a reassessment of strategic priorities by countries in the region, including China and the United States, which increased their focus on India and Pakistan.

Overall, the 1998 nuclear tests by India and Pakistan had far-reaching implications for global nuclear proliferation, regional stability, international relations, and the balance of power in the region.

b) Role of the Ministry of External Affairs in Indian foreign policy making.

The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) is the primary agency responsible for formulating and implementing India’s foreign policy. The MEA is headed by the Minister of External Affairs, who is assisted by a team of diplomats and other officials.

The MEA’s role in Indian foreign policy making is multi-faceted and includes:

  • Advising the government on foreign policy matters: The MEA provides advice and recommendations to the government on all aspects of India’s foreign policy, including relations with other countries, regional and international organizations, and global issues.
  • Conducting diplomatic negotiations: The MEA is responsible for conducting diplomatic negotiations with other countries on behalf of the Indian government. This includes negotiating treaties, agreements, and other international instruments.
  • Representing India in international forums: The MEA represents India in various international forums, including the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, and regional organizations such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
  • Consular services: The MEA provides consular services to Indian citizens abroad, including issuing passports, visas, and other travel documents, as well as assisting Indian nationals who are in distress or facing legal problems overseas.
  • Cultural diplomacy: The MEA also promotes India’s culture and heritage through various cultural events and programs, as part of its broader diplomatic efforts.

Overall, the MEA plays a critical role in shaping India’s foreign policy and protecting its national interests on the global stage.

8. a) Religion in post-communist societies

The fall of communism in many Eastern European countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s marked a significant change in the religious landscape of these societies. Under communism, religion was often suppressed or discouraged, and many people were either forced to abandon their faith or practice it privately. After the collapse of communism, there was a resurgence of interest in religion, and many people began to openly practice their faith.

In some post-communist societies, such as Poland, Hungary, and Romania, the Catholic Church played a significant role in the resistance against communism and became an important symbol of national identity. In other countries, such as Russia and Ukraine, the Russian Orthodox Church emerged as a powerful political and cultural force after years of being suppressed by the communist government.

However, the revival of religion in post-communist societies has not been universal, and many people remain skeptical or indifferent to organized religion. Some have turned to alternative spiritual practices or embraced secularism. In some cases, there has also been a rise in religious extremism and intolerance, particularly in areas with a history of religious conflict.

Overall, the relationship between religion and post-communist societies is complex and multifaceted, reflecting the diverse cultural, historical, and political contexts in which these societies have developed.

b) India’s West Asia policy

India’s West Asia policy is based on several key principles, including promoting peace and stability in the region, maintaining good relations with all countries in the region, supporting the Palestinian cause, ensuring energy security, and expanding economic and strategic ties with the region.

One of the main goals of India’s West Asia policy is to promote peace and stability in the region. India has historically maintained good relations with all countries in the region and has sought to play a constructive role in resolving conflicts and promoting dialogue. India has also been a strong supporter of the Palestinian cause, and has consistently called for a just and lasting solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Energy security is another key pillar of India’s West Asia policy. India is heavily dependent on energy imports, and the region is a major supplier of oil and gas to India. As such, India has sought to diversify its sources of energy, while also strengthening its energy partnerships with countries in the region.

Finally, India has been working to expand its economic and strategic ties with the region. India has signed a number of free trade agreements with countries in the region, and has also sought to increase its investments in the region. India has also sought to strengthen its security cooperation with countries in the region, particularly in the areas of counter-terrorism and maritime security.

9. a) Regional Cooperation in South Asia

Regional cooperation in South Asia has been a topic of discussion for decades. South Asia is a region that comprises Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Despite the shared cultural, historical, and economic ties, the region has been plagued with conflicts and issues that have hindered cooperation and integration.

One of the main reasons for the lack of regional cooperation in South Asia is the ongoing conflicts between some of the countries. India and Pakistan have a long-standing dispute over Kashmir, which has led to several wars and border skirmishes. There are also tensions between India and China over their shared border.

Another reason is the economic disparities among the countries. India is the largest economy in the region, followed by Pakistan and Bangladesh. The smaller countries like Bhutan and Nepal have lower levels of economic development, which makes it challenging to achieve economic integration.

Despite these challenges, there have been efforts to promote regional cooperation in South Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was established in 1985 to promote economic and social development in the region. SAARC has been instrumental in creating a platform for dialogue and cooperation among the member countries.

There have also been efforts to promote trade and investment in the region. The South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) was established in 2006 to reduce tariffs and trade barriers among the member countries. However, the implementation of SAFTA has been slow, and there are still many barriers to trade and investment in the region.

In conclusion, regional cooperation in South Asia has been hampered by ongoing conflicts, economic disparities, and political differences among the member countries. However, there have been efforts to promote dialogue and cooperation through organizations like SAARC and SAFTA. It will take time and sustained efforts to overcome these challenges and achieve greater regional integration in South Asia.

b) India and Indian Ocean RIM Association of Regional Cooperation

The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) is an intergovernmental organization that was established in 1997 to promote economic and technical cooperation among the littoral states of the Indian Ocean region. India, as a founding member of IORA, has played a significant role in its activities and initiatives.

India is one of the major stakeholders in the Indian Ocean region, and IORA provides a platform for it to engage with other countries in the region on issues of mutual interest. India has been actively participating in various IORA activities, including maritime security, trade, tourism, fisheries management, and disaster risk management.

India’s strategic location in the Indian Ocean region and its growing economic and military power make it a key player in the region. India’s “Act East” policy seeks to deepen economic and security ties with countries in the region, and IORA provides a forum for India to pursue this policy.

India has also been working to enhance its naval presence in the Indian Ocean region, in order to safeguard its strategic interests and ensure maritime security in the region. In this regard, India has been engaging with other littoral states of the Indian Ocean region, through initiatives like the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS), which is a forum for naval cooperation among the littoral states of the region.

Overall, India’s participation in IORA reflects its growing engagement with the Indian Ocean region and its commitment to promoting regional cooperation and stability.

10. a) ASEAN: Composition and Functions

ASEAN, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a regional intergovernmental organization that was established on August 8, 1967, in Bangkok, Thailand. It is composed of ten member countries in Southeast Asia, namely Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

The primary functions of ASEAN include promoting regional cooperation and integration, fostering economic growth and development, enhancing social progress and cultural development, and ensuring peace and stability in the region.

To achieve these goals, ASEAN has various mechanisms and bodies, including the ASEAN Summit, the ASEAN Coordinating Council, the ASEAN Community Councils, and the ASEAN Secretariat. ASEAN also has numerous sectoral bodies that focus on specific areas of cooperation, such as the ASEAN Economic Community, ASEAN Political-Security Community, and ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

Overall, ASEAN plays a crucial role in promoting regional cooperation, stability, and economic growth in Southeast Asia. It is also a significant player in the regional and global diplomatic arena, with various partnerships and dialogues with other regional and international organizations.

b) Economic and strategic cooperation between India and USA

The economic and strategic cooperation between India and the United States has evolved significantly over the years. The relationship between the two countries has grown stronger due to shared values such as democracy, freedom, and the rule of law.

Economically, the two countries have developed a strong trade relationship, with the United States being India’s largest trading partner. In recent years, the US has been a significant investor in India, with American companies investing heavily in the country’s technology, healthcare, and renewable energy sectors.

Strategically, the two countries have cooperated on a range of issues, including counterterrorism, defense, and regional security. The two nations have also increased their military cooperation, with India becoming a major defense partner of the United States. The two countries have also conducted joint military exercises, which have helped to build trust and interoperability between their armed forces.

In addition to economic and strategic cooperation, the United States and India have also strengthened their people-to-people ties. The two countries have established numerous exchange programs that allow students, academics, and professionals to study and work in each other’s countries.

Overall, the economic and strategic cooperation between India and the United States is an important aspect of their bilateral relationship. As both countries continue to grow and develop, it is likely that their partnership will continue to deepen and expand in new and innovative ways.

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