IGNOU CFN 1 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF

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IGNOU CFN 1 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU CFN 1 Solved Assignment 2022-2023  Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Assignment-1 consists of two parts and is of 100 marks. The weightage given to each
part isindicated in the brackets.
a) Descriptive type question (60 Marks)
b) Practical Exercise (40 Marks)
Part A: Descriptive Type Question

1. a) Define the terms- Food and Nutrition.

The effective management of food intake and nutrition are both key to good health. Smart nutrition and food choices can help prevent disease. Eating the right foods can help your body cope more successfully with an ongoing illness. Understanding good nutrition and paying attention to what you eat can help you maintain or improve your health.
What Is Good Nutrition?

Food and nutrition are the way that we get fuel, providing energy for our bodies. We need to replace nutrients in our bodies with a new supply every day. Water is an important component of nutrition. Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates are all required. Maintaining key vitamins and minerals are also important to maintaining good health. For pregnant women and adults over 50, vitamins such as vitamin D and minerals such as calcium and iron are important to consider when choosing foods to eat, as well as possible dietary supplements.

A healthy diet includes a lot of natural foods. A sizeable portion of a healthy diet should consist of fruits and vegetables, especially ones that are red, orange, or dark green. Whole grains, such as whole wheat and brown rice, should also play a part in your diet. For adults, dairy products should be non-fat or low-fat. Protein can consist of lean meat and poultry, seafood, eggs, beans, legumes, and soy products such as tofu, as well as unsalted seeds and nuts.

Good nutrition also involves avoiding certain kinds of foods. Sodium is used heavily in processed foods and is dangerous for people with high blood pressure. The USDA advises adults to consume less than 300 milligrams (mg) per day of cholesterol (found in meat and full-fat dairy products among others). Fried food, solid fats, and trans fats found in margarine and processed foods can be harmful to heart health. Refined grains (white flour, white rice) and refined sugar (table sugar, high fructose corn syrup) are also bad for long-term health, especially in people with diabetes. Alcohol can be dangerous to health in amounts more than one serving per day for a woman and two per day for a man.

There are many high-quality, free guidelines available for healthy eating plans that give more details on portion size, total calorie consumption, what to eat more of, and what to eat less of to get healthy and stay that way.

Nutritional Deficiencies

Even if you are getting enough to eat, if you are not eating a balanced diet, you may still be at risk for certain nutritional deficiencies. Also, you may have nutritional deficiencies due to certain health or life conditions, such as pregnancy, or certain medications you may be taking, such as high blood pressure medications. People who have had intestinal diseases or had sections of intestines removed due to disease or weight loss surgery also may be at risk for vitamin deficiencies. Alcoholics are also at high risk of having nutritional deficiencies.

One of the most common nutritional deficiencies is iron deficiency anemia. Your blood cells need iron in order to supply your body with oxygen, and if you don’t have enough iron, your blood will not function properly. Other nutritional deficiencies that can affect your blood cells include low levels of vitamin B12, folate, or vitamin C.

Vitamin D deficiency may affect the health of your bones, making it difficult for you to absorb and use calcium (another mineral that you may not be getting enough of). Although you can get vitamin D by going out in the sun, many people with concerns about skin cancer may end up with low levels of vitamin D by not getting enough sun.

Other nutritional deficiencies include:

  • beriberi: low levels of vitamin B1 (found in cereal husks)
  • ariboflavinosis: low levels of vitamin B2
  • pellagra: low levels of vitamin B3
  • paraesthesia: low levels of vitamin B5 leading to a “pins and needles” feeling
  • biotin deficiency: low levels of vitamin B7, which can be common in pregnancy
  • hypocobalaminemia: low levels of B12
  • night blindness: low levels of Vitamin A
  • scurvy: low levels of vitamin C
  • rickets: severe vitamin D and/or calcium deficiency
  • vitamin K deficiency
  • magnesium deficiency: occurs with certain medications and medical problems
  • potassium deficiency: occurs with certain medications and medical problems

Eating a balanced diet can help prevent these conditions. Vitamin supplements may be necessary for certain people, such as pregnant or nursing mothers and people with intestinal conditions.

b) Elaborate the factors which determine food acceptance.

Food acceptability is affected by many factors, which may be related to the individual, the food, or the environment in which the food is consumed. Acceptability is a subjective measure based on hedonics (pleasure), which in turn is influenced by the sensory properties of the food, previous exposure to it and subsequent expectations, contextual factors, an individual’s culture, physiological status (i.e., hunger, thirst, and presence/absence of illness), and many other variables. The measurement of food acceptance is highly complex and relies on psychometrics (scales) and/or behavioral models (food-choice models). This article aims to discuss some innate factors that impact on foods’ sensory acceptability and how these can be measured and understood using sensory evaluation.

The study of food acceptability and the measurement of its sensory and affective dimensions are complicated by the fact that foods are typically eaten within a context, i.e., the meal, and that the consumer typically brings to the dining situation a host of expectations that are based on previous experience, product and nutrition information, and packaging, all of which can affect liking for the food. Such influences can limit the predictive validity of laboratory-based measures of food acceptance unless adequate research methods are developed to understand and control these effects. In terms of situational context, few studies have adequately assessed the contribution of the meal context/situation to liking. Herbert Meiselman and his colleagues have studied the influence of a number of contextual variables was studied. All studies showed changes in the probability of food selection, while some studies showed changes in acceptance and some did not. For example, the effort required to obtain food showed large selection rate changes but no reliable changes in acceptance, whereas changes in food cost changed both selection rates and acceptance. Further studies identified a major difference in acceptance ratings of foods in institutional vs noninstitutional food service settings, in agreement with previous observations concerning expectations in these two different classes of environments.

In an attempt to develop a measure of food acceptability that takes into account the situational influences of the dining situation, Howard Schutz developed the concept of ‘situational appropriateness’ as well as a method to index the degree of appropriateness of any food in a wide range of situations. This scale has been used effectively in a variety of survey formats, and more recently has been shown to be a valuable adjunct to laboratory affective testing of foods.

Concerning the expectations that consumers bring to the dining situation, Armand Cardello and other researchers have shown that a wide variety of extrinsic variables, such as product information, packaging, brand names, and nutrition statements, can influence the consumer’s expected liking for a product. In numerous studies designed to look at the role of these expectations on actual liking and behavior toward the food, expectations were manipulated so as to lead consumers to expect a better-liked or a worse-liked product. By measuring expected liking using a simple category scale and comparing changes in actual liking relative to a baseline rating of the acceptance of the food in a blind (no information) condition, it has been shown that product acceptance assimilates the level of expectation. That is, if expectations are higher than the baseline acceptance of the product, rated acceptability increases. If expectations are lower, rated acceptability decreases. These important influences of consumer beliefs and expectations on product perception have been demonstrated for purely sensory dimensions of food and have been shown to have a direct influence on behavior, e.g., consumption.

2. Discuss the various functions of food ? Also, mention the energy yield of 1 gm of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat?

The body uses these basic units to build substances it needs for growth, maintenance, and activity (including other carbohydrates, proteins, and fats).



Depending on the size of the molecule, carbohydrates may be simple or complex.
  • Simple carbohydrates: Various forms of sugar, such as fructose (fruit sugar) and sucrose (table sugar), are simple carbohydrates. They are small molecules, so they can be broken down and absorbed by the body quickly and are the quickest source of energy. They quickly increase the level of blood glucose (blood sugar). Fruits, dairy products, honey, and maple syrup contain large amounts of simple carbohydrates, which provide the sweet taste in most candies and cakes.
  • Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of long strings of simple carbohydrates. Because complex carbohydrates are larger molecules than simple carbohydrates, they must be broken down into simple carbohydrates before they can be absorbed. Thus, they tend to provide energy to the body more slowly than simple carbohydrates but still more quickly than protein or fat. Because they are digested more slowly than simple carbohydrates, they are less likely to be converted to fat. They also increase blood sugar levels more slowly and to lower levels than simple carbohydrates but for a longer time. Complex carbohydrates include starches and fibers, which occur in wheat products (such as breads and pastas), other grains (such as rye and corn), beans, and root vegetables (such as potatoes and sweet potatoes).


Proteins consist of units called amino acids, strung together in complex formations. Because proteins are complex molecules, the body takes longer to break them down. As a result, they are a much slower and longer-lasting source of energy than carbohydrates.


There are 20 amino acids. The body synthesizes some of them from components within the body, but it cannot synthesize 9 of the amino acids—called essential amino acids. They must be consumed in the diet. Everyone needs 8 of these amino acids: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Infants also need a 9th one, histidine.


The percentage of protein the body can use to synthesize essential amino acids varies from protein to protein. The body can use 100% of the protein in egg and a high percentage of the proteins in milk and meats. The body can use a little less than half of the protein in most vegetables and cereals.


The body needs protein to maintain and replace tissues and to function and grow. Protein is not usually used for energy. However, if the body is not getting enough calories from other nutrients or from the fat stored in the body, protein is broken down into ketone bodies to be used for energy. If more protein is consumed than is needed, the body breaks the protein down and stores its components as fat.


Fats are complex molecules composed of fatty acids and glycerol. The body needs fats for growth and energy. It also uses them to synthesize hormones and many other substances needed for the body’s activities (such as prostaglandins).


Fats are the slowest source of energy but the most energy-efficient form of food. Each gram of fat supplies the body with about 9 calories, more than twice that supplied by proteins or carbohydrates. Because fats are such an efficient form of energy, the body stores any excess energy as fat. The body deposits excess fat in the abdomen (visceral fat) and under the skin (subcutaneous fat) to use when it needs more energy. The body may also deposit excess fat in blood vessels and within organs, where it can block blood flow and damage organs, often causing serious disorders.
Fatty acids


When the body needs fatty acids, it can make (synthesize) certain ones. Others, called essential fatty acids, cannot be synthesized and must be consumed in the diet. The essential fatty acids make up about 7% of the fat consumed in a normal diet and about 3% of total calories (about 8 grams). They include linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which are present in certain vegetable oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are fatty acids essential for brain development, can be synthesized from linolenic acid. However, they also are present in certain marine fish oils, which are a more efficient source.


Linoleic acid and arachidonic acid are omega-6 fatty acids. Linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid are omega-3 fatty acids. A diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis (including coronary artery disease). Lake trout and certain deep-sea fish contain large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. (Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should choose fish that are low in mercury. See Mercury in Seafood for more information.) In the United States, people tend to consume enough omega-6 fatty acids, which occur in the oils used in many processed foods, but not enough omega-3 fatty acids.

3. What do you understand by macro and micronutrients? Briefly discuss the functions of carbohydrates in our body.

4. What are the sources, functions and effects of deficiency of Vitamin D and Iron in our body?

5. a) Discuss briefly the classification of foods according to food groups?
b) Justify the statement-“Indian Vegetarian diet is considered to be nutritionally adequate”.

6. a) What are the various moist heat methods of cooking food? Explain.
b) How can you minimize nutrient losses while cooking vegetables?

7. Describe how food can act as an agent of transmitting infection. Enumerate the steps you will take to prevent the spread of contagion through food? 

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IGNOU CFN 1 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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8. a) What do you understand by the term food preservation? List the common household methods of food preservation.
b) List the criteria for selection of fats and oils. What is the recommended ratio of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the diet?

9. Elaborate and discuss the following:
a) Artificial Sweetners
b) Fermentation
c) Convenience foods

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IGNOU CFN 1 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

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IGNOU CFN 1 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU CFN 1 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU CFN 1 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU CFN 1 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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