IGNOU MGSE-001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Free PDF : MGSE-001 Solved Assignment 2022 , MGSE-001 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MGSE-001 Assignment 2022-23, MGSE-001 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.
1. Write short notes on the following:
1. Standard or Repeated use of plans
Ans. Standing plans are made to be used multiple times. I.e. again and again. These plans are formulated to guide managerial decisions and actions on problems which are recurring in nature. When there is a pattern, all you have do is to figure that pattern out, front-load this effort and always look out for it. This way there’s a plan for it before it happens. Say, you have a new employee boarding program and every batch comes with a similar set of questions. Isn’t it easier to address most of them in a pre-written FAQ made as thoroughly as possible? These are processed building activities that last. These plans provide parity across platforms. A standard procedure that leaves no or little place for doubt. They help improve coordination and also overcome ineffective management. Like any other plan, standing plans also include goals, procedures, methods and steps, and the ground rules.
With respect to a business environment, a single-use plan is one that is developed for a one-off project and has one objective. The length of the plan will depend on the project in question and can vary from one week to a few months to one year even. Single-use plans consist of budgets, programs and a description of the employees who will be contributing to the single-use plan in question.
These plans are made for handling non-recurring problems. Single-use plans are also known as ‘specific plans’ since their objective is to solve a particular problem. These plans are formulated to handle a nonrepetitive and unique problem. Such single-use plans cannot be used repeatedly since they become useless after they have achieved their objective. Some examples are budgets, programmes, project reports, etc. Standing plans are often policies, procedures, and programs developed to ensure the smooth operation of a business. Standing plans are often developed once and often undergo modification as per the needs of the business. Examples of standing plans include policies for hiring, employee interaction, procedures for reporting internal issues, or complaints to the HR department, etc. and regulations in terms of what is permitted and what is prohibited in the workplace.
2. Participatory Gend
Ans. Mainstreaming a gender perspective into policies, programmes and projects requires that both women’s and men’s needs are taken into consideration at all stages of the policy cycle. Gender planning refers to the process of planning and designing the implementation phase of policies, programmes, or projects from a gender perspective, and it takes place in the second stage of the policy cycle.
he European Commission defines gender planning as ‘an active approach to planning which takes gender as a key variable or criterion and which seeks to incorporate an explicit gender dimension into policy or action’ . Integrating a gender perspective into the planning and design of policies, programmes and projects requires, firstly, the recognition of gender gaps and structural gender inequalities that need to be tackled in a given context and, secondly, the definition of gender-policy objectives and the formulation of appropriate approaches and interventions to achieve them. Gender planning stems from the recognition that different groups of women and men have different needs, different levels of access and control over resources, and different opportunities and constraints . Gender planning pays particular attention to unequal gender relations and structural inequalities. It aims to transform unequal gender relations in different policy areas by responding to the needs of women and men and through a more even distribution of resources, actions, responsibilities and power Introducing a gender perspective into the planning of policies, programmes and projects enables women’s and men’s needs to be made visible and to be addressed. The inclusion of a gender perspective in the planning process enables policymakers to understand gender inequalities when planning an intervention, thereby avoiding perpetuating them during the implementation of a policy, programme or project, and achieving better results.
Adopting a gender perspective in the planning stage contributes to preventing bottlenecks in the implementation process, or at worst the adoption of measures that — if not considered from a gender perspective — could result in undesired consequences for women or men. In addition, adopting a participatory process for gender planning, for example by consulting with different stakeholders, can contribute to increasing the relevance for the people affected by the policy or programme, its transparency and the accountability of those in charge of implementation, and to avoiding conflicts in the implementation phase.
3. Human Needs
Ans. The basic needs approach is one of the major approaches to the measurement of absolute poverty in developing countries. It attempts to define the absolute minimum resources necessary for longterm physical well-being, usually in terms of consumption goods. The poverty line is then defined as the amount of income required to satisfy those needs. The “basic needs” approach was introduced by the International Labour Organization’s World Employment Conference in 1976. “Perhaps the high point of the WEP was the World Employment Conference of 1976, which proposed the satisfaction of basic human needs as the overriding objective of national and international development policy. The basic needs approach to development was endorsed by governments and workers’ and employers’ organizations from all over the world. It influenced the programmes and policies of
major multilateral and bilateral development agencies, and was the precursor to the human development approach.” A traditional list of immediate “basic needs” is food (including water), shelter and clothing. Many modern lists emphasize the minimum level of consumption of “basic needs” of not just food, water, clothing and shelter, but also sanitation, education, and healthcare. Different agencies use different lists. The basic needs approach has been described as consumption-oriented, giving the impression “that poverty elimination is all too easy.” Amartya Sen focused on ‘capabilities’ rather than consumption. In the development discourse, the basic needs model focuses on the measurement of what is believed to be an eradicable level of poverty. Development programs following the basic needs approach do not invest in economically productive activities that will help a society carry its own weight in the future, rather they focus on ensuring each household meets its basic needs even if economic growth must be sacrificed today. These programs focus more on subsistence than fairness. Nevertheless, in terms of “measurement”, the basic needs or absolute approach is important. The 1995 world summit on social development in Copenhagen had, as one of its principal declarations that all nations of the world should develop measures of both absolute and relative poverty and should gear national policies to “eradicate absolute poverty by a target date specified by each country in its national context.
4. Triple Roles of Women
Ans. Every day, she wakes up early at five to prepare breakfast for her children so that they don’t miss their school bus. After waking them up, helping them get ready and finally seeing them off, she again returns to the kitchen to prepare coffee and another set of breakfast for her husband and herself. After a quick gulp of coffee and a glance at the morning newspaper she has less than half an hour before she has to leave for work. She hurriedly gets into her work clothes skimming through the notes to the presentation she is supposed to deliver at work today. At work she stays up-to-date and performs her best while trying very hard to push away the frustration she feels in not being able to protest, even when she knows that she is getting less than what her male colleague gets for the same job. At five in the evening, she returns home, fixes supper and helps her children with school work, after that she prepares dinner, washes the dishes, clears out the garbage, cleans the kitchen and finally at ten she retires to her study to prepare an office report due tomorrow. This has now become the global reality of every modern-day woman who is economically productive. Triple role/double burden and triple burden of work are the terms that are used to describe the amount of workload among women who are not only involved in economic activities, but are also burdened by the unequal share of unpaid domestic labour. Triple role of a woman refers to her, reproductive role, productive role and the role of community management. The reproductive role of a woman includes care and maintenance (childbearing, rearing and caring) the productive role relates to activities that generate income and the community management role is mostly concerned with functions related to community level activities, domestic work, healthcare etc. Powerful socio-political, demographic, economical and legal reforms starting from the 1970’s to today’s day and age has brought about dramatic changes in realities in which men and women now live. The concept of a man being the sole bread winner of the family and a woman being the homemaker and caretaker has evolved. A two income family is a common norm in today’s generation. However, with increased opportunities, women have been overburdened yet undervalued for the contributions they make in the personal and professional aspects of their lives. Discrimination and unequal pay have been and still are crucial agendas concerning women empowerment. In a family where both the parents are employed, women, more than often spend a significant amount of time in household chores, child rearing, caring for the sick member etc. If the average amount of time spent by a married woman doing unpaid work is accounted for, it is evident that a woman spends more than twelve hours a day working. Still, many view it as a “woman’s” work and undervalue it, considering it to be too insignificant for being recognised as “real” work. The collective situation around the globe is similar. With conditions exacerbated even more so in most nations of Asia. The traditional mindset of the public in countries like India and Nepal is ever resilient, even among the ones with high influencing powers; policy makers and employers.
According to a survey done in Nepal by NDHS, about 68% of the currently married women were employed as of the year 2016. This is a significant figure of achievement for Nepal for women’s empowerment. As more and more women enter the professional world, they are not only exposed to the same work environment as men, but also to unique pressure created by the multiple roles and conflicting gender norms of the society. Stress is thus, inevitable. Over the time stress due to frustration towards lack of opportunities and oppression has been replaced by stress due to exhaustion, and its detrimental effects on health and wellbeing of women are starting to manifest. For instance, studies on stress among employed women show that stress is a causative factor to mental disorders such as depression which disproportionately affects women. Stress can also give rise to eating disorders that may lead to obesity, which in turn is a risk factor to other diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.
1. Explain the importance of planning in India. What are the significant steps in planning? Explain.
Ans. Planning is ascertaining prior to what to do and how to do. It is one of the primary managerial duties. Before doing something, the manager must form an opinion on how to work on a specific job. Hence, planning is firmly correlated with discovery and creativity. But the manager would first have to set goals. Planning is an essential step what managers at all levels take. It needs holding on to the decisions since it includes selecting a choice from alternative ways of performance. Planning provides directions: Planning assures that the objectives are certainly asserted so that they serve as a model for determining what action should be taken and in which direction. If objects are well established, employees are informed of what the company has to do and what they need do to accomplish those purposes. Planning decreases the chances of risk: Planning is an activity which permits a manager to look forward and predict changes. By determining in prior the tasks to be completed, planning notes the way to deal with changes and unpredictable effects. Planning decreases overlapping and wasteful activities: Planning works as the foundation of organising the activities and purposes of distinct branches, departments, and people. It assists in avoiding chaos and confusion. Since planning guarantees precision in understanding and action, work is conducted on easily without delays. Planning encourages innovative ideas: Since it is the primary function of management, new approaches can take the form of actual plans. It is the most challenging project for the management as it leads all planned actions pointing to growth and of the business. Planning aids decision making: It encourages the manager to look into the future and make a decision from amongst several alternative plans of action. The manager has to assess each option and pick the most viable plan.
2. Discuss the importance of women’s roles and gender planning.
Ans. The term gender refers to the economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male or female. In most societies, being a man or a woman is not simply a matter of different biological and physical characteristics. Men and women face different expectations about how they should dress, behave or work. Relations between men and women, whether in the family, the workplace or the public sphere, also reflect understandings of the talents, characteristics and behaviour appropriate to women and to men. Gender thus differs from sex in that it is social and cultural in nature rather than biological. Gender attributes and characteristics, encompassing, inter alia, the roles that men and women play and the expectations placed upon them, vary widely among societies and change over time. But the fact that gender attributes are socially constructed means that they are also amenable to change in ways that can make a society more just and equitable. Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures must often be available to compensate for women’s historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from otherwise operating on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality. Gender equality requires equal enjoyment by women and men of socially-valued goods, opportunities, resources and rewards. Where gender inequality exists, it is generally women who are excluded or disadvantaged in relation to decision-making and access to economic and social resources. Therefore a critical aspect of promoting gender equality is the empowerment of women, with a focus on identifying and redressing power imbalances and giving women more autonomy to manage their own lives. Gender equality does not mean that men and women become the same; only that access to opportunities and life changes is neither dependent on, nor constrained by, their sex. Achieving gender equality requires women’s empowerment to ensure that decision-making at private and public levels, and access to resources are no longer weighted in men’s favour, so that both women and men can fully participate as equal partners in productive and reproductive life.
3. Explain GAD Analytical tools.
Ans. The Moser Gender Planning Framework is a tool for gender analysis in development planning. It was developed by Caroline Moser. The goal is to free women from subordination and allow them to achieve equality, equity, and empowerment. Moser developed the Framework for a Gender and Development (GAD) approach to development planning in the 1980s while working at the Development Planning Unit (DPU) of the University of London. Working with Caren Levy, she expanded it into a methodology for gender policy and planning. Moser and Levy published A Theory and Method of Gender Planning – Meeting Women’s Practical and Strategic Needs as a DPU working paper in 1986.The framework is based on Moser’s concepts of gender roles and gender needs, and her views on the ways policies should approach gender and development planning. The Moser framework follows the Gender and Development approach in emphasizing the importance of gender relations. As with the WIDbased Harvard Analytical Framework, it includes collection of The Moser Gender Planning Framework is a tool for gender analysis in development planning. It was developed by Caroline Moser. The goal is to free women from subordination and allow them to achieve equality, equity, and empowerment. Moser developed the Framework for a Gender and Development (GAD) approach to development planning in the 1980s while working at the Development Planning Unit (DPU) of the University of London. Working with Caren Levy, she expanded it into a methodology for gender policy and planning. Moser and Levy published A Theory and Method of Gender Planning – Meeting Women’s Practical and Strategic Needs as a DPU working paper in 1986.The framework is based on Moser’s concepts of gender roles and gender needs, and her views on the ways policies should approach gender and development planning. The Moser framework follows the Gender and Development approach in emphasizing the importance of gender relations. As with the WIDbased Harvard Analytical Framework, it includes collection of
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