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IGNOU BSOS 185 Solved Assignment 2022-2023
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Important Note – IGNOU BSOS 185 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.
1. What is ethnography and what is ethnographic film?
The term and conceptual meaning of ethnographic film is often used synonymously with the notion of visual anthropology as seen in the work of Hockings 2003, which provides broad analyses of a variety of perspectives. Ethnographic film is closely aligned with documentary film both in its history and form. Some have attempted to differentiate the two by categorizing films as either “ethnographic documentary” or “anthropologically intended cinema.” The most popular conception of ethnographic film is that it is a film about any non-Western culture, often considered to be exotic as critically noted in Ruby 1996. Ruby 2000 and Ruby 2005 argue for a strict definition of ethnographic film, limited to productions by individuals with anthropological training, preferably at a professional level combined with a media production background. Heider 2006, in a more expansive view, claims that any film can be considered ethnographic while providing a set of evaluative criteria to gauge ethnographic film for both research and pedagogy. The majority of texts discussing ethnographic film tend to focus on a series of Canonical Ethnographic Filmmakers who define the genre. Using Ruby’s parameters, many films largely accepted as ethnographic by their mere presence in ethnographic film festivals or discussed in ethnographic film literature would be excluded from any definition of ethnographic film. Heider’s conception of ethnographic film would include a variety of media produced without anthropological intent but that serve to embellish ethnographic knowledge. Perhaps somewhat ironically, the parameters of what actually constitutes an ethnographic film are not seen in the application of methods but are often dictated by a well-established genre of classic ethnographic films produced by a handful of individuals who are not necessarily anthropologists by trade. As discussed in Marcus 2006, the film Nanook of the North was not considered to be ethnographic by the filmmaker Robert Flaherty, although often heralded as the first documentary and ethnographic film by many. It is often viewed as ethnographic primarily due to Flaherty’s focus on a non-Western culture, long considered the main focus of anthropology, and the stated intent throughout the film to depict the “real life” of the Inuit. Ruby 1981 examines how, although Flaherty was not an anthropologist and, therefore, did not adhere to ethnographic methodology in his practice, he is often celebrated for the fact that he spent so much time with the Inuit and attempted to reflect an indigenous perspective, if not a personal relationship, in the construction of the narrative of the film by working with his main informant throughout the filmmaking process. Durington and Ruby 2011 offers a comprehensive definition of ethnographic film informed by a critical historical approach to the genre.
2. Discuss the role of ethics in visual research.
Visual methods in social research have become more mainstream over the last twenty years, driven in part by the profusion of digital devices with cameras that make access and production of images far easier, as well as the increased interest in and acceptability of arts-based methods. But while images have become more common, ethical guidelines have sometimes struggled to adapt, although organisations such as the International Visual Sociology Association have made good attempts.
There are two key ethical issues which become complicated in visual research: informed consent, and anonymity. Informed consent is particularly challenging with photographs because it is difficult to ensure that every subject has given their consent to the photo being taken and used for research purposes. Researchers can work around this by using only photos that were taken in public spaces (where this is allowed), or avoiding photographs of people who are not explicitly participating in the research. In photovoice projects where participants take photos of the world around them, participants are given guidelines around informing photographic subjects about the purposes of the research, although it can be difficult to ensure this has taken place.
Anonymity is a challenge for the obvious reason that a photograph of a person or the places and spaces they frequent is difficult to anonymise. Moreover, strategies for making people anonymous, such as pixelating faces or putting black bars over their eyes to make them less recognisable, are more frequently associated with criminal activity! Strategies for dealing with this include waiving anonymity with the explicit consent of the research participants, or avoiding taking or publishing identifiable images (which often seems unduly limiting). This is also a difficult issue in artworks that are not photographs: people often rightly want to be identified as the creators of their work. Researchers must negotiate the extent to which doing so might compromise anonymity of other data such as interview transcripts, and whether and in what circumstances having it known that they participated in this research might result in harm or reputational damage.
Copyright is another difficult issue. When someone creates an artwork in the context of a research project, who owns it? Legally, copyright generally lies with the creator of the work. To use that work in research and publications, the researcher needs the explicit permission (and sometimes, transfer of copyright) from the creator. In our recent project Communicating Chronic Pain , we used Creative Commons licensing to deal with this issue. Through Creative Commons, the creator of the work allows others to share and reuse it freely, subject to certain conditions such as attribution or non-commercial use. This is very useful for research as it enables creators to retain ownership of their work and researchers to reuse and reproduce it, but the nuances of Creative Commons licensing require careful explanation!
A final point is the desire many researchers have to showcase the work created in visual research projects. While the tangibility of this can be appealing and may enable the work to reach new audiences, we also need to consider the appropriateness of displaying such work. Are participants comfortable being represented as artists or photographers? Does the work have high aesthetic quality as well as high research quality? Are we as researchers qualified to judge this? Here, it can be helpful to allow participants themselves to choose which works they want to have displayed (allowing the option to opt out), and to involve others with professional arts expertise in the decisions of how and where to show the work.
6. Alfred Cort Haddon
9. Digital Ethnography
10. Photo Essay
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IGNOU BSOS 185 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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IGNOU BSOS 185 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
- Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BSOS 185 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
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