IGNOU Meg 004 10 Question Paper 2023 With Answers

IGNOU Meg 004 10 Question Paper 2023 With Answers – IGNOU (Indira Gandhi National Open University) offers a range of courses under its Master of Arts in English (MEG) program. MEG 004 is one of the courses in this program, titled “Aspects of Language.” This course explores various dimensions of language, focusing on linguistic theories, the structure of English, and sociolinguistic aspects. 

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Classify and describe the consonant sounds of English based on the place and manner of articulation.

IGNOU Meg 004 10 Question Paper 2023 With Answers – The 24 consonant sounds of English can be meticulously categorized based on where and how they are produced in the vocal tract. This classification system considers two key aspects: Place of Articulation and Manner of Articulation.

Place of Articulation refers to the specific location within the mouth or throat where the stricture (partial or complete blockage) or approximation (close positioning) of the vocal organs occurs to create the consonant sound. Here’s a breakdown of the major places of articulation in English consonants. IGNOU Meg 004 10 Question Paper 2023 With Answers

Bilabial: Both lips come together to produce sounds like /p/ in “pin” and /b/ in “bin.”

Labiodental: Lower lip touches the upper front teeth, creating sounds like /f/ in “fin” and /v/ in “vine.”

Dental: Tongue tip touches the upper front teeth, forming sounds like /θ/ in “thin” (unvoiced th) and /ð/ in “those” (voiced th).

Alveolar: Tongue tip interacts with the alveolar ridge (bumpy part behind upper front teeth) to produce /t/ in “tap” and /d/ in “day.”

Postalveolar: Tongue tip moves slightly behind the alveolar ridge for sounds like /ʃ/ in “ship” and /ʒ/ in “vision.”

Palatal: Tongue middle or back touches the hard palate (roof of the mouth) for sounds like /j/ in “yes” and /ç/ (like “h” in “hue”).

Velar: Tongue back interacts with the velum (soft palate) to create /k/ in “kit” and /g/ in “go.”

Glottal: Stricture occurs in the glottis (opening between vocal cords) for the /h/ sound in “hat.”

Manner of Articulation describes how the airflow is obstructed or modulated by the vocal organs to produce the consonant sound. Here are the main manners of articulation in English.

Plosives: A complete closure is formed momentarily, then released with a burst of air. Examples include /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, and /g/. Plosives can be further categorized as voiced (vocal cords vibrate during closure – /b/, /d/, /g/) or unvoiced (no vibration – /p/, /t/, /k/).

Fricatives: A narrow channel is created, forcing air through at high velocity to produce a hissing or friction sound. Examples include /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /θ/, /ð/, /ʃ/, and /ʒ/. Similar to plosives, fricatives can be voiced (/v/, /z/, /ð/, /ʒ/) or unvoiced (/f/, /s/, /θ/, /ʃ/).

Affricates: A combination of a plosive and a fricative. The airflow is blocked for a moment, then released with friction. English has two affricates: /tʃ/ in “church” and /dʒ/ in “judge.”

Nasals: The air flows through the nasal cavity while a complete closure is formed in the oral cavity. Examples include /m/ in “man” and /n/ in “nap.”

Liquids: A brief closure is formed, but the air escapes around the sides of the tongue creating a turbulence. English has two liquids: /l/ in “lip” and /r/ in “rip.” (Note that /r/ can be pronounced differently in various English dialects.)

Glides: The tongue moves quickly into position for a vowel sound, creating a semi-vowel effect. English has two glides: /j/ as in “yes” and /w/ as in “wet.”

By combining these two classifications, we can describe each consonant sound precisely. For instance, /p/ is a bilabial plosive (both lips come together completely to block airflow, then release with a pop), while /f/ is a labiodental fricative (lower lip touches upper teeth, creating friction as air flows through).

Pronunciation improvement: By pinpointing where and how a sound is produced, you can practice making it more accurately.

Foreign language learning: Knowing these classifications can help you identify similar sounds in other languages.

Speech pathology: Classifying speech sounds is crucial for diagnosing and treating speech disorders.

Linguistic analysis: Classifications are fundamental tools for studying the sound systems of languages.

Discuss and illustrate the different processes involved in forming new words in the English language.

The English language is a dynamic one, constantly evolving and adapting. New words are born all the time, and these words come into existence through a variety of fascinating processes.

Affixation: This is a big one. Affixation involves adding prefixes (beginnings) or suffixes (endings) to existing words to create new ones. Prefixes like “un-” (unhappy), “re-” (reheat), and “pre-” (prepay) change the meaning of the base word. Suffixes like “-er” (teacher), “-ment” (agreement), and “-able” (breakable) create new words with different grammatical functions.

Compounding: This process involves joining two or more words together to create a new one. Sometimes a hyphen connects the words (mother-in-law), while other times they become one (sunshine, weekend). Compound words can be nouns (blackbird), verbs (daydream), or adjectives (high-tech).

Blending: This is where parts of two words are smooshed together to form a new word. Think of “brunch” (breakfast + lunch) or “smog” (smoke + fog). Blending creates words that are often informal or slangy.

Conversion: Sometimes, a word simply changes its grammatical function without any change in form. For example, the noun “gift” can become a verb (“to gift someone something”). This process is called conversion.

Borrowing: English is a language that readily adopts words from other languages. We borrow words like “sushi” from Japanese, “chaos” from Greek, and “café” from French. These loanwords enrich the vocabulary of English.

Clipping and Acronyms: Sometimes, we shorten existing words for convenience. Clipping takes a part of a word, like “dorm” from “dormitory” or “text” from “text message”. Acronyms are formed from the first letters of a phrase, like “NASA” (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).

Coinage: Occasionally, entirely new words are invented, like “google” or “nylon”. This process, called coinage, is less common but can have a significant impact on the language.

Describe the English vowels and explain how they are different from consonants.

Explain the process of standardization with reference to the consequence of implementing this process.

Critically review the changes that have taken place in language planning from 1690’s to 1990’s and explain its importance in today’s times.

What is the difference between the generativists and the structuralists ? In what ways have the generativists made advancements on the structuralists ? 

What is the Binding Theory ? Discuss (with examples) its principles with reference to anaphor, pronominal and other bound elements. 

How do we classify morphemes in English ? Explain with examples to draw the distinction between (a) Free and bound and (b) Grammatical and lexical.

How do you distinguish human language from other animal communication systems ? What characteristic features of language make it unique ?

How do you determine a syntactic constituent in a given sentence ? Describe the various tests that can be applied in this case.

Discuss code-mixing and code-switching. How are social goals of communication achieved in the process ?

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Explain the relationship between linguistics and literary criticism. When a text is analyzed linguistically, can it bring out the emotions that characterize it ?

Write short notes on any two of the following :
(a) Pidgins and Creoles
(b) Difference between Monism and Dualism
(c) The Co-operative Principle
(d) The characteristics of Human Language
(e) Define inflectional and synthetic language.

Write short notes on any two of the following :
(a) Saussure’s concept of Linguistic sign
(b) The Syllable and its structure in the English language
(c) The Binding Theory
(d) Importance of Age of the Learner in Second Language Learning

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