IGNOU MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2023 , MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MANI 003 Assignment 2022-23 , MANI 003 Assignment, IGNOU MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).


1. Define practicing anthropology. Discuss how practicing anthropology as a field developed during the 2nd World War.

Ans. Applied anthropology‖ refers to the use of anthropology outside the academy. Application has always been an important part of the discipline, and the story of applied anthropology is both complex and instructive. This essay will look at how application in anthropology began, how it changed, and what these changes may mean for the discipline as a whole. Special attention will be paid to the experience of anthropology with international development work, as one of the more significant domains of application.

Is the distinction between ―applied anthropology‖ (carried out by university academics), and ―practice‖ (done by non-academic anthropologists), really an important one? Some writers have argued that all anthropology is to some extent applied, and that even university teaching is a form of practice. Johnston considers ―practicing‖ anthropology as a common dimension of all anthropological work that has a problem focus, whether inside or outside the academy. Checker‘s definition of practicing anthropology as “work that travels outside of academic realms to inform public discourse on a specific topic” is broader still, and would seem to include almost anything done by anthropologists. For many practitioners, however, the distinctions are important, pointing as they do to a key difference in circumstance – the base of support from which one‘s anthropology is ―done.‖ The security and support available to most applied anthropologists holding university positions is far greater than that enjoyed by practitioners, who are very much part of the civilian workforce. This simple fact influences a great deal about how practitioners approach their work, the kinds of things they do, and their relationships with others.

Three of the most important areas of difference here.

  • Practitioners are employed – and are successful – not just because of what they know, but because of what they can do with what they know. Practitioners rarely work on problems ―for their own sake‖ or ―to advance the frontiers of knowledge.‖ They work for clients, on problems defined, for the most part, by the needs of those clients. Their work is intended to produce results, not academic publications, and often the results they achieve have significant consequences for other people‘s lives.
  • Practitioners, unlike many academics, almost never work alone, but in collaboration with other specialists. Their work, their methods, their opinions and their results are subject to scrutiny and review by others, and they are generally expected to ―co-think‖ with their colleagues in order to generate workable solutions.
  • Practitioners are engaged with their work in ways that academics are generally not. As Partridge (1985:144) observed, practitioners are participants, not spectators, in the work they do. They rarely have the option of retreat into a tenured position; they generally have to live with the results they create, and take to responsibility for them.

One area that has attracted the attention and energy of practitioners and applied anthropologists alike has been that of international development, and Section 5 of this essay will look at this in more detail. Anthropology‘s encounter with development has been one of the most interesting examples of how the discipline has interacted with the world, revealing both anthropology‘s usefulness as well as its limitations.

Practice and application have a far deeper and stronger history within anthropology than is usually acknowledged within the academy Van Willigen suggests that practice is in fact the foundation of the discipline: “Critical understanding of disciplinary history shows that application and practice has historic precedents within anthropology. That is, the basic discipline is based on there being an anthropology of application and practice. Clearly, anthropology emerged from the need for both policy research and training in applied anthropology, not the other way around. The first academic departments and research organizations were motivated, justified, and organized on the basis of the need for application. Practical application of anthropology occurred without there developing a foundation “pure” discipline.” There are a number of excellent analyses of the development of application and practice in the United States and in Britain (Grillo and Rew 1985). The first ethnological societies were established in Paris in 1839 and London in 1844, and by the late 1870s, anthropology was beginning to emerge as a discipline. The term ―applied anthropology‖ was apparently used for the first time in 1881 at a meeting of the Royal Anthropological Institute in London.

Much is made of early anthropology‘s connection with colonial administration, for anthropologists were active in most European colonies in the early years of the twentieth century, preceding the establishment of the first university departments of anthropology.

Anthropologists carried out field investigations which documented daily life in exotic societies, while at the same time providing colonial authorities with information and insight as they went about the work of governing. Indeed, many of the classics of ethnography were written during this time. Some anthropologists wrote about culture contact and change. Others investigated specific topics such as land tenure, labor relations, and native legal systems, and used this knowledge to train administrators, serve as expert witnesses, and advise authorities. Although their degree of association with, and collaboration with, colonial authorities varied considerably, they were all there with the permission of the imperial power, and hence could be considered as part of the colonial superstructure.

A group of the anthropologists who had been active in applied work in the 1930s began an informal association in the later years of that decade, which was to result in the formal inception of the Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA) in 1941. Conceived as a multi-disciplinary association, its aim was to encourage the application of social science to diverse aspects of society. Shortly thereafter, Pearl Harbor plunged the United States into what would become World War II. 3.1. Anthropology during the War The conflict mobilized well over half of all US anthropologists into some form of work in support of the war effort. Anthropologists did a wide variety of things during and immediately after the war. These included intelligence activity (see Price, 1998, 2002, 2008 and 2011 for an exhaustive analysis), work in the notorious internment camps for Japanese-Americans under the War Relocation Authority (Suzuki 1981; Starn 1986), training for administrators for newly recaptured Japanese held territories, and studies of culture and personality. Ruth Benedict‘s Chrysanthemum and the Sword, (1946) perhaps the best known of these studies, was one example of a research project which had a clear importance for the conduct – and the aftermath — of the war. After the war, two important developments occurred which would have major impacts on anthropology. The first was the rapid expansion of the university system in the US, and with it, increased government funding for research. The second was the growth of international development activities, providing non-academic opportunities for many anthropologists.

As Silverman (2007:525-6) notes, the growth in anthropological opportunity – academic and non-academic alike – was linked to the ―new internationalism‖ of the United States after the Second World War, where knowledge of developing areas was seen as a strategic priority, and where grants and contracts were available to anthropologists for research in those areas. Interest and focus within anthropology shifted away from the United States to faraway places, and academic anthropology, by and large, established itself within the academy as a discipline primarily interested in remote, non-Western areas.

2. Discuss in detail the participatory approaches in practicing anthropology.

3. Define the term disaster. Discuss the role of anthropologists in disaster management.

4. Describe in detail the methods and measurements used in design anthropometry.
5. Write short notes on any two of the following: 10+10
a) Relevance of Kinanthropometry
b) Dispute of Confidentiality
c) Market Research


6. Define Forensic Anthropology. What are the methods used in forensic anthropology in
identification of a body.

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7. Discuss Genetic Counseling and Genetic Screening.
8. What is the importance of multimedia in anthropology? Give a brief history of the use of
multimedia in anthropology.

IGNOU MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23

9. Define development. Delineate the anthropological understanding of development.
10. Write short notes on any two of the following. 
a) Biometrics
b) Tourism and archaeological anthropology
c) Capacity development

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IGNOU Instructions for the MANI 003 Practicing Anthropology

IGNOU MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU MANI 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

IGNOU Assignment Front Page

The top of the first page of your response sheet should look like this: Get IGNOU Assignment Front page through. And Attach on front page of your assignment. Students need to compulsory attach the front page in at the beginning of their handwritten assignment.

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MANI 003 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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